Hidden EP Quiz No.13

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Hidden EP Quiz No.13 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In 1978, American Institute of Planners (established 1917) and American Society of Planning Officials (established 1934) combined to become the present-day

    • A.

      American Institute of Environmental Planning

    • B.

      Royal Institute ofTown and County Planning

    • C.

      Planning Society of All-America

    • D.

      American Planning Association

    Correct Answer
    D. American Planning Association
    Explanation
    In 1978, the American Institute of Planners and the American Society of Planning Officials merged to form the American Planning Association. This organization is the present-day leading professional organization for urban planners and those involved in the field of planning in the United States. The merger brought together the expertise and resources of both organizations, allowing for a stronger and more unified voice in advocating for effective planning practices and policies. The American Planning Association continues to play a vital role in promoting sustainable and equitable development in communities across the country.

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  • 2. 

    The first State-wide land use plan in 1973 which defined Urban Growth Boundaries (UGBs) that separated urban and rural areas in order to limit growth within serviced areas and to preserve rural farmland for a timeframe of 20 years, took place in the State of 

    • A.

      Oregon

    • B.

      New York

    • C.

      California

    • D.

      Florida

    Correct Answer
    A. Oregon
    Explanation
    Oregon was the first state to implement a State-wide land use plan in 1973. This plan included the establishment of Urban Growth Boundaries (UGBs) which aimed to separate urban and rural areas. The purpose of these boundaries was to limit growth within serviced areas and preserve rural farmland. This plan was intended to be effective for a period of 20 years. Therefore, Oregon is the correct answer.

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  • 3. 

    Which planning concept, first upheld by the US Supreme Court in the 1976 case o('Penn Central Transportation Co. versus City of New York incorporates a market mechanism to mitigate whatever financial burden local law might have imposed on property?

    • A.

      Planned Unit Development

    • B.

      Conservation Easements

    • C.

      Transfer of Development Rights

    • D.

      Eminent Domain

    Correct Answer
    C. Transfer of Development Rights
    Explanation
    Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) is the correct answer because it incorporates a market mechanism to mitigate financial burdens imposed on property by local law. TDR allows property owners to transfer their development rights from one property to another, typically from a property with development restrictions to one with more lenient regulations. This transfer is often done through a market-based system where developers can purchase these rights from property owners, providing compensation for the restrictions placed on their property. TDR helps to balance the needs of development and conservation while also providing financial relief to property owners.

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  • 4. 

    In all but one of following cases, the US Supreme Court declared "takings" by government as illegal, as it upheld the Constitutional precept that "private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation"

    • A.

      Where a regulation is merely intended to preventa nuisance and remove discomfort caused to the public

    • B.

      Where a regulation forced a landowner to allow someone else to enter onto the property,

    • C.

      Where a regulation imposes burdens or costs on a landowner that do not bear a reasonable relationship to the impacts of the project on the community;

    • D.

      Where government can equally accomplish a valid public purpose through less intrusive regulation or through a requirement of dedicating property

    • E.

      Where a landowner has been denied all economically viable use of the land

    Correct Answer
    A. Where a regulation is merely intended to preventa nuisance and remove discomfort caused to the public
    Explanation
    The US Supreme Court declared "takings" by the government as illegal when a regulation is merely intended to prevent a nuisance and remove discomfort caused to the public. This means that if a regulation is put in place to address a public nuisance or to alleviate discomfort for the public, it cannot be considered a violation of the Constitutional precept that private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation. In these cases, the government is acting within its rights to regulate private property for the greater good of the community.

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  • 5. 

    In 1987, United States Supreme Court in the case· of Nollan versus California Coastal Commission ruled against- California which required Nollan to dedicate a public sidewalk easement across their beachfront property as a building permit condition, thus the Court formulated a principle for governments regulatory action that "land use restrictions must be tied directly to a specific public purpose."

    • A.

      Rough Proportionality

    • B.

      Calibrated Enforcement

    • C.

      Calculated Authority

    • D.

      Rational Nexus

    Correct Answer
    D. Rational Nexus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Rational Nexus" because the Supreme Court ruled that land use restrictions must be directly connected to a specific public purpose. This means that there must be a logical and reasonable connection between the restriction imposed on the property owner and the intended public benefit. In the case of Nollan versus California Coastal Commission, the requirement to dedicate a public sidewalk easement as a building permit condition was deemed to have a rational nexus to the public purpose of ensuring public access to the beachfront property.

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  • 6. 

    This school of thought claims that cities or human settlements can be studied as though they are biological organisms subject to laws of evolution, natural selection, competition, adaptation, survival of the fittest, decline, and death.

    • A.

      Dialectical Historical Materialism

    • B.

      AnarchoSyndicalism by Saul David Afinsky

    • C.

      Frankfurt School of Social Critical Theory

    • D.

      Chicago school of human ecology

    Correct Answer
    D. Chicago school of human ecology
    Explanation
    The Chicago school of human ecology is the correct answer because it is a school of thought that views cities or human settlements as biological organisms. It suggests that these settlements can be studied using principles from biology, such as evolution, natural selection, competition, adaptation, and survival of the fittest. This approach also acknowledges the possibility of decline and death in human settlements, just as it occurs in biological organisms.

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  • 7. 

    Central Place Theory was found faulty in assuming uniform topography, fiat featureless terrain, ease of travel in all directions and ubiquity or all around presence of economic resources, but its major strength lies in characterizing the locational advantages of one place in relation to another, a geographic concept called -

    • A.

      Surrounding

    • B.

      Standing

    • C.

      Situation

    • D.

      State

    Correct Answer
    C. Situation
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Situation." Central Place Theory may have some flaws in its assumptions about topography, terrain, travel, and resources, but its main strength lies in the concept of "situation." Situation refers to the locational advantages of one place in relation to another. It considers factors such as proximity to transportation routes, access to markets, availability of resources, and competition from other places. By analyzing the situation of a place, Central Place Theory helps understand its competitive advantage and its role in the regional or global economy.

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  • 8. 

    The weakness of applying Central Place.Theory in a simplistic way on the Philippines is that

    • A.

      Unlike other countlies, Philippines does not have compact land mass with homogenous features

    • B.

      Archipelagic nature creates natural discontinuities that render movement & economic exchange difficult

    • C.

      Spatial integration between urban and rural areas is impeded by poor transport that inflates prices

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The weakness of applying Central Place Theory in a simplistic way on the Philippines is that the country does not have a compact land mass with homogeneous features. The archipelagic nature of the Philippines creates natural discontinuities that make movement and economic exchange difficult. Additionally, the spatial integration between urban and rural areas is impeded by poor transport infrastructure, which inflates prices. Therefore, all of the above reasons contribute to the weakness of applying Central Place Theory in the Philippines.

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  • 9. 

    128.    George Zipfs Rank-Size Rule, "Pn=P1/N*** was derived from Christallers Central Place Theory, and asserts that the population of city "n" is equal to the population of the largest city "1" divided by the rank of "n" in the hierarchy of aces. If the largest city in immediately preceding question had 2.6 million people in 2007 official census, using Zipfs rule what should have been the population of Davao City if it was ranked Number?

    • A.

      520,000

    • B.

      1,520,000

    • C.

      1,300,000

    • D.

      650,000

    Correct Answer
    D. 650,000
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 650,000. According to Zipf's Rank-Size Rule, the population of a city is equal to the population of the largest city divided by its rank in the hierarchy. Since Davao City is ranked number 2, its population can be calculated by dividing the population of the largest city (2.6 million) by 2. Therefore, the population of Davao City should be 650,000.

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  • 10. 

    Does the formula of George Zipf in the immediately preceding question match the reality on the ground based on 2007 Official Census of the National Statistics Office?

    • A.

      Yes

    • B.

      Partially

    • C.

      No

    • D.

      Depends on whether old Davao City or Metro Davao is being a;ialyzed

    Correct Answer
    C. No
    Explanation
    The formula of George Zipf does not match the reality on the ground based on the 2007 Official Census of the National Statistics Office.

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  • 11. 

    Neo-classical Urban Bid-Rent theory provides the formula for Location Rent at center of city as equal= to 'Rent Gradient' times 'Radius' where 'Rent Gradient' is equal to 'transport cost per capita per year' multiplied by 'density per sq.km'. If Pateros has a radius distance of 10.266 km from the center of Metro Manila, with average density of= 29,495.24 persons per km.In 2009 and P15,330 transport cost per capita per year, what should be the location rent per square meter in Pateros as periphery-town of Metro Manila? (clue: convert sq.km to sq.m.)

    • A.

      4,641 per m2

    • B.

      around 46,41 0 per m2

    • C.

      Around 464,100 per m2

    • D.

      Around 464.10 per m2

    Correct Answer
    A. 4,641 per m2
    Explanation
    The formula for Location Rent at the center of the city is given as Rent Gradient multiplied by Radius. In this case, the Rent Gradient is equal to the transport cost per capita per year multiplied by the density per sq.km. The radius distance of Pateros from the center of Metro Manila is 10.266 km, and the average density is 29,495.24 persons per km. To calculate the location rent per square meter in Pateros, we need to convert the density from sq.km to sq.m. By multiplying the density by 1000000 (since there are 1000000 sq.m in 1 sq.km), we get the density per sq.m. Then, we multiply the transport cost per capita per year by the density per sq.m and the radius distance to get the location rent per sq.m. The correct answer is 4,641 per m2.

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  • 12. 

    According to Raleigh Barlowe (1958), this refers to the most profitable use of land when it yields optimum returns gen limited inputs; such returns can either be monetary or non-monetary, tangible or intangible, based on the criteria and interest of the person who makes such decisions.

    • A.

      Maximum Sustainable Rent

    • B.

      Maximum Sustainable Yield

    • C.

      Profit Maximization

    • D.

      Highest and Best Use

    Correct Answer
    D. Highest and Best Use
    Explanation
    The term "highest and best use" refers to the most profitable use of land that maximizes returns while using limited resources. These returns can be in the form of monetary or non-monetary gains, tangible or intangible benefits, depending on the individual making the decision. This concept is important in determining the optimal use of land to ensure maximum profitability and efficiency.

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  • 13. 

    In Peirce Lewis' revision of the Ernest Burgess' monocentric model of urban land use, which of the following describes the spatial decline of concentric cities least effective. 

    • A.

      The elite and their businesses leave the inner core due to pollution and congestion.

    • B.

      Hollowing-out of the core results in the "donut shape"

    • C.

      Surrounded by the poor in the historic center, government increasingly becomes captive to pressure groups

    • D.

      Land values rapidly fall in inner-city areas experiencing urban blight and urban decay.

    Correct Answer
    C. Surrounded by the poor in the historic center, government increasingly becomes captive to pressure groups
    Explanation
    In Peirce Lewis' revision of the Ernest Burgess' monocentric model of urban land use, the least effective description of the spatial decline of concentric cities is when the government becomes captive to pressure groups due to being surrounded by the poor in the historic center. This answer does not align with the concept of spatial decline in the model, which focuses on factors such as pollution, congestion, hollowing-out of the core resulting in a "donut shape," and falling land values in inner-city areas experiencing blight and decay.

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  • 14. 

    In Urban land use models of the Chicago school of human ecology, the affluent and middle classes are inclined to E- away from downtown and inner-city in favor of suburban locations and this process results in a paradox or "spatial mismatch" as regards labor.

    • A.

      Sophisticated upperdasses locate in city-edges with semi-rural conditions where no employment is available

    • B.

      Lower-classes who cannot create employment by themselves are left to occupy high-priced land in the inner core of cities.

    • C.

      Blue-collar workers are forced to accept !ow-skill jobs as maids. yayas, gardeners in affluent suburban subdivisions

    • D.

      Non-tax paying people in the informal sector are closer to the seat of government than the landed gentry

    Correct Answer
    B. Lower-classes who cannot create employment by themselves are left to occupy high-priced land in the inner core of cities.
    Explanation
    The given answer suggests that in the urban land use models of the Chicago school of human ecology, lower-classes who are unable to create employment opportunities for themselves are forced to occupy high-priced land in the inner core of cities. This creates a paradox or "spatial mismatch" as these lower-class individuals are unable to afford the expensive land and lack access to employment opportunities. This explanation highlights the unequal distribution of resources and opportunities in urban areas, leading to social and economic disparities.

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  • 15. 

    Social status declines with increasing distance from the center of the city" is a proposition about poor Third World countries that contradicts the original land use models from the Chicago school of human ecology,

    • A.

      Donut model

    • B.

      Core-Periphery Dependency Model

    • C.

      Polycentric model

    • D.

      Inverse Concentric

    Correct Answer
    D. Inverse Concentric
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Inverse Concentric. This answer is supported by the statement that "Social status declines with increasing distance from the center of the city." The Inverse Concentric model suggests that the highest social status is found in the central areas of the city, with a decline in social status as one moves further away from the center. This contradicts the original land use models from the Chicago school of human ecology, which proposed concentric zones with lower-income areas located closer to the center of the city.

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  • 16. 

    According to M. White (1987), the more economically complex a city, the more varied would be the number of high growth points, the more socially complex it becomes, and the stronger is its tendency towards differentiation such as in the case of residents segregating themselves into enclaves according to economic level, social status, or ethnicity.

    • A.

      Bipolar Model

    • B.

      Palimpsest or Mosaic Model

    • C.

      Multiple Nuclei

    • D.

      Urban Land Nexus Theory

    Correct Answer
    C. Multiple Nuclei
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that as a city becomes more economically complex, it also becomes more socially complex. This means that there will be a greater variety of high growth points within the city, as well as a tendency for residents to segregate themselves into enclaves based on economic level, social status, or ethnicity. The Multiple Nuclei model of urban development aligns with this explanation, as it proposes that cities are composed of multiple centers of activity that develop independently and interact with each other. This model recognizes the diversity and differentiation within cities, which is consistent with the idea of economic and social complexity described in the statement.

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  • 17. 

    Advancements in transportation and communication technologies have affected many cities in such a way that information based production can be done by anyone, anywhere at any time regardless of distance from city center. Which of the following is the likely spatial form arising from these economic trends? 

    • A.

      Cyber-city sends all dirty smokestack industries to remote regions.

    • B.

      CBD becomes an elongated corridor or spine following the lines of telecommunications & electronic services

    • C.

      Suburban subdivisions form a belt-like edge or natural perimeter around the mother city

    • D.

      Edge cities, office parks, and techno-poles develop in various parts of a complex mother city

    Correct Answer
    D. Edge cities, office parks, and techno-poles develop in various parts of a complex mother city
    Explanation
    The advancements in transportation and communication technologies have made it possible for information-based production to be carried out from anywhere, regardless of distance from the city center. This has led to the development of edge cities, office parks, and techno-poles in various parts of a complex mother city. These new developments are able to take advantage of the improved connectivity and accessibility provided by the transportation and communication technologies. They offer a more decentralized and distributed form of economic activity, allowing for greater flexibility and efficiency in the production of information-based goods and services.

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  • 18. 

    According to Wilbur Richard Thompson (1965), once a city reaches a resident population of 250.000, it attains L1 permanence. Certain city sections may suffer decay and decline, but the city as a whole will survive because of sheer size and strength of tertiary economy, inherent capacity to diversify, and its political weight vis-a-vis other settlements.

    • A.

      Urban land Nexus

    • B.

      Urban Ratchet Theory

    • C.

      Urban Spiral Economy

    • D.

      Urban Force Momentum

    Correct Answer
    B. Urban Ratchet Theory
    Explanation
    The explanation for the correct answer, Urban Ratchet Theory, is that according to Wilbur Richard Thompson, once a city reaches a resident population of 250,000, it attains L1 permanence. This means that even though certain sections of the city may suffer decay and decline, the city as a whole will survive due to its sheer size and strength of tertiary economy, inherent capacity to diversify, and its political weight compared to other settlements. The Urban Ratchet Theory suggests that once a city reaches a certain population threshold, it becomes self-sustaining and resilient, able to withstand challenges and continue to grow.

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  • 19. 

    By plotting on a graph the economic benefits from agglomeration against the costs of congestion and overconcentration, Leo Klaasen concluded that 'Optimum City Size' of a viable city should be between

    • A.

      20,000-190,000

    • B.

      200,000 -600,000

    • C.

      700,000-One million

    • D.

      One million -Two million

    Correct Answer
    B. 200,000 -600,000
    Explanation
    Leo Klaasen concluded that the optimum city size should be between 200,000 and 600,000 by analyzing the economic benefits of agglomeration and the costs of congestion and overconcentration. This range likely represents a balance between the advantages of having a larger population and the disadvantages of overcrowding and excessive congestion. Cities within this size range are expected to experience sufficient economic benefits from agglomeration while still maintaining manageable levels of congestion and avoiding the negative effects of overconcentration.

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  • 20. 

    The following are characteristics of a central business district. Which one increases the LGU responsibility to feguard the well­being of people, often beyond the capacities of a single local authority?

    • A.

      Large concentration of office and retail activities;

    • B.

      Significantly large number of tertiary and service jobs generated

    • C.

      High price of land forces property-owners to build high

    • D.

      Large regular inflow and outflow of motorists; daytime population higher than nighttime population

    Correct Answer
    D. Large regular inflow and outflow of motorists; daytime population higher than nighttime population
    Explanation
    The large regular inflow and outflow of motorists and the higher daytime population compared to the nighttime population increase the responsibility of the local government unit (LGU) to safeguard the well-being of people. This is because the constant movement of people and vehicles in the central business district creates a higher demand for infrastructure, transportation systems, and public services. The LGU needs to ensure that there is adequate traffic management, public safety measures, and access to essential services to meet the needs of the larger population during the day.

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  • 21. 

    Not all megacities become 'world cities'. According to David Simon in World City Hypothesis (1996), the following criteria determines how a city reaches Tier 1 status. Which criterion is pursued as cities 'de-industrialize' by banishing dirty smokestack industries from their territories in the contest to achieve "greater global competitiveness"?

    • A.

      Existence of a sophisticated financial and service complex serving a global clientele

    • B.

      Level of international networks of capital information and communication flows

    • C.

      large number of headquarters of international institutions

    • D.

      Quality of life conducive to attracting investors and retaining skilled international migrants

    Correct Answer
    D. Quality of life conducive to attracting investors and retaining skilled international migrants
    Explanation
    Cities that pursue the criterion of "quality of life conducive to attracting investors and retaining skilled international migrants" are focusing on creating an environment that is attractive to both investors and skilled workers from around the world. By improving the quality of life in terms of infrastructure, amenities, and overall livability, these cities aim to attract investment and retain a talented workforce. This criterion recognizes the importance of creating a favorable living and working environment as a key factor in achieving greater global competitiveness.

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  • 22. 

    Which concern of regional planning pertains to institutional capacitation of focal governments, and the appropriate distribution of authority among them?

    • A.

      spatial integration between urban and rural settlements

    • B.

      Complementation among agriculture, industry, other sectors

    • C.

      Balanced distribution of population

    • D.

      Federalism and decentralization of development

    • E.

      Equitable distribution of resources among places

    • F.

      Reduction of economic disparities among regions

    Correct Answer
    D. Federalism and decentralization of development
    Explanation
    The concern of regional planning that pertains to institutional capacitation of focal governments and the appropriate distribution of authority among them is federalism and decentralization of development. This means that the planning process aims to empower local governments and distribute decision-making authority among them, allowing for more effective and efficient governance at the regional level. This approach helps to ensure that decision-making is closer to the communities and allows for better coordination and implementation of regional development initiatives.

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  • 23. 

    Earliest regional planning models in USA in 1933 revolved around Tennessee Valley, Dallas Plain, Columbia River Basin, Colorado River, St Lawrence Seaway, Delaware River, Chesapeake Bay watershad, which are essentially

    • A.

      Cultural or ethno-linguistic regions

    • B.

      Deltaic riverine regions

    • C.

      Natural regions

    • D.

      Crossborder regions

    Correct Answer
    C. Natural regions
    Explanation
    The earliest regional planning models in the USA in 1933 revolved around specific areas such as the Tennessee Valley, Dallas Plain, Columbia River Basin, Colorado River, St Lawrence Seaway, Delaware River, and Chesapeake Bay watershed. These areas are considered natural regions because they are defined by their geographical features, such as rivers, deltas, and watersheds. The planning models likely focused on utilizing and managing the natural resources and landscapes of these regions for economic and environmental purposes.

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  • 24. 

    According to economists Theodore Schultz, Jacob Mincer, and Gary S.Becker, this collective term for people's embodied assets such as knowledge, skills, good health, attitudes, and entrepreneurial qualities, determines how a local community or region absorbs new technologies, expands productive capacity and generates own progress.

    • A.

      Seven Domains of Intelligence

    • B.

      Intellectual Quotient

    • C.

      Managerial Aptitude

    • D.

      Human Capital

    Correct Answer
    D. Human Capital
    Explanation
    Human capital refers to the collective knowledge, skills, health, attitudes, and entrepreneurial qualities of individuals in a community or region. This term is used by economists Theodore Schultz, Jacob Mincer, and Gary S. Becker to explain how these assets determine the ability of a community or region to absorb new technologies, increase productivity, and generate progress. In other words, human capital is the foundation for economic growth and development.

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  • 25. 

    The twin strategy of 'concentrated decentralization' and 'industrial dispersal' to correct urban primacy and inter-regional divergence in the Philippines was begun under the administration of President

    • A.

      Carlos P. Garcia

    • B.

      Ferdinand E. Marcos

    • C.

      Corazon C. Aquino

    • D.

      Fidel V. Ramos

    • E.

      Gloria M. Arroyo

    Correct Answer
    B. Ferdinand E. Marcos
    Explanation
    During the administration of Ferdinand E. Marcos, the twin strategy of 'concentrated decentralization' and 'industrial dispersal' was implemented in the Philippines. This strategy aimed to address the issues of urban primacy and inter-regional divergence. Concentrated decentralization involved the transfer of power and resources from the central government to local governments, allowing them to have more control over their own development. Industrial dispersal, on the other hand, aimed to promote the establishment of industries in regions outside of the capital city, Manila, in order to reduce regional disparities and promote balanced economic growth.

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  • 26. 

    Under RA7916 Sec. 10, what is the minimum investment of a foreigner who can be granted permanent resident status within a Philippine ecozone, together with spouse and children below 21 years of age, who shall all have freedom of ingress and egress to and from the Ecozone without any need of special authorization from the Bureau of immigration?

    • A.

      US$ 150,000

    • B.

      US$ 300,000

    • C.

      US$ 1,000,000

    • D.

      US$ 2,000,000

    Correct Answer
    A. US$ 150,000
    Explanation
    Under RA7916 Sec. 10, a foreigner who can be granted permanent resident status within a Philippine ecozone, together with spouse and children below 21 years of age, must make a minimum investment of US$ 150,000. This investment allows them the freedom of ingress and egress to and from the Ecozone without any need for special authorization from the Bureau of Immigration.

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  • 27. 

    Despite global economic recession and decline of demand for luxury goods, a watch company decides to stay put in Switzerland because of its secure market niche and proven track record in producing Rolex timepieces. What theory of firm location is likely at work here?

    • A.

      Comparative Advantage

    • B.

      Profit Maximizing Approach

    • C.

      Satisficing Theory

    • D.

      Behavioral Theory

    Correct Answer
    A. Comparative Advantage
    Explanation
    The theory of comparative advantage suggests that a firm should locate its operations in a country or region where it can produce goods or services at a lower opportunity cost compared to other locations. In this case, the watch company decides to stay in Switzerland because it has a secure market niche and a proven track record in producing high-quality Rolex timepieces. This implies that Switzerland has a comparative advantage in watch production, making it the best choice for the company to maximize its efficiency and profitability.

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  • 28. 

    Cognitive processes which include perception, intuition, values and attitudes, underlie locational behavior and these account for imperfect decisions, meaning that industrial locators do not necessarily aim for the best possible setup to maximize profit but can be content with 'sub-optimal', 'good-enough' but 'adequate' decisions.

    • A.

      Cogitative Theory of Location

    • B.

      Behavioral Theory of Location

    • C.

      Urban Land Nexus Theory

    • D.

      Organizational Theory (Segmentation & Corporate Mergers)

    Correct Answer
    B. Behavioral Theory of Location
    Explanation
    The given explanation suggests that the correct answer is the Behavioral Theory of Location. This theory states that cognitive processes, such as perception, intuition, values, and attitudes, influence locational behavior. These cognitive processes can lead to imperfect decisions, where industrial locators may not necessarily aim for the best possible setup to maximize profit, but instead be content with sub-optimal, good-enough, but adequate decisions. This theory emphasizes the role of human behavior and decision-making in determining locational choices.

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  • 29. 

    If a firm subscribes to the Institutional Theory of firm location as shaped by neo-liberal economics, the firm will logically consider which of the following factors the least.

    • A.

      Costs of doing business (tax and non-tax costs including graft and corruption)

    • B.

      Stability of government and predictability of its policies (fair play, level-playing field)

    • C.

      Peace and order and the physical safety of employees

    • D.

      Leisure opportunities such as golf courses and exclusive resorts for the managerial elite and their families

    Correct Answer
    D. Leisure opportunities such as golf courses and exclusive resorts for the managerial elite and their families
    Explanation
    If a firm subscribes to the Institutional Theory of firm location as shaped by neo-liberal economics, it would prioritize factors that directly impact its business operations and profitability. This includes considering the costs of doing business, stability of government and predictability of its policies, and peace and order and the physical safety of employees. However, leisure opportunities such as golf courses and exclusive resorts for the managerial elite and their families would be considered the least important factor, as it does not directly contribute to the firm's productivity or bottom line.

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  • 30. 

    Anything that is available to rivals elsewhere is essentially nullified as a source of competitive advantage, for a firms competitive edge lies in something very local - innovation in strategy, innovation in know-how, in relationships, in motivation.

    • A.

      Dr Michael Porter

    • B.

      Jacob A. Riis

    • C.

      Sir Peter Hall

    • D.

      Dr Mark Gottdeiner

    • E.

      Hernando de Soto

    Correct Answer
    A. Dr Michael Porter
    Explanation
    Dr Michael Porter is the correct answer because the statement reflects his perspective on competitive advantage. Porter is known for his work on competitive strategy and the concept of competitive advantage. He argues that for a firm to have a competitive edge, it must focus on unique and localized factors such as strategy, know-how, relationships, and motivation, rather than relying on things that are available to rivals elsewhere. This aligns with the given statement, making Dr Michael Porter the most suitable answer.

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  • 31. 

    Presidential Decree 1559 defines this natural region used in ecosystem-based planning as a relatively large area starting at the roof of mountain rivers and encompassing tributaries, streams, and the land surface whose rainwater runoff drams into a common, downstream point such as a lake, estuary, or coastal water body.

    • A.

      Drainage Basin

    • B.

      Rainforest

    • C.

      Flood plain

    • D.

      Watershed

    Correct Answer
    D. Watershed
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Watershed." A watershed is a natural region defined by Presidential Decree 1559 as a relatively large area that includes mountain rivers, tributaries, streams, and land surfaces. It is characterized by rainwater runoff that drains into a common downstream point, such as a lake, estuary, or coastal water body. A watershed is essential for ecosystem-based planning and management as it helps to understand the flow of water and the interconnectedness of different water bodies within a specific area.

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  • 32. 

    Based on 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, this is an area of up to 200 nautical miles from a States Shore in which a State is given the sovereign right to explore, exploit, conserve, and manage all natural resources as well as the right to determine the total allowable catch (TAC) of living resources.

    • A.

      Territorial Sea

    • B.

      Sealanes and Maritime Fairways

    • C.

      Continental Shelf

    • D.

      Exclusive Economic Zone

    Correct Answer
    D. Exclusive Economic Zone
    Explanation
    According to the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) refers to an area of up to 200 nautical miles from a state's shore. In this zone, the state is granted the sovereign right to explore, exploit, conserve, and manage all natural resources. Additionally, the state has the authority to determine the total allowable catch (TAC) of living resources. Therefore, the correct answer is Exclusive Economic Zone.

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  • 33. 

    The taking of fishery species by passive or active gear for trade, business, or profit beyond the level of subsistence fishing or sports fishing, utilizing marine vessels of 3.1 gross tons (GT) or more, is called

    • A.

      Municipal Fishing

    • B.

      Profitable Fishing

    • C.

      Entrepreneurial Fishing

    • D.

      Commercial Fishing

    Correct Answer
    D. Commercial Fishing
    Explanation
    Commercial fishing refers to the taking of fishery species using passive or active gear for trade, business, or profit beyond subsistence fishing or sports fishing. It involves the use of marine vessels weighing 3.1 gross tons (GT) or more. This type of fishing is done on a larger scale and is aimed at generating profit through the sale of fish and seafood products. The term "commercial" indicates that it is conducted as a business venture rather than for personal or recreational purposes.

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  • 34. 

    Under RA 917 4 Wildlife Resources Conservation & Protection Act, jurisdiction over all declared aquatic critical habitats, all aquatic resources, including but not limited to all fishes, aquatic plants, invertebrates and all marine mammals, except dugong, including protected coral reefs, fish sanctuaries, and marine reserves, belongs to

    • A.

      Philippine Coast Guard and Patrol Bantay Dagat

    • B.

      DENR Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau

    • C.

      Department of Agriculture

    • D.

      Department of Science and Technology

    Correct Answer
    C. Department of Agriculture
    Explanation
    Under RA 9174, the jurisdiction over all declared aquatic critical habitats, aquatic resources, and marine mammals, excluding the dugong, belongs to the Department of Agriculture. This includes protected coral reefs, fish sanctuaries, and marine reserves. The Department of Agriculture is responsible for the conservation and protection of these resources, ensuring their sustainable use and management.

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  • 35. 

    In the SEPP, 'geology' covers subsurface conditions, seismic fault lines, bedrock, and minerals while 'patterns of precipitation, temperature, humidity, and wind' are discussed under

    • A.

      Atmospheric and Astro-physical Sciences

    • B.

      Hydrology

    • C.

      Climate

    • D.

      Agro-ecology

    Correct Answer
    C. Climate
    Explanation
    The given answer, "Climate," is correct because it refers to the discussion of patterns of precipitation, temperature, humidity, and wind. Climate is the study of long-term weather patterns in a particular area, which includes the mentioned elements. Therefore, it is the appropriate category for the discussion of these atmospheric conditions in the SEPP.

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  • 36. 

    In contrast to the long-term skeletal/circulatory framework, this is the overall medium-term action plan utilized by every local administration to develop socio-economic development projects and implement sectoral, cross-sectoral, and multi-sectoral programs to be translated into public investment measures and incentives to private investment.

    • A.

      Comprehensive Land Use Plan

    • B.

      Blueprint

    • C.

      Comprehensive Development Plan

    • D.

      Master Plan

    Correct Answer
    C. Comprehensive Development Plan
    Explanation
    A Comprehensive Development Plan is a medium-term action plan used by local administrations to implement various programs and projects for socio-economic development. It includes sectoral, cross-sectoral, and multi-sectoral initiatives that are translated into public investment measures and incentives for private investment. This plan focuses on the overall development of a region or area, taking into account various factors such as land use, infrastructure, and economic growth. It serves as a blueprint for guiding the development of the region and ensuring coordinated and sustainable growth.

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  • 37. 

    This refers to any large-scale master-planned development which includes housing, work places, and related facilities within a self-contained setup, based on the assumption that it can be built from zero, more or less.

    • A.

      Freiburg or Freetown

    • B.

      Borough

    • C.

      New Town

    • D.

      County Estate

    • E.

      Eco-Industrial Park

    Correct Answer
    C. New Town
    Explanation
    A "New Town" refers to a large-scale master-planned development that includes housing, work places, and related facilities within a self-contained setup. It is based on the assumption that it can be built from scratch or close to it. This term is commonly used to describe the development of a completely new urban area or settlement, designed to accommodate a growing population and provide all necessary amenities and infrastructure. Examples of New Towns include Milton Keynes in the UK and Chandigarh in India.

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  • 38. 

    If Lands with slope between 18%-30% constitute 45% of total land area, those with slope above 30% constitute 8%, what percent of Philippine gross land area is generally described as 'alienable and disposable'?

    • A.

      Roughly 47%

    • B.

      roughly 53%

    • C.

      Roughly 43%

    • D.

      Roughly 57% %

    Correct Answer
    A. Roughly 47%
    Explanation
    The given information does not directly provide the percentage of "alienable and disposable" land area. Therefore, an explanation cannot be generated.

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  • 39. 

    'Land Use' and 'Land Classification' are

    • A.

      The same

    • B.

      Mutually exclusive

    • C.

      'Land Classification' is proper term for legal and bureaucratic transactions while 'Land Use' is used for basic environmental analysis.

    • D.

      'Land Classification' is a scientific conceptual scheme while 'Land Use' refers to actual utilization or consumption of land.

    Correct Answer
    D. 'Land Classification' is a scientific conceptual scheme while 'Land Use' refers to actual utilization or consumption of land.
    Explanation
    'Land Classification' and 'Land Use' are not the same. They have different meanings and purposes. 'Land Classification' is a scientific conceptual scheme that categorizes land based on specific criteria such as soil type, vegetation, and topography. It is used to understand and study the characteristics of different types of land. On the other hand, 'Land Use' refers to the actual utilization or consumption of land. It focuses on how land is being used by humans for various purposes such as agriculture, residential, industrial, or recreational activities.

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  • 40. 

    "Land use has to be planned for the community as a whole because the conservation of soil, water, and other natural resources is often beyond the means of individual land user"

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    • C.

      True only for closed societies and socialist economies but not for free market societies

    • D.

      Partially false because free market forces' always know better how to apportion land

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Land use planning for the community as a whole is necessary because the conservation of soil, water, and other natural resources often requires collective efforts and resources that individual land users may not possess. This is especially true in situations where the scale of conservation measures needed exceeds what can be achieved by individual actions. In such cases, a coordinated approach is necessary to ensure the sustainable use and preservation of natural resources.

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  • 41. 

    Which statement about 'Land Capability' and 'Land Suitability' is true, based on definition from US Department of Agriculture and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization?

    • A.

      'Land Capability' refers to the 'carrying capacity' of land while 'Land Suitability' refers to appropriateness of land for human use and habitation.

    • B.

      'Land Capability' refers to appropriateness of land for engineering and physical intervention while 'Land Suitability' refers to appropriateness for natural production.

    • C.

      'Land Capability' refers to the broadest uses of land for urban development while 'Land Suitability' refers to its fitness for rural development.

    • D.

      'Land Capability' is the broad inherent capacity of land to perform at a given level for general use, while 'Land Suitability' is the adaptability of a given land for a specific kind of land use, usually farm crops.

    Correct Answer
    D. 'Land Capability' is the broad inherent capacity of land to perform at a given level for general use, while 'Land Suitability' is the adaptability of a given land for a specific kind of land use, usually farm crops.
    Explanation
    According to the definition from the US Department of Agriculture and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 'Land Capability' refers to the broad inherent capacity of land to perform at a given level for general use. On the other hand, 'Land Suitability' refers to the adaptability of a given land for a specific kind of land use, usually farm crops. This means that 'Land Capability' focuses on the overall capacity of the land, while 'Land Suitability' considers the specific suitability of the land for a particular use, such as farming.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following is not a factor to determine suitability of land for heavy industrial use?

    • A.

      Load-bearing capacity

    • B.

      Location

    • C.

      slope

    • D.

      Soil characteristics

    Correct Answer
    D. Soil characteristics
    Explanation
    Soil characteristics are a factor to determine the suitability of land for heavy industrial use. Different types of soil have different properties that can affect the stability and support of structures. Factors such as soil composition, compaction, and drainage can impact the ability of the land to withstand heavy loads and provide a stable foundation for industrial activities. Therefore, soil characteristics are an important consideration when determining the suitability of land for heavy industrial use.

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  • 43. 

    To conserve farm soils by means of bio-engineering, all of the following methods are useful except one:

    • A.

      Use of coco-coir geotextile on erodible soils

    • B.

      Use of rows, furrows, ridges and ditches

    • C.

      Use of terraces and contours on sloping land

    • D.

      Use of soil compactors

    • E.

      Mulching and recycling of organic matter

    • F.

      Cover crops and shelterbelts against wind erosion

    Correct Answer
    D. Use of soil compactors
    Explanation
    Soil compactors are not a useful method for conserving farm soils through bio-engineering. Soil compaction can actually harm the soil structure and reduce its fertility. Compaction can lead to poor water infiltration and drainage, which can negatively impact plant growth and increase erosion. Therefore, using soil compactors would not be an effective method for conserving farm soils.

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  • 44. 

    To conserve freshwater by means of bio-engineering, all of the following methods are useful except one:

    • A.

      Sub-terranean drilling to interconnect deep-wells

    • B.

      Partially grassed waterways

    • C.

      mini-dams and dikes to slow down stream flow to the sea

    • D.

      Small water impounding projects (SWP)

    • E.

      Rainwater harvesting thru man-made ponds, small farm reservoirs (SFRs)

    Correct Answer
    A. Sub-terranean drilling to interconnect deep-wells
    Explanation
    Sub-terranean drilling to interconnect deep-wells is not a method that conserves freshwater through bio-engineering. The other methods mentioned - partially grassed waterways, mini-dams and dikes, small water impounding projects, and rainwater harvesting through man-made ponds and small farm reservoirs - all involve using natural or man-made structures to manage and store water, reducing the reliance on freshwater sources. However, sub-terranean drilling to interconnect deep-wells does not fall under the category of bio-engineering or involve any conservation methods.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following maps display the 'critical facilities' of a city/town?

    • A.

      Map showing military camps, police stations, checkpoints, jails, prisons and Stockades

    • B.

      Map showing sewer lines, canals, tunnels, and underground bunkers

    • C.

      Map showing roads, hospitals, food .warehouses, 4tility trunks for power, water, and communication

    • D.

      Map showing possible evacuation places in schools, churches, gymnasium,·and covered courts

    Correct Answer
    C. Map showing roads, hospitals, food .warehouses, 4tility trunks for power, water, and communication
    Explanation
    The correct answer is a map showing roads, hospitals, food warehouses, utility trunks for power, water, and communication. This map would display the critical facilities of a city/town, as it includes essential infrastructure and services that are necessary for the functioning and well-being of the population. These facilities are crucial during emergencies or disasters, as they provide essential services and support to the community.

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  • 46. 

    Which of those listed below is not a 'decision' map?

    • A.

      Physical constraints map

    • B.

      Geohazard map

    • C.

      Land suitability map

    • D.

      Natural drainage map (rivers and streams)

    Correct Answer
    D. Natural drainage map (rivers and streams)
    Explanation
    A decision map is a type of map that helps in making decisions by providing information about specific factors or variables. In this case, the options given are different types of maps. A physical constraints map, geohazard map, and land suitability map are all examples of decision maps as they provide information about physical constraints, hazards, and land suitability respectively. However, a natural drainage map (rivers and streams) does not fall under the category of a decision map as it primarily focuses on the natural flow of water bodies rather than aiding in decision-making processes.

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  • 47. 

    In preparing a site plan for hectare mixed use project in an urban area, which of following maps is least useful at the needed scale of 1 : 1,000?

    • A.

      NAMRIA base map

    • B.

      LRA parcel map

    • C.

      Utilities map from LGU Engineer

    • D.

      Phivolcs geologic map

    Correct Answer
    A. NAMRIA base map
    Explanation
    The NAMRIA base map is least useful at the needed scale of 1:1,000 because it is a general map that provides basic information about the area, such as roads, landmarks, and boundaries. However, for a site plan of a mixed-use project, more specific and detailed information is required, such as property boundaries and ownership (provided by the LRA parcel map), utility infrastructure (provided by the utilities map from LGU Engineer), and geological information (provided by the Phivolcs geologic map). The NAMRIA base map does not provide this level of detail and specificity, making it the least useful for the given purpose.

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  • 48. 

    In an output map of the computer-based system referred to in immediately-preceding section, 'roads,' 'irrigation canals' and 'sewers' are represented in the form called

    • A.

      Digital

    • B.

      Vector

    • C.

      Raster

    • D.

      Megapixel

    • E.

      Cellular automata

    Correct Answer
    B. Vector
    Explanation
    In an output map of the computer-based system, 'roads,' 'irrigation canals,' and 'sewers' are represented in the form called vector. Vector graphics use mathematical equations to represent lines, curves, and shapes. They are resolution-independent and can be scaled without losing quality. This makes them suitable for representing detailed features like roads, canals, and sewers in a map. Unlike raster graphics, which are made up of pixels and can become pixelated when scaled, vector graphics maintain their smoothness and clarity. Therefore, vector is the correct form for representing these features in the output map.

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  • 49. 

    Prior to the development of computer mapping software in the mid-1970s, spatial analysis was done manually by overlaying different thematic maps of the same scale, principally to determine

    • A.

      Geohazards and physical constraints

    • B.

      areas that are ideal for urban development

    • C.

      Critical areas for rehabilitation or intervention

    • D.

      All of the choices

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the choices
    Explanation
    Before the development of computer mapping software, spatial analysis was conducted manually by overlaying different thematic maps of the same scale. This process was primarily used to determine geohazards and physical constraints, areas that are suitable for urban development, and critical areas that require rehabilitation or intervention. Therefore, all of the given choices were considered in the manual spatial analysis process.

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  • 50. 

    According to Ernesto Serote, the FAO formula for urban land allocation at 5.7 hectares per thousand population does not seem to be realistic in highly-urbanized LGUs because of rapid pace of change, hence, to estimate urban land demand, this method entails time-series comparison of aerial photographs supplemented by on-foot survey of urban land.

    • A.

      Urban Density Method

    • B.

      Urban Occupancy Method

    • C.

      City Land Census

    • D.

      Floor Area Ratio

    Correct Answer
    A. Urban Density Method
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is the Urban Density Method. According to Ernesto Serote, the FAO formula for urban land allocation is not realistic in highly-urbanized LGUs due to the rapid pace of change. Therefore, to estimate urban land demand, the Urban Density Method is used. This method involves a time-series comparison of aerial photographs supplemented by on-foot survey of urban land. It takes into account the density of the population and their spatial distribution to determine the land demand in urban areas.

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  • Mar 19, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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