Physiology Quiz Chapter 5

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Physiology Quizzes & Trivia

It’s time to learn a little bit about our bodies, wouldn’t you say? The study of physiology allows us to do just that, providing us with information regarding not only our various body parts and what their functions are, but the same for every organism we come across. Think you know about some of these functions? Take the following quiz to find out for sure! Good luck!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Sensory input:

    • A.

      Processes and interprets the sensory input of the sensory receptors to form a decision as to the appropriate response

    • B.

      Produces a response through the actions of muscles or glands

    • C.

      Monitors changes that occur both inside and outside of the body through sensory receptors

    Correct Answer
    C. Monitors changes that occur both inside and outside of the body through sensory receptors
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "monitors changes that occur both inside and outside of the body through sensory receptors." This answer accurately describes the function of the sensory input in the nervous system. Sensory input refers to the process of detecting and interpreting information from the sensory receptors, which can be located both internally and externally. This information allows the nervous system to monitor changes in the environment and within the body, which is essential for generating appropriate responses and maintaining homeostasis.

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  • 2. 

    The nervous system is the master control and communication system of the body which is involved in every ______________, _______________, ______________.

    Correct Answer
    Thought, action, emotion
    Explanation
    The nervous system plays a crucial role in every aspect of our lives. It is responsible for processing and transmitting signals that allow us to think, make decisions, and experience emotions. It controls our actions by sending signals to our muscles, enabling us to move and interact with the world around us. Additionally, it plays a significant role in regulating our emotions, allowing us to feel and express various feelings. Overall, the nervous system is involved in thought, action, and emotion, making it the master control and communication system of the body.

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  • 3. 

    The Central Nervous System consists of the brain and spinal cord.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The Central Nervous System (CNS) is composed of the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for processing and coordinating information received from the sensory organs and sending out instructions to the rest of the body. The brain is the control center of the CNS, while the spinal cord serves as a communication pathway between the brain and the body. Therefore, the statement that the CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord is true.

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  • 4. 

    The Nervous System is divided into two parts. They are called:

    • A.

      Parasympathetic Nervous System and Sympathetic Nervous System

    • B.

      Autonomic Nervous System and Somatic Nervous System

    • C.

      Peripheral Nervous System and Central Nervous System

    Correct Answer
    C. Peripheral Nervous System and Central Nervous System
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Peripheral Nervous System and Central Nervous System". The nervous system is divided into two main parts: the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS). The PNS consists of all the nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including sensory and motor nerves. It helps transmit information between the CNS and the rest of the body. On the other hand, the CNS includes the brain and spinal cord, which process and interpret information received from the PNS and control body functions.

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  • 5. 

    _____________ interprets sensory input and forms a response to that stimulus.

    • A.

      Parasympathetic Nervous System

    • B.

      Central Nervous System

    • C.

      Peripheral Nervous System

    • D.

      Somatic Nervous System

    Correct Answer
    B. Central Nervous System
    Explanation
    The central nervous system is responsible for interpreting sensory input and forming a response to that stimulus. It consists of the brain and spinal cord, which receive and process information from the sensory organs and send signals to the muscles and glands to produce a response. The central nervous system plays a crucial role in coordinating and controlling the body's actions and responses to external stimuli.

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  • 6. 

    ____________ is the integration and command centers of the nervous system.

    • A.

      Central Nervous System

    • B.

      Peripheral Nervous System

    • C.

      Somatic Nervous System

    • D.

      Parasympathetic Nervous System

    Correct Answer
    A. Central Nervous System
    Explanation
    The central nervous system is responsible for integrating and coordinating the activities of the entire nervous system. It consists of the brain and spinal cord, which receive and process information from the peripheral nervous system and send out commands to the body. The central nervous system plays a crucial role in regulating and controlling bodily functions, as well as processing sensory information and generating responses.

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  • 7. 

    The Peripheral Nervous System is the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the peripheral nervous system consists of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. It is responsible for transmitting signals between the central nervous system and the organs, muscles, and tissues. Thus, it is true that the peripheral nervous system is made up of the nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord.

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  • 8. 

    _____________ nerves carry information to and from the brain

    Correct Answer
    Cranial
    Explanation
    Cranial nerves carry information to and from the brain. These nerves originate from the brain and extend to various parts of the head and neck. They are responsible for controlling sensory and motor functions in the face, head, and neck regions. The cranial nerves play a vital role in transmitting information related to vision, hearing, taste, smell, and facial movements to the brain, as well as controlling muscles involved in chewing, swallowing, and speaking.

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  • 9. 

    ______________ nerves carry information to and from the spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    Spinal
    Explanation
    Spinal nerves carry information to and from the spinal cord. The spinal cord is a long, tubular bundle of nerves that runs within the spine. It is responsible for transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal nerves emerge from the spinal cord and branch out to various parts of the body, allowing for communication and coordination of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, the correct answer is "Spinal."

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  • 10. 

    The Peripheral Nervous System is an information channel which links the body parts with the Central Nervous System

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that the Peripheral Nervous System serves as a communication network between the body's various parts and the Central Nervous System. It consists of nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body, allowing for the transmission of signals and information. This system plays a crucial role in coordinating movement, transmitting sensory information, and regulating bodily functions.

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  • 11. 

    There are two subdivisions of the PNS. They are called __________

    • A.

      Sensory (afferent) division & Motor (efferent) division

    • B.

      Somatic division & Autonomic division

    • C.

      Parasympathetic division & Sympathetic division

    Correct Answer
    A. Sensory (afferent) division & Motor (efferent) division
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Sensory (afferent) division & Motor (efferent) division. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is divided into two subdivisions: the sensory division and the motor division. The sensory division, also known as the afferent division, is responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the central nervous system (CNS). The motor division, also known as the efferent division, is responsible for transmitting motor commands from the CNS to the muscles and glands in the body.

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  • 12. 

    ___________ are nerve fibers that conduct sensory information from peripheral sensory receptors to the CNS

    • A.

      Motor or efferent division

    • B.

      Somatic division

    • C.

      Autonomic division

    • D.

      Sensory or afferent division

    Correct Answer
    D. Sensory or afferent division
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the sensory or afferent division. This division of nerve fibers carries sensory information from peripheral sensory receptors to the central nervous system (CNS). These sensory fibers transmit signals related to touch, temperature, pain, and other sensory stimuli from various parts of the body to the brain and spinal cord for processing and interpretation.

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  • 13. 

    ______________ nerve fibers from the skin, muscle, or joint that carry sensory information to CNS (outside body information)

    • A.

      Visceral afferents

    • B.

      Somatic afferents

    Correct Answer
    B. Somatic afferents
    Explanation
    Somatic afferents are nerve fibers that carry sensory information from the skin, muscle, or joint to the central nervous system (CNS). This means that they transmit information about sensations such as touch, pain, temperature, and proprioception from the external environment to the brain and spinal cord. Visceral afferents, on the other hand, carry sensory information from the internal organs to the CNS. Therefore, the correct answer is somatic afferents because they specifically refer to the nerve fibers that carry sensory information from the skin, muscle, or joint.

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  • 14. 

    _____________ are nerve fibers which carry information from the visceral organs to the CNS. (inside body information)

    • A.

      Somatic afferents

    • B.

      Visceral afferents

    Correct Answer
    B. Visceral afferents
    Explanation
    Visceral afferents are nerve fibers that transmit information from the internal organs to the central nervous system (CNS). These fibers carry sensory signals from organs such as the heart, lungs, and digestive system to the brain and spinal cord. This information is crucial for the CNS to regulate and coordinate the body's internal processes. Somatic afferents, on the other hand, carry sensory information from the skin, muscles, and joints to the CNS. Therefore, the correct answer is visceral afferents as they specifically refer to the nerve fibers responsible for transmitting information from the visceral organs to the CNS.

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  • 15. 

    _____________ are nerve fibers that carry information from the CNS to efferent organs (muscles and glands). 

    Correct Answer
    Motor divisions
    Efferent Divisions
    Explanation
    Motor divisions and efferent divisions are nerve fibers that carry information from the central nervous system (CNS) to efferent organs such as muscles and glands. Both terms refer to the same concept and can be used interchangeably to describe this function.

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  • 16. 

    The two subdivisions of the motor division are ___________ & _____________

    • A.

      Autonomic Nervous System

    • B.

      Parasympathetic Nervous System

    • C.

      Somatic Nervous System

    • D.

      Sympathetic Nervous System

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Autonomic Nervous System
    C. Somatic Nervous System
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Autonomic Nervous System and Somatic Nervous System. The motor division of the nervous system is responsible for controlling voluntary and involuntary movements. The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary actions such as heart rate, digestion, and breathing. The somatic nervous system controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles.

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  • 17. 

    The somatic nervous system are nerve fibers that control the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the somatic nervous system is responsible for controlling voluntary movements of skeletal muscles, not smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands. The autonomic nervous system, on the other hand, controls the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands.

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  • 18. 

    The autonomic nervous system are nerve fibers that control the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The autonomic nervous system is responsible for regulating involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and glandular secretion. It consists of nerve fibers that control the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands. Therefore, the statement that the autonomic nervous system controls the activity of these muscles and glands is true.

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  • 19. 

    The somatic nervous system are nerve fibers that carry impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The somatic nervous system is responsible for controlling voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles. It consists of nerve fibers that carry signals from the central nervous system (CNS) to the skeletal muscles, allowing us to consciously control our movements. This system plays a crucial role in activities such as walking, running, and lifting objects. Therefore, the statement "The somatic nervous system are nerve fibers that carry impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles" is true.

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  • 20. 

    The Autonomic Nervous system is also known as

    Correct Answer
    involuntary nervous system
    Explanation
    The Autonomic Nervous System is responsible for controlling the involuntary functions of the body, such as heart rate, digestion, and breathing. It operates without conscious control and regulates these bodily processes automatically. Therefore, it is commonly referred to as the involuntary nervous system.

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  • 21. 

    The somatic nervous system is also known as

    Correct Answer
    voluntary nervous system
    Explanation
    The somatic nervous system is responsible for the voluntary control of skeletal muscles and the reception of external stimuli. It allows us to consciously move our muscles and respond to sensory information from our environment. This system is under our conscious control, enabling us to make deliberate movements and actions. Therefore, the term "voluntary nervous system" accurately describes the somatic nervous system.

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  • 22. 

    The sympathetic division _____________ the visceral organs

    • A.

      Stimulates

    • B.

      Inhibits

    • C.

      Controls

    • D.

      Contains

    Correct Answer
    A. Stimulates
    Explanation
    The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for stimulating the visceral organs. This division activates the "fight or flight" response, which prepares the body for action by increasing heart rate, dilating blood vessels, and releasing stress hormones. Therefore, the correct answer is "stimulates."

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  • 23. 

    The parasympathetic division _____________ the visceral organs

    • A.

      Stimulates

    • B.

      Inhibits

    • C.

      Controls

    • D.

      Contains

    Correct Answer
    B. Inhibits
    Explanation
    The parasympathetic division inhibits the visceral organs. This means that it decreases their activity or slows them down. The parasympathetic division is responsible for promoting rest and relaxation in the body, so it is important for it to inhibit or reduce the activity of the visceral organs, such as the heart, lungs, and digestive system. This allows the body to conserve energy and focus on processes like digestion and healing.

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  • 24. 

    Nervous tissue is made up of cells (about 80% ______ and 20% ________)

    • A.

      Extracellular space & cells

    • B.

      Cells & extracellular space

    • C.

      Neurons & dendrites

    • D.

      Dendrites & extracellular space

    Correct Answer
    B. Cells & extracellular space
    Explanation
    Nervous tissue is composed of cells and extracellular space. The cells in nervous tissue, such as neurons, are responsible for transmitting and processing electrical signals. The extracellular space provides support and allows for the exchange of nutrients and waste products between cells. Together, these components make up the structure and function of nervous tissue.

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  • 25. 

    What are the two types of cells in nervous tissue?

    Correct Answer
    supporting cells and neurons
    Explanation
    The two types of cells in nervous tissue are supporting cells and neurons. Supporting cells, also known as glial cells, provide structural support and insulation to neurons. They also help in the maintenance and protection of neurons. Neurons, on the other hand, are responsible for transmitting electrical signals and information throughout the nervous system. They are the primary functional units of the nervous system and play a crucial role in sensory perception, motor control, and cognitive processes.

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  • 26. 

    _____________ are nonexcitable cells that surround neurons forming the scaffolding of the nervous tissue

    • A.

      Dendrites

    • B.

      Neurons

    • C.

      Supporting cells

    • D.

      Bacteria

    Correct Answer
    C. Supporting cells
    Explanation
    Supporting cells are nonexcitable cells that surround neurons and provide structural support and protection to the nervous tissue. They form the scaffolding of the nervous system, helping to maintain the shape and organization of neurons. These cells also play important roles in regulating the chemical environment around neurons and assisting in their proper functioning. While dendrites are part of neurons and bacteria are unrelated to the nervous tissue, supporting cells are specifically responsible for providing support and maintaining the integrity of the nervous system.

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  • 27. 

    How many types of supporting cells are there?

    • A.

      4

    • B.

      5

    • C.

      6

    • D.

      7

    Correct Answer
    C. 6
    Explanation
    There are six types of supporting cells.

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  • 28. 

    Star shaped cells that are found in the CNS and they make up about 50% of nervous tissue volume

    • A.

      Oligodendrocytes

    • B.

      Microglia

    • C.

      Schwann Cells

    • D.

      Astrocytes

    • E.

      Ependymal Cells

    Correct Answer
    D. Astrocytes
    Explanation
    Astrocytes are star-shaped cells that are found in the central nervous system (CNS) and make up about 50% of the nervous tissue volume. They provide structural and metabolic support to neurons, regulate the extracellular environment, and help maintain the blood-brain barrier. Astrocytes also play a role in synaptic transmission and modulate neuronal activity. Due to their diverse functions, astrocytes are essential for the proper functioning of the CNS.

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  • 29. 

    Connects neurons to blood capillaries and help to exchange nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, etc, between the blood capillary and neuron forming the blood-brain barrier.

    • A.

      Oligodendrocytes

    • B.

      Ependymal Cells

    • C.

      Astrocytes

    • D.

      Schwann Cells

    • E.

      Microglia

    Correct Answer
    C. Astrocytes
    Explanation
    Astrocytes are a type of glial cell in the brain that play a crucial role in maintaining the health and function of neurons. They form a barrier known as the blood-brain barrier, which helps to protect the brain from harmful substances and regulate the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other molecules between the blood capillaries and neurons. Astrocytes also provide structural support to neurons, regulate the chemical environment of the brain, and contribute to synaptic function. Overall, astrocytes are essential for the proper functioning of the brain and its communication with the rest of the body.

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  • 30. 

    Oval cells with long processes that are specialized macrophages in the CNS

    • A.

      Microglia

    • B.

      Satellite Cells

    • C.

      Schwann Cells

    • D.

      Oligodendrocytes

    • E.

      Astrocytes

    Correct Answer
    A. Microglia
    Explanation
    Microglia are a type of cell found in the central nervous system (CNS) that have oval shapes and long processes. They are specialized macrophages, which means they play a role in the immune response by engulfing and removing cellular debris, pathogens, and dead cells in the CNS. Microglia also have other functions, such as regulating inflammation, supporting neuronal development, and maintaining the health of the CNS. Therefore, microglia are the correct answer because they fit the description of oval cells with long processes that are specialized macrophages in the CNS.

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  • 31. 

    Engulf invading microorganisms and dead neural tissue

    • A.

      Satellite Cells

    • B.

      Schwann Cells

    • C.

      Ependymal Cells

    • D.

      Oligodendrocytes

    • E.

      Microglia

    Correct Answer
    E. Microglia
    Explanation
    Microglia are specialized cells in the central nervous system that act as the primary immune defense. They are responsible for engulfing and removing invading microorganisms and dead neural tissue. Microglia play a crucial role in maintaining the health and homeostasis of the brain by clearing away debris and promoting tissue repair. They are also involved in regulating inflammation and immune responses in the brain. Overall, microglia are essential for protecting and maintaining the proper functioning of the central nervous system.

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  • 32. 

    Cells that line the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord

    • A.

      Oligodendrocytes

    • B.

      Ependymal Cells

    • C.

      Microglia

    • D.

      Satellite Cells

    • E.

      Schwann Cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Ependymal Cells
    Explanation
    Ependymal cells are a type of cells that line the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord. They are responsible for producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and helping to circulate it within these cavities. Ependymal cells also play a role in the regulation of CSF composition and the movement of substances between the CSF and the nervous tissue. Therefore, they are essential for the proper functioning and protection of the brain and spinal cord.

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  • 33. 

    Produce the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord. Their cilia circulate the CSF.

    • A.

      Schwann Cells

    • B.

      Satellite Cells

    • C.

      Oligodendrocytes

    • D.

      Ependymal Cells

    Correct Answer
    D. Ependymal Cells
    Explanation
    Ependymal cells are responsible for producing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and circulating it through the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord. They have cilia that help in the movement and circulation of the CSF. Schwann cells are responsible for producing myelin in the peripheral nervous system, satellite cells provide support and protection to neurons in the peripheral nervous system, and oligodendrocytes produce myelin in the central nervous system. Therefore, the correct answer is ependymal cells.

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  • 34. 

    Cells that lie beside nerve fibers in the CNS and wrap around these nerve fibers

    • A.

      Ependymal Cells

    • B.

      Oligodendrocytes

    • C.

      Satellite Cells

    • D.

      Schwann Cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Oligodendrocytes
    Explanation
    Oligodendrocytes are cells that lie beside nerve fibers in the central nervous system (CNS) and wrap around these nerve fibers. They are responsible for producing myelin, a fatty substance that forms a protective covering around nerve fibers. This myelin sheath helps to insulate and enhance the conduction of electrical impulses along the nerve fibers. Unlike Schwann cells, which perform a similar function but are found in the peripheral nervous system (PNS), oligodendrocytes are specific to the CNS. Ependymal cells are involved in the production of cerebrospinal fluid, while satellite cells provide support and nutrition to neurons in the PNS.

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  • 35. 

    Covers and insulates the nerve fibers with myelin sheaths

    • A.

      Oligodendrocytes

    • B.

      Ependymal Cells

    • C.

      Schwann Cells

    • D.

      Astrocytes

    Correct Answer
    A. Oligodendrocytes
    Explanation
    Oligodendrocytes are a type of glial cell in the central nervous system that are responsible for producing and maintaining the myelin sheath, which covers and insulates nerve fibers. The myelin sheath helps to speed up the conduction of electrical impulses along the nerve fibers, allowing for more efficient communication between neurons. Oligodendrocytes play a crucial role in the proper functioning of the nervous system by providing support and protection to the nerve fibers.

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  • 36. 

    Cells in the peripheral nervous system that surround and cover nerve fibers

    • A.

      Satellite Cells

    • B.

      Astrocytes

    • C.

      Schwann Cells

    • D.

      Microglia

    Correct Answer
    C. Schwann Cells
    Explanation
    Schwann cells are a type of cells in the peripheral nervous system that surround and cover nerve fibers. They play a crucial role in providing support and insulation to nerve fibers, aiding in the transmission of nerve impulses. Schwann cells also help in the regeneration of damaged nerves. Therefore, Schwann cells are the correct answer in this context.

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  • 37. 

    Produce myelin sheaths which cover and insulate the peripheral nerve fibers, and engulf cell debris from damaged nerves which helps in nerve regeneration

    • A.

      Satellite Cells

    • B.

      Schwann Cells

    • C.

      Astrocytes

    • D.

      Oligodendrocytes

    Correct Answer
    B. Schwann Cells
    Explanation
    Schwann cells are responsible for producing myelin sheaths that cover and insulate peripheral nerve fibers. These myelin sheaths help to increase the speed and efficiency of nerve signal transmission. Additionally, Schwann cells also play a crucial role in nerve regeneration by engulfing cell debris from damaged nerves. This process helps to clear the damaged tissue and create an environment conducive to nerve regrowth and repair.

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  • 38. 

    Cells that are associated with Schwann cells in the PNS

    • A.

      Astrocytes

    • B.

      Oligodendrocytes

    • C.

      Microglia

    • D.

      Satellite Cells

    Correct Answer
    D. Satellite Cells
    Explanation
    Satellite cells are the correct answer because they are a type of glial cell that is associated with Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Satellite cells are found in clusters around the cell bodies of neurons in the PNS and provide support and protection to these neurons. They help regulate the extracellular environment around the neurons and play a role in the repair and regeneration of damaged nerve tissue. Hence, satellite cells are the cells that are associated with Schwann cells in the PNS.

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  • 39. 

    Controls the chemical environment around the neurons in the PNS

    • A.

      Astrocytes

    • B.

      Satellite Cells

    • C.

      Schwann Cells

    • D.

      Oligodendrocytes

    Correct Answer
    B. Satellite Cells
    Explanation
    Satellite cells are a type of glial cell that are found in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). They are primarily responsible for providing support and protection to the neurons in the PNS. One of their main functions is to control the chemical environment around the neurons. They help regulate the levels of ions, neurotransmitters, and other substances necessary for proper neuronal function. By doing so, satellite cells ensure that the neurons in the PNS are able to communicate effectively and maintain homeostasis.

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  • 40. 

    A nerve cell that transmits nerve impulses from one part of the body to another

    Correct Answer
    Neuron
    Explanation
    A neuron is a specialized type of cell that is responsible for transmitting nerve impulses from one part of the body to another. It is the basic building block of the nervous system and plays a crucial role in allowing communication between different parts of the body. Neurons have a unique structure with dendrites that receive signals, an axon that transmits signals, and synapses that allow for communication with other neurons. Through this process, neurons enable the transmission of information and coordination of various bodily functions.

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  • 41. 

    Which are the three special characteristics of a neuron?

    • A.

      Longevity

    • B.

      Biosynthetic

    • C.

      High metabolic rate

    • D.

      Amitotic

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Longevity
    C. High metabolic rate
    D. Amitotic
    Explanation
    The three special characteristics of a neuron are longevity, high metabolic rate, and amitotic. Neurons are able to function for a person's entire lifetime, hence the term "longevity." They also have a high metabolic rate, meaning they require a lot of energy to function properly. Lastly, neurons are amitotic, which means they are unable to undergo cell division. This characteristic is important because it explains why damage to neurons is often permanent and why they cannot be replaced easily.

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  • 42. 

    Perikaryon is another name for

    Correct Answer(s)
    cell body
    Explanation
    Perikaryon is another term used to refer to the cell body. The cell body, also known as the soma, is the main part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and other organelles essential for the cell's functioning. It is responsible for maintaining the overall health and metabolism of the neuron, as well as integrating and processing incoming signals from dendrites before transmitting them to the axon. Therefore, perikaryon and cell body are interchangeable terms used to describe this crucial component of a neuron.

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  • 43. 

    Which is not a characteristic of the cell body?

    • A.

      Range in length from a few millimeters to more than one meter

    • B.

      Is the biosynthetic center of the neuron

    • C.

      Found in the CNS and in ganglia of the PNS

    • D.

      Has a large, spherical nucleus with granular cytoplasm

    Correct Answer
    A. Range in length from a few millimeters to more than one meter
  • 44. 

    Cytoplasmic extensions from the cell body which are called nerve fibers

    • A.

      Neuron processes

    • B.

      Myelin sheath

    • C.

      Dendrites

    • D.

      Axon

    Correct Answer
    A. Neuron processes
    Explanation
    Neuron processes refer to the cytoplasmic extensions from the cell body, which are called nerve fibers. These processes include both the dendrites and the axon. Dendrites receive signals from other neurons and transmit them towards the cell body, while the axon carries signals away from the cell body to other neurons or target cells. Therefore, neuron processes play a crucial role in transmitting and receiving information within the nervous system.

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  • 45. 

    Found both in the PNS and the CNS. The CNS contains cell bodies and their processes and these are call tracts in the CNS. The PNS contains mostly these called nerves

    • A.

      Dendrites

    • B.

      Axon

    • C.

      Neuron processes

    • D.

      Myelin sheath

    Correct Answer
    C. Neuron processes
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "neuron processes." Neuron processes refer to the extensions of a neuron that transmit signals to and from other cells. These processes include both dendrites and axons, which are found in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, these processes are organized into tracts, while in the PNS they are primarily referred to as nerves.

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  • 46. 

    Short, thick, branching cytoplasmic extensions which act as receptive sites. Receive nerve impulses and conduct them toward the cell body.

    • A.

      Terminals

    • B.

      Axons

    • C.

      Hillocks

    • D.

      Dendrites

    Correct Answer
    D. Dendrites
    Explanation
    Dendrites are short, thick, branching cytoplasmic extensions that act as receptive sites. They receive nerve impulses and conduct them toward the cell body.

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  • 47. 

    A cytoplasmic extension that conducts the nerve impulse away from the cell body except with sensory neurons that conduct in both directions

    • A.

      Terminals

    • B.

      Axons

    • C.

      Hillocks

    • D.

      Dendrites

    Correct Answer
    B. Axons
    Explanation
    Axons are a type of cytoplasmic extension that conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body. They are responsible for transmitting information from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands. Unlike sensory neurons, which can conduct impulses in both directions, axons typically conduct impulses in one direction only. Therefore, axons are the correct answer in this context.

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  • 48. 

    Each arises from the axon hillock of the cell body.

    • A.

      Terminal

    • B.

      Axon

    • C.

      Nerve fiber

    • D.

      Dendrite

    Correct Answer
    B. Axon
    Explanation
    The statement "Each arises from the axon hillock of the cell body" suggests that the given options are different parts of a neuron. The axon hillock is a specialized region of the cell body where the axon originates. The axon is a long, slender projection that carries electrical signals away from the cell body. Therefore, the correct answer is axon, as it is the only option that arises from the axon hillock.

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  • 49. 

    A cone-shaped region of the cell body

    Correct Answer
    axon hillock
    Explanation
    The axon hillock is a cone-shaped region of the cell body where the axon originates. It is located between the cell body and the axon and plays a crucial role in the generation of action potentials. The axon hillock contains a high concentration of voltage-gated ion channels, which are responsible for the initiation and propagation of electrical signals along the axon. This region acts as a trigger zone, where the integration of incoming signals from the dendrites occurs. Once the electrical signals reach a certain threshold at the axon hillock, an action potential is generated and propagated down the axon.

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  • 50. 

    Range in length from a few millimeters to more than one meter

    Correct Answer
    axon
    Explanation
    An axon is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell that conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body. Axons can vary in length, ranging from a few millimeters to more than one meter.

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