​dr Gawad Physiology Course Online Exams – EEG, Sleep, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Limbic System

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dr Gawad Physiology Course Online Exams  EEG, Sleep, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Limbic System - Quiz

10 MCQs (Only one correct answer)
Each MCQ: 1 mark, Total mark: 10 (you will get the results immediately with correction by the web)
Allowed time: 10 min
Good Luck​

dr Mohammed Abdel Gawad


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Regarding thalamic syndrome, which is true

    • A.

      Loss of epicretic sensations of the same side of the body

    • B.

      The face sensations are markedly affected

    • C.

      Pain is well localized

    • D.

      Pain is following the all or nothing principle

    Correct Answer
    D. Pain is following the all or nothing principle
    Explanation
    In thalamic syndrome, pain is following the "all or nothing" principle. This means that the patient either experiences severe pain or no pain at all, with no middle ground. This is due to the disruption of the thalamus, a part of the brain that is involved in processing pain signals. The other statements provided in the question are not related to the concept of thalamic syndrome and are therefore not true.

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  • 2. 

    Regarding hypothalamus function, which is true:

    • A.

      Feeding center is chronically active

    • B.

      Stimulation of anterior hypothalamus increases arousal state

    • C.

      Posterior hypothalamus is concerned with heat loss

    • D.

      Anterior hypothalamus is concerned with sympathetic control

    Correct Answer
    A. Feeding center is chronically active
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus is responsible for regulating various bodily functions, including feeding behavior. The feeding center in the hypothalamus is indeed chronically active, meaning it is constantly involved in regulating hunger and satiety. This activity is crucial for maintaining a balance in food intake and energy expenditure. The hypothalamus receives signals from different parts of the body, such as hormones and nutrient levels, to determine when to initiate or suppress feeding behavior. Therefore, the statement that the feeding center is chronically active accurately describes the function of the hypothalamus in relation to feeding.

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  • 3. 

    Regarding hypothalamic functions, which is true

    • A.

      During Sham rage reaction the activated nucleus is the anterior hypothalamus

    • B.

      Hypothalamus has regulatory control of all endocrinal glands except the ovaries

    • C.

      Ant hypothalamus stimulation causes low heart rate

    • D.

      The weather is raining, so the anterior hypothalamus is active

    Correct Answer
    C. Ant hypothalamus stimulation causes low heart rate
    Explanation
    The anterior hypothalamus is responsible for regulating heart rate. Stimulation of the anterior hypothalamus leads to a decrease in heart rate, resulting in a low heart rate.

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  • 4. 

    Regarding hunger control, which is true

    • A.

      Satiety center is chronically active

    • B.

      The main regulator of satiety center activity is the blood amino acids level

    • C.

      Obesity may occur due to destruction of ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Obesity may occur due to destruction of ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The destruction of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus can lead to obesity. This is because the ventromedial nucleus plays a crucial role in regulating satiety and controlling food intake. When this area is damaged, it disrupts the normal signaling process that tells the body when it is full, leading to overeating and weight gain.

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  • 5. 

    Regarding REM sleep, which is true:

    • A.

      Heart rate is regular

    • B.

      Respiratory rate is regular

    • C.

      Muscle tone is markedly increased

    • D.

      Dreams can be consolidated

    Correct Answer
    D. Dreams can be consolidated
    Explanation
    During REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep, the brain is highly active, and this is the stage where most dreaming occurs. Consolidation refers to the process of strengthening and integrating newly acquired information into long-term memory. Research has shown that REM sleep plays a crucial role in consolidating memories and facilitating learning. Therefore, it is true that dreams can be consolidated during REM sleep.

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  • 6. 

    Regarding non-REM sleep, which is false:

    • A.

      Drop of blood pressure

    • B.

      Decrease in heart rate

    • C.

      Dreams are consolidated

    • D.

      Decrease in peripheral vascular tone

    Correct Answer
    C. Dreams are consolidated
    Explanation
    During non-REM sleep, dreams are not consolidated. Non-REM sleep is characterized by a decrease in brain activity and is typically dreamless. Dreaming usually occurs during REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, which is a different stage of sleep. Therefore, the statement "dreams are consolidated" is false in relation to non-REM sleep.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is considered as a sleeping center:

    • A.

      Locus ceruleus

    • B.

      Anterior hypothalamus

    • C.

      Posterior hypothalamus

    • D.

      Basal forebrain

    Correct Answer
    B. Anterior hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The anterior hypothalamus is considered as a sleeping center. It plays a crucial role in regulating sleep-wake cycles and promoting sleep. Damage to this area can lead to insomnia or other sleep disorders. The anterior hypothalamus contains neurons that release the neurotransmitter GABA, which inhibits wake-promoting neurons in the brain. This inhibition helps to initiate and maintain sleep. Additionally, the anterior hypothalamus receives input from other sleep-regulating regions of the brain, such as the suprachiasmatic nucleus, further contributing to its role as a sleeping center.

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  • 8. 

    Regarding sleep wake cycle, which is true:

    • A.

      Near the morning, REM is decreased in duration

    • B.

      REM is followed by stage 2 Non-REM

    • C.

      REM durationnear morning is longer than that of Non-REM

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. REM is followed by stage 2 Non-REM
    Explanation
    During the sleep-wake cycle, REM (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep is followed by stage 2 Non-REM sleep. This means that after the initial period of REM sleep, the individual transitions into stage 2 Non-REM sleep. This pattern repeats throughout the night, with multiple cycles of REM and Non-REM sleep. The statement "REM is followed by stage 2 Non-REM" accurately describes this sequence in the sleep-wake cycle.

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  • 9. 

    The following is the most accepted explanation of the physiology of REM stage:

    • A.

      GABA relase

    • B.

      Histamine release

    • C.

      Acetyl choline release

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Acetyl choline release
    Explanation
    During REM (Rapid Eye Movement) stage of sleep, the most accepted explanation is that there is an increase in the release of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in regulating various brain functions, including arousal, attention, and memory. Its release during REM sleep is believed to be responsible for the activation of the brain and the occurrence of vivid dreaming. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and histamine are also involved in sleep regulation, but they are not specifically associated with the physiology of REM stage.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is true regarding thalamus function:

    • A.

      It recieves sensation from same side limb

    • B.

      ILN is concerned with motor function of thalamus

    • C.

      Arousal is the function post-ventral nucleus

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    The given answer "None of the above" is correct because none of the statements provided accurately describe the functions of the thalamus. The thalamus does not solely receive sensation from the same side limb, as it receives sensory information from both sides of the body. ILN (Intralaminar Nuclei) is not specifically concerned with the motor function of the thalamus, as it has a more general role in regulating consciousness and attention. Arousal is not solely the function of the post-ventral nucleus, as multiple thalamic nuclei contribute to arousal and wakefulness. Therefore, none of the statements are true regarding thalamus function.

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