Can You Pass This Hardest Physiology Exam? Trivia Quiz

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Can You Pass This Hardest Physiology Exam? Trivia Quiz - Quiz

The final exams have been known to scare a lot of student into failing, and this fear can easily be overcome by someone having as much practice as they can on a subject. Are you preparing for your final Physiology exam? Then take this Physiology quiz.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Smooth muscle is an example of a(n) ______ in the human body.

    • A.

      Chemical

    • B.

      Cell

    • C.

      Tissue

    • D.

      Organ

    • E.

      Organ System

    Correct Answer
    C. Tissue
    Explanation
    Smooth muscle is an example of a tissue in the human body. Tissues are groups of specialized cells that work together to perform a specific function. Smooth muscle tissue is found in the walls of organs and structures like the digestive tract, blood vessels, and respiratory system. It is responsible for involuntary movements and contractions, allowing these organs to function properly.

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  • 2. 

    Neurons are considered to be ______ tissue. 

    • A.

      Connective

    • B.

      Endocrine

    • C.

      Epithelial

    • D.

      Muscle

    • E.

      Nervous

    Correct Answer
    E. Nervous
    Explanation
    Neurons are considered to be nervous tissue because they are the primary functional units of the nervous system. Neurons are specialized cells that transmit electrical and chemical signals throughout the body, allowing for communication between different parts of the body and the brain. Nervous tissue is responsible for processing and transmitting information, coordinating body functions, and enabling sensory perception, making it the correct classification for neurons.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following tissue types is found in the stomach?

    • A.

      Connective

    • B.

      Epithelial

    • C.

      Muscle

    • D.

      Nervous

    • E.

      All of the above tissues are found in the stomach

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above tissues are found in the stomach
    Explanation
    All of the above tissues are found in the stomach because the stomach is a complex organ that performs various functions. Connective tissue provides support and structure to the stomach, epithelial tissue lines the inner surface of the stomach and helps with absorption and secretion, muscle tissue allows for the contraction and movement of the stomach, and nervous tissue enables communication and control of the stomach's functions. Therefore, all of these tissue types are present in the stomach.

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  • 4. 

    Production and release of hormones is the main function of the __________ system.

    • A.

      Circulatory

    • B.

      Digestive

    • C.

      Endocrine

    • D.

      Integumentary

    • E.

      Skeletal

    Correct Answer
    C. Endocrine
    Explanation
    The endocrine system is responsible for the production and release of hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate various bodily functions and processes, such as growth, metabolism, sexual development, and mood. The endocrine system includes glands such as the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and reproductive glands. These glands secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, where they are transported to target cells or organs to exert their effects. Therefore, the endocrine system is vital for maintaining overall homeostasis and coordinating the activities of different body systems.

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  • 5. 

    Plasma is:

    • A.

      Intracellular fluid found in red blood cells.

    • B.

      Interstitial fluid that surrounds tissue cells.

    • C.

      Extracellular fluid that is within the circulatory system.

    • D.

      Intracellular fluid found in white blood cells.

    • E.

      Interstitial fluid found in lymphatic vessels.

    Correct Answer
    C. Extracellular fluid that is within the circulatory system.
    Explanation
    Plasma is the extracellular fluid that is within the circulatory system. It is the liquid component of blood that carries various substances such as nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. It is distinct from intracellular fluid, which is found inside cells, and interstitial fluid, which surrounds tissue cells. Plasma is mainly composed of water, electrolytes, proteins, and other molecules necessary for maintaining homeostasis and supporting bodily functions.

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  • 6. 

    The hormone glucagon causes the release of of glucose (sugar) from body cells into the bloodstream. Its secretion is controlled by a negative-feedback system between the concentration of glucose in the blood and the glucagon-secreting cells in the pancreas. Therefore, which of the following statements is correct?

    • A.

      A decrease in blood glucose concentration stimulates glucagon secretion, which in turn further lowers the blood glucose concentration.

    • B.

      An increase in blood glucose concentration stimulates glucagon secretion, which in turn lowers the blood glucose concentration.

    • C.

      A decrease in blood glucose concentration stimulates glucagon secretion, which in turn increases the blood glucose concentration.

    • D.

      An increase in blood glucose concentration inhibits glucagons secretion, which further increases the blood glucose concentration.

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. A decrease in blood glucose concentration stimulates glucagon secretion, which in turn increases the blood glucose concentration.
    Explanation
    A decrease in blood glucose concentration stimulates glucagon secretion, which in turn increases the blood glucose concentration. This is because when blood glucose levels are low, the pancreas releases glucagon, which signals the liver to break down glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream. This raises blood glucose levels back to normal.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is an example of negative feedback?

    • A.

      If body temperature increases above normal, thermoreceptors in the hypothalamus send signals to the brain. Certain areas of the brain then send signals to the nerves that control the sweat glands and blood vessels near the surface of the skin to make the sweat rate increase and surface blood vessels increase in diameter, which in turn reduces body temperature.

    • B.

      If blood pressure increases above normal, baroreceptors in major arteries detect the change and send signals to the brain. Certain areas of the brain then send signals to the nerves that control the heart and blood vessels to make the heart beat slower and the blood vessels increase in diameter, which in turn reduce the blood pressure.

    • C.

      If blood osmolarity increases above normal, osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect the change and cause the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary. ADH causes the kidneys to retain water as well as increase thirst which in turn decreases the blood osmolarity.

    • D.

      If body temperature decreases below normal, thermoreceptors in the hypothalamus send signals to the brain. Certain areas of the brain then send signals to the nerves that control the major skeletal muscles and blood vessels near the surface of the skin to bring about shivering and surface blood vessels decrease in diameter, which in turn increases body temperature.

    • E.

      All of the above are examples of negative feedback.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above are examples of negative feedback.
    Explanation
    All of the given scenarios describe negative feedback mechanisms. In each case, a change in a particular physiological parameter (body temperature, blood pressure, blood osmolarity) is detected by specific receptors (thermoreceptors, baroreceptors, osmoreceptors) and signals are sent to the brain. The brain then initiates a series of responses that counteract the initial change and bring the parameter back to its normal range. This process helps maintain homeostasis in the body by regulating various physiological processes.

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  • 8. 

    The nucleus:

    • A.

      Is enclosed in a double-layered nuclear envelope.

    • B.

      Contains our genetic code or DNA.

    • C.

      Is the site of ribosome assembly.

    • D.

      Ultimately directs protein synthesis and cell replication.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above". The nucleus is enclosed in a double-layered nuclear envelope, which separates it from the cytoplasm. It contains our genetic code or DNA, which carries the instructions for protein synthesis and cell replication. Additionally, the nucleus is the site of ribosome assembly, where ribosomes, the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis, are formed. Therefore, all of the given statements are true regarding the nucleus.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following statements is False about the plasma membrane.

    • A.

      All cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane.

    • B.

      Plasma membranes separates interstitial fluid from extracellular fluid.

    • C.

      Plasma membranes are made up of phospholipid bilayers.

    • D.

      Plasma membranes are only permeable to hydrophilic substances like sodium.

    • E.

      Plasma membranes are freely permeable to hydrophobic substances like oxygen.

    Correct Answer
    D. Plasma membranes are only permeable to hydrophilic substances like sodium.
    Explanation
    Plasma membranes are not only permeable to hydrophilic substances like sodium, but they are also permeable to hydrophobic substances like oxygen. The phospholipid bilayers that make up the plasma membrane have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails, creating a selectively permeable barrier that allows for the passage of both types of substances.

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  • 10. 

    The ________ is an organelle that contains ribosomes and is the site of synthesis of secretory proteins.

    • A.

      Rough ER

    • B.

      Smooth ER

    • C.

      Golgi complex

    • D.

      Lysosomes

    • E.

      Peroxisomes

    Correct Answer
    A. Rough ER
    Explanation
    The rough ER is an organelle that contains ribosomes and is responsible for the synthesis of secretory proteins. The ribosomes on the rough ER's surface allow for the attachment of mRNA, which is then translated into proteins. These proteins are then modified and packaged for secretion or transport to other parts of the cell. The rough ER plays a crucial role in protein synthesis and secretion within the cell.

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  • 11. 

    For protein synthesis messenger or mRNA

    • A.

      Codes for a new amino acid every three nucleotides.

    • B.

      Brings the proper amino acids to the ribosomes.

    • C.

      Catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between the amino acids.

    Correct Answer
    A. Codes for a new amino acid every three nucleotides.
    Explanation
    Messenger RNA (mRNA) is responsible for carrying the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes during protein synthesis. It acts as a template for protein synthesis by coding for a new amino acid every three nucleotides. This process is known as the genetic code, where each set of three nucleotides, called a codon, corresponds to a specific amino acid. Therefore, the correct answer is that mRNA codes for a new amino acid every three nucleotides.

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  • 12. 

    For protein synthesis Ribosomes:

    • A.

      Codes for a new amino acid every three nucleotides.

    • B.

      Brings the proper amino acids to the ribosomes.

    • C.

      Catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between the amino acids.

    Correct Answer
    C. Catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between the amino acids.
    Explanation
    Ribosomes are cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis. They play a crucial role in the process of translating genetic information from RNA into a specific sequence of amino acids to form a protein.

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  • 13. 

    For protein synthesis transfer or tRNA:

    • A.

      Codes for a new amino acid every three nucleotides.

    • B.

      Brings the proper amino acids to the ribosomes.

    • C.

      Catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between the amino acids.

    Correct Answer
    C. Catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between the amino acids.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that tRNA molecules catalyze the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids. This means tRNA helps connect amino acids together to build a protein during protein synthesis.

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  • 14. 

    The ________ receives vesicles from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum containing proteins that need to be processed before being sent to their final destinations.

    • A.

      Lysosomes

    • B.

      Peroxisomes

    • C.

      Ribosomes

    • D.

      Mitochondria

    • E.

      Golgi complex

    Correct Answer
    E. Golgi complex
    Explanation
    The Golgi complex receives vesicles from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum containing proteins that need to be processed before being sent to their final destinations. The Golgi complex modifies, sorts, and packages these proteins into vesicles for transport to their appropriate locations within the cell or for secretion outside of the cell. It plays a crucial role in protein trafficking and processing within the cell.

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  • 15. 

    ________ contain hydrolytic enzymes that break down worn out organelles and various macromolecules.

    • A.

      Peroxisomes

    • B.

      Lysosomes

    • C.

      Ribosomes

    • D.

      Mitochondria

    • E.

      Golgi complex

    Correct Answer
    B. Lysosomes
    Explanation
    Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes that break down worn out organelles and various macromolecules. These enzymes are able to break down complex molecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates into their smaller subunits. This process, known as hydrolysis, helps to recycle and eliminate cellular waste materials, ensuring the proper functioning and maintenance of the cell. Lysosomes also play a role in the digestion of engulfed foreign particles, such as bacteria or cellular debris, through a process called phagocytosis.

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  • 16. 

    The ________________ is where the majority of ATP is made in the cell.

    • A.

      Lysosomes

    • B.

      Peroxisomes

    • C.

      Ribosomes

    • D.

      Mitochondria

    • E.

      Golgi complex

    Correct Answer
    D. Mitochondria
    Explanation
    Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of the cell because they are responsible for producing the majority of ATP, which is the main source of energy for cellular processes. They have a highly specialized structure and contain enzymes and proteins that are involved in the process of cellular respiration. Through a series of chemical reactions, mitochondria convert nutrients into ATP, which can be used by the cell to carry out various functions. Therefore, the correct answer is mitochondria.

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  • 17. 

    _______ are ropelike permanent cytoskeleton elements that help anchor organelles.

    • A.

      Microtubules

    • B.

      Tubulin

    • C.

      Microfilaments

    • D.

      Intermediate filaments

    • E.

      Intermediate filigrees

    Correct Answer
    D. Intermediate filaments
    Explanation
    Intermediate filaments are ropelike permanent cytoskeleton elements that help anchor organelles. They are a type of structural protein that provide mechanical support and strength to cells. Unlike microtubules and microfilaments, intermediate filaments are more stable and less dynamic. They play a crucial role in maintaining cell shape and integrity, as well as organizing the internal structure of the cell. Tubulin is a protein that makes up microtubules, while microfilaments are composed of actin. Intermediate filigrees is not a recognized term in cell biology.

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  • 18. 

    ______ are adhering cell junctions found in tissues that undergo a lot of stretching, _____ are impermeable cell junctions frequently found in epithelial tissue, and ______ are communicating cell junctions found between cardiomyocytes in the heart.

    • A.

      Desmosomes : gap junctions : tight junctions

    • B.

      Desmosomes : tight junctions : gap junctions

    • C.

      Gap junctions : desmosomes : tight junctions

    • D.

      Gap junctions : tight junctions : desmosomes

    • E.

      Tight junctions : gap junctions : desmosomes

    Correct Answer
    B. Desmosomes : tight junctions : gap junctions
    Explanation
    Desmosomes are adhering cell junctions found in tissues that undergo a lot of stretching, such as skin or muscle tissue. Tight junctions are impermeable cell junctions frequently found in epithelial tissue, where they form a barrier that prevents substances from passing between cells. Gap junctions are communicating cell junctions found between cardiomyocytes in the heart, allowing for the rapid transmission of electrical signals between cells.

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  • 19. 

    ______ are the functional groups found on carbohydrates that make carbohydrates polar.

    • A.

      Amino

    • B.

      Carbonyl

    • C.

      Carbonxyl

    • D.

      Hydroxyl

    • E.

      Phosphate

    Correct Answer
    D. Hydroxyl
    Explanation
    Hydroxyl groups (-OH) are the functional groups found on carbohydrates that make them polar. These groups contain an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, resulting in a polar covalent bond. The electronegativity difference between oxygen and hydrogen creates a partial negative charge on the oxygen atom and a partial positive charge on the hydrogen atom. This polarity allows carbohydrates to form hydrogen bonds with other polar molecules, such as water, making them soluble in water and important for various biological functions.

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  • 20. 

    The breaking of a triglyceride into glycerol and three fatty acids is an example of a(n) __________ reaction where _______ is used and _______ is released.

    • A.

      Hydrolysis : water : energy

    • B.

      Hydrolysis : energy : water

    • C.

      Dehydration synthesis : water : energy

    • D.

      Dehydration synthesis : energy : water

    Correct Answer
    A. Hydrolysis : water : energy
    Explanation
    The breaking of a triglyceride into glycerol and three fatty acids is an example of a hydrolysis reaction because it involves the addition of water to break the bonds between the molecules. In this reaction, water is used as a reactant, and energy is released.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is a disaccharide?

    • A.

      Glycogen

    • B.

      Starch

    • C.

      Cellulose

    • D.

      Sucrose

    Correct Answer
    D. Sucrose
    Explanation
    Sucrose is a disaccharide because it is composed of two monosaccharides, glucose and fructose, bonded together by a glycosidic linkage. Disaccharides are a type of carbohydrate that consist of two sugar molecules joined together. Glycogen, starch, and cellulose are all polysaccharides, which are carbohydrates made up of many sugar molecules bonded together. Therefore, the correct answer is sucrose.

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  • 22. 

    _______ fat like vegetable oil is _______ at room temperature.

    • A.

      Saturated : liquid

    • B.

      Saturated : solid

    • C.

      Unsaturated : liquid

    • D.

      Unsaturated : solid

    • E.

      Polyunsaturated : liquid

    Correct Answer
    C. Unsaturated : liquid
    Explanation
    Unsaturated fats like vegetable oil are liquid at room temperature because they have double bonds in their chemical structure. These double bonds create kinks in the fatty acid chains, preventing them from packing tightly together. As a result, unsaturated fats have a lower melting point and remain in a liquid state at room temperature.

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  • 23. 

    ________ are hormones derived from cholesterol.

    • A.

      Phospholipids

    • B.

      Fatty acids

    • C.

      Eicosanoids

    • D.

      Steroids

    • E.

      Triglycerides

    Correct Answer
    D. Steroids
    Explanation
    Steroids are hormones derived from cholesterol. Cholesterol is a precursor molecule for the synthesis of various hormones, including steroids. Steroids are a class of hormones that play important roles in various physiological processes, such as regulating metabolism, inflammation, and reproduction. They are characterized by their structure, which includes a four-ring carbon structure derived from cholesterol. Therefore, steroids are the correct answer as they are the hormones derived from cholesterol.

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  • 24. 

    In the primary structure of a peptide or protein, the amino acids are held together by ________ which are a type of covalent bond.

    • A.

      Ionic bonds

    • B.

      Hydrogen bonds

    • C.

      Hydrophobic interactions

    • D.

      Peptide bonds

    • E.

      Van der Waals forces

    Correct Answer
    D. Peptide bonds
    Explanation
    In the primary structure of a peptide or protein, the amino acids are held together by peptide bonds, which are a type of covalent bond. Peptide bonds form between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid, resulting in the formation of a peptide chain. This covalent bond is essential for maintaining the linear sequence of amino acids in the protein or peptide, which ultimately determines its overall structure and function.

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  • 25. 

    When a protein denatures:

    • A.

      The peptide bonds holding the amino acids together have been broken.

    • B.

      The protein remains functional.

    • C.

      The protein unfolds losing its quaternary and tertiary structure.

    • D.

      Both (a) and (b)

    • E.

      Both (b) and (c)

    Correct Answer
    C. The protein unfolds losing its quaternary and tertiary structure.
    Explanation
    When a protein denatures, it loses its quaternary and tertiary structure. This means that the protein unfolds and the bonds holding the different subunits together and the bonds within the protein itself are disrupted. As a result, the protein loses its functional shape and can no longer perform its biological function. Therefore, the correct answer is that the protein unfolds losing its quaternary and tertiary structure.

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  • 26. 

    Enzymes:

    • A.

      Increase the amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur.

    • B.

      Tend to have many chemically dissimilar substrates.

    • C.

      Can only catalyze a chemical reaction once before needing to be remade.

    • D.

      Decrease the amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Decrease the amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur.
    Explanation
    Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions by decreasing the amount of energy required for the reaction to occur. They achieve this by lowering the activation energy, which is the energy needed to initiate the reaction. Enzymes accomplish this by binding to the reactant molecules, bringing them closer together and facilitating the formation of new bonds or the breaking of existing bonds. This allows the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. Therefore, the correct answer is that enzymes decrease the amount of energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur.

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  • 27. 

    Glycolysis occurs in the _______ and ______ require oxygen.

    • A.

      Mitochondria : does

    • B.

      Mitochondria : does not

    • C.

      Cytosol : does

    • D.

      Cytosol : does not

    • E.

      Nucleus : does

    Correct Answer
    D. Cytosol : does not
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the process of breaking down glucose into pyruvate in the cytosol of the cell. It is the first step in cellular respiration and does not require oxygen. Therefore, the correct answer is "cytosol: does not".

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  • 28. 

    If enough oxygen is not available our cells will convert _______ to ______ in order to regenerate __________.

    • A.

      Pyruvate : acetyl coA : NADH

    • B.

      Acetyl coA : pyruvate : NAD

    • C.

      Pyruvate : lactate : NAD

    • D.

      Lactate : pyruvate : NADH

    • E.

      Lactate : acetyl coA : NAD

    Correct Answer
    C. Pyruvate : lactate : NAD
    Explanation
    When there is not enough oxygen available, our cells undergo a process called anaerobic respiration. In this process, pyruvate, which is the end product of glycolysis, is converted to lactate. This conversion allows the regeneration of NAD, which is needed for glycolysis to continue producing ATP in the absence of oxygen. Therefore, the correct answer is pyruvate : lactate : NAD.

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  • 29. 

    The krebs cycle occurs in the _______.

    • A.

      Cytosol

    • B.

      Lysosome

    • C.

      Intermembrane space in the mitochondria

    • D.

      Mitochondrial matrix

    • E.

      Inner mitochondrial membrane

    Correct Answer
    D. Mitochondrial matrix
    Explanation
    The Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, is a series of chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria. Specifically, it takes place in the mitochondrial matrix, which is the innermost compartment of the mitochondria. This is where the enzymes and molecules involved in the cycle are located. The Krebs cycle plays a crucial role in cellular respiration by generating energy-rich molecules that are utilized in the production of ATP. Therefore, the correct answer is mitochondrial matrix.

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  • 30. 

    ______ is terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain and when it accepts electrons becomes _______.

    • A.

      Carbon dioxide : carbonic acid

    • B.

      Oxygen : water

    • C.

      Glucose : fructose

    • D.

      Glucose : fructose

    • E.

      Water : oxygen

    Correct Answer
    B. Oxygen : water
    Explanation
    In the electron transport chain, oxygen serves as the terminal electron acceptor. When oxygen accepts electrons, it combines with hydrogen ions to form water. This process is essential for the production of ATP, the energy currency of the cell.

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  • 31. 

    _________ is the transmembrane protein found on the inner mitochondrial membrane that allows protons into the _______ from the ______ in order to provide the energy needed to make ATP from ADP.

    • A.

      Proton pump I : intermembrane space : matrix

    • B.

      Proton pum III : intermembrane space : matrix

    • C.

      ATP synthase : matrix : intermembrane space

    • D.

      ATP synthase : intermembrane space : matrix

    • E.

      Co-enzyme Q : matrix : intermembrane space

    Correct Answer
    C. ATP synthase : matrix : intermembrane space
    Explanation
    ATP synthase is the transmembrane protein found on the inner mitochondrial membrane that allows protons into the matrix from the intermembrane space in order to provide the energy needed to make ATP from ADP.

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  • 32. 

    The brain can use which type(s) of molecules to make ATP?

    • A.

      Glucose

    • B.

      Fatty acids

    • C.

      Amino acids

    • D.

      Both (a) and (b)

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucose
    Explanation
    Glucose is the correct answer because it is the primary source of energy for the brain. The brain can use glucose molecules to produce ATP through the process of glycolysis and subsequent steps in cellular respiration. While fatty acids and amino acids can also be used as alternative energy sources, glucose is the preferred substrate for ATP production in the brain. Therefore, the brain can use glucose molecules to make ATP.

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  • 33. 

    The making of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors like amino acids or glycerol is called:

    • A.

      Glycogenolysis

    • B.

      Glycolysis

    • C.

      Gluconeogenesis

    • D.

      Glycogen syynthesis

    • E.

      Peptide synthesis

    Correct Answer
    C. Gluconeogenesis
    Explanation
    Gluconeogenesis is the process of synthesizing glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors such as amino acids or glycerol. It is an important metabolic pathway that occurs mainly in the liver and kidneys. During times of low glucose availability, gluconeogenesis helps maintain blood glucose levels by producing glucose from alternative sources. This process is essential for supplying glucose to the brain, red blood cells, and other glucose-dependent tissues. Glycogenolysis, on the other hand, is the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, while glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate. Glycogen synthesis involves the formation of glycogen from glucose molecules, and peptide synthesis refers to the formation of peptides from amino acids.

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  • 34. 

    Plasma membranes are made up of lipid bilayers that spontaneously form due to the amphipathic nature of ________.

    • A.

      Cholesterol

    • B.

      Triglycerides

    • C.

      Phospholipids

    • D.

      ATP

    • E.

      Cytoskeleton

    Correct Answer
    C. Phospholipids
    Explanation
    The correct answer is phospholipids because they have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. This amphipathic nature allows them to spontaneously form lipid bilayers, which make up the plasma membrane. Cholesterol, triglycerides, ATP, and cytoskeleton do not have the same amphipathic properties as phospholipids and therefore cannot form lipid bilayers.

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  • 35. 

    Proteins in or associated with the plasma membrane:

    • A.

      May serve as receptors.

    • B.

      May serve as membrane-bound enzymes.

    • C.

      May serve as channels.

    • D.

      May serve as cell adhesion molecules.

    • E.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above.
    Explanation
    Proteins in or associated with the plasma membrane can serve as receptors, allowing the cell to respond to signals from the environment. They can also act as membrane-bound enzymes, catalyzing reactions on the cell surface. Additionally, these proteins can function as channels, allowing the selective passage of ions and molecules across the membrane. Finally, they may serve as cell adhesion molecules, helping cells adhere to each other and to the extracellular matrix. Therefore, all of the given options are correct, as proteins in or associated with the plasma membrane can perform all of these functions.

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  • 36. 

    The anions that give the interior of cells their negative charge are ______?

    • A.

      Sodium

    • B.

      Potassium

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Carbohydrates

    • E.

      Lipids

    Correct Answer
    C. Proteins
    Explanation
    Proteins give the interior of cells their negative charge because they contain negatively charged amino acids. These amino acids have side chains that can ionize and release hydrogen ions, resulting in a negative charge. Additionally, proteins are involved in various cellular processes and play a crucial role in maintaining the overall charge balance within cells. Sodium and potassium ions, on the other hand, are positively charged and contribute to the overall positive charge of the cell exterior. Carbohydrates and lipids do not play a significant role in determining the negative charge of the cell interior.

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  • 37. 

    Potassium:

    • A.

      Is negatively charged

    • B.

      Is positively charged

    • C.

      Is in higher concentration inside the cell

    • D.

      Both (a) and (c)

    • E.

      Both (b) and (c)

    Correct Answer
    E. Both (b) and (c)
    Explanation
    Potassium ions (K+) are positively charged and are found in higher concentration inside the cell compared to outside. Therefore, the correct answer is both (b) and (c).

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  • 38. 

    Sodium:

    • A.

      Is negatively charged

    • B.

      Is positively charged

    • C.

      Is in higher concentration inside the cell

    • D.

      Both (a) and (c)

    • E.

      Both (b) and (c)

    Correct Answer
    B. Is positively charged
    Explanation
    Sodium is positively charged because it is an ion with a positive charge. It has lost one electron, resulting in a positive charge. Additionally, sodium is also in higher concentration inside the cell, which is another characteristic of sodium. Therefore, the correct answer is "both (b) and (c)".

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  • 39. 

    Potassium’s electrical gradient:

    • A.

      Opposes its chemical gradient.

    • B.

      Is toward the outside of the cell.

    • C.

      Is greater than its chemical gradient.

    • D.

      Leads potassium to leave the cell.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Opposes its chemical gradient.
    Explanation
    The electrical gradient of potassium opposes its chemical gradient. This means that the movement of potassium ions across the cell membrane is driven by both the concentration gradient and the electrical potential difference. However, in this case, the electrical gradient acts in the opposite direction to the chemical gradient, causing potassium ions to move against their concentration gradient and potentially leave the cell.

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  • 40. 

    At rest cells:

    • A.

      Are permeable to sodium

    • B.

      Have less potassium in their intracellular fluid than the extracellular fluid.

    • C.

      Have less sodium in their intracellular fluid than the extracellular fluid.

    • D.

      Have a net positive charge to their interiors.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Have less sodium in their intracellular fluid than the extracellular fluid.
    Explanation
    At rest, cells have less sodium in their intracellular fluid than the extracellular fluid. This is because the cell membrane contains sodium-potassium pumps that actively transport sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell, resulting in a higher concentration of potassium inside the cell and a lower concentration of sodium inside the cell compared to the extracellular fluid. This difference in ion concentrations creates an electrochemical gradient that is important for various cellular processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following substances is MOST likely to passively diffuse across the plasma membrane by dissolving in the membrane?

    • A.

      A cation like potassium

    • B.

      An anion like chloride

    • C.

      A nonpolar molecule like oxygen

    • D.

      A polar molecule like glucose

    • E.

      A large polar molecule like albumin

    Correct Answer
    C. A nonpolar molecule like oxygen
    Explanation
    Nonpolar molecules, such as oxygen, are most likely to passively diffuse across the plasma membrane by dissolving in the membrane. This is because the plasma membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which is made up of hydrophobic tails that repel polar molecules. Nonpolar molecules can easily dissolve in the hydrophobic region of the membrane and diffuse across it without the need for any energy or assistance from transport proteins.

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  • 42. 

    Increasing the ________ would decrease the diffusion rate of oxygen.

    • A.

      Concentration gradient

    • B.

      Permeability of the membrane

    • C.

      Surface area of the membrane

    • D.

      Diffusion distance

    • E.

      All of the above would decrease the diffusion rate of oxygen.

    Correct Answer
    D. Diffusion distance
    Explanation
    Increasing the diffusion distance would decrease the diffusion rate of oxygen because a greater distance that the oxygen molecules have to travel would slow down the rate at which they can diffuse across the membrane. As the distance increases, it becomes more difficult for the oxygen molecules to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration, resulting in a slower diffusion rate.

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  • 43. 

    The process of water diffusing down its concentration gradient is called:

    • A.

      Primary active transport

    • B.

      Phagocytosis

    • C.

      Osmosis

    • D.

      Pinocytosis

    • E.

      Secondary active transport

    Correct Answer
    C. Osmosis
    Explanation
    Osmosis is the process of water diffusing down its concentration gradient. It occurs when water molecules move from an area of higher water concentration (lower solute concentration) to an area of lower water concentration (higher solute concentration) through a selectively permeable membrane. This movement of water helps to equalize the concentration of solutes on both sides of the membrane. Osmosis is a passive process and does not require energy expenditure by the cell.

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  • 44. 

    A(n) ______ solution would make your red blood cells shrink.

    • A.

      Hypotonic

    • B.

      Hypertonic

    • C.

      Isotonic

    • D.

      Isometric

    • E.

      Hypoplasia

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypertonic
    Explanation
    A hypertonic solution has a higher concentration of solutes compared to the red blood cells. When red blood cells are placed in a hypertonic solution, water molecules move out of the cells through osmosis, causing the cells to shrink.

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  • 45. 

    The concentration of glucose in enterocytes (epithelial cells lining the small intestine) is higher than the concentration of glucose in the blood stream. Glucose is transported by ________ when it is transported into the bloodstream from enterocytes.

    • A.

      Primary active transport.

    • B.

      Secondary active transport.

    • C.

      Facilitated diffusion

    • D.

      Simple diffusion

    • E.

      Osmosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Facilitated diffusion
    Explanation
    Facilitated diffusion is the process by which molecules, such as glucose, are transported across a cell membrane with the help of transport proteins. In this case, the concentration of glucose is higher in the enterocytes than in the blood stream, suggesting that glucose needs to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Facilitated diffusion allows glucose to passively move down its concentration gradient, from the enterocytes into the bloodstream, without requiring energy input.

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  • 46. 

    The sodium potassium pump or ATPase that pumps 3 sodium out of the cell for every 2 potassium it pumps in is a form of:

    • A.

      Primary active transport.

    • B.

      Secondary active transport.

    • C.

      Facilitated diffusion

    • D.

      Simple diffusion

    • E.

      Osmosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Primary active transport.
    Explanation
    The sodium-potassium pump is a form of primary active transport because it uses ATP energy to actively transport ions against their concentration gradient. It pumps 3 sodium ions out of the cell for every 2 potassium ions it pumps in, maintaining the concentration gradient and electrical potential across the cell membrane. This process requires energy and is essential for various cellular functions, such as nerve impulses and muscle contractions.

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  • 47. 

    The concentration of glucose in the lumen of the intestine is lower than the concentration of glucose in the enterocytes (epithelial cells lining the small intestine), if the sodium potassium pump is inhibited by the drug phloridzin then no glucose is absorbed into the enterocytes. Therefore glucose is transported by ________ when it is absorbed into enterocytes from the intestine.

    • A.

      Primary active transport

    • B.

      Secondary active transport

    • C.

      Facilitated diffusion

    • D.

      Simple diffusion

    • E.

      Osmosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Secondary active transport
    Explanation
    When the sodium potassium pump is inhibited, the concentration of sodium inside the enterocytes increases. This creates a concentration gradient, as the concentration of sodium is now higher inside the enterocytes compared to the lumen of the intestine. Glucose is then transported into the enterocytes against its concentration gradient, utilizing the energy from the sodium concentration gradient. This type of transport, where the movement of one molecule is coupled to the movement of another molecule down its concentration gradient, is known as secondary active transport. Therefore, glucose is transported by secondary active transport when it is absorbed into enterocytes from the intestine.

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  • 48. 

    Vesicular transport is the process by which cells bring in or release large amounts of solutes or large particles. Which of the following is the vesicular transport method that neurons use to release large amounts of neurotransmitters at once?

    • A.

      Exocytosis

    • B.

      Phagocytosis

    • C.

      Pinocytosis

    • D.

      Receptor-mediated endocytosis

    • E.

      Receptor-mediated exocytosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Exocytosis
    Explanation
    Exocytosis is the correct answer because it is the vesicular transport method that neurons use to release large amounts of neurotransmitters at once. In exocytosis, neurotransmitter-containing vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space. This allows for the rapid and efficient release of neurotransmitters, which are essential for communication between neurons. Phagocytosis and pinocytosis are processes by which cells internalize solid particles and fluids, respectively, and are not specific to neurotransmitter release. Receptor-mediated endocytosis and receptor-mediated exocytosis involve the specific binding of ligands to cell surface receptors, but they are not the primary mechanisms for neurotransmitter release in neurons.

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  • 49. 

    Vesicular transport is the process by which cells bring in or release large amounts of solutes or large particles. Which of the following is the vesicular transport method that white blood cells would use to engulf a bacterial cell?

    • A.

      Exocytosis

    • B.

      Phagocytosis

    • C.

      Pinocytosis

    • D.

      Receptor-mediated endocytosis

    • E.

      Receptor-mediated exocytosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Phagocytosis
    Explanation
    White blood cells use phagocytosis to engulf and destroy bacterial cells. Phagocytosis is a type of vesicular transport where the cell membrane surrounds and engulfs the particle or microorganism, forming a phagosome. The phagosome then fuses with lysosomes, which contain enzymes that can break down the engulfed material. This process allows white blood cells to eliminate pathogens and foreign particles from the body.

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  • 50. 

    This exam:

    • A.

      Was too hard

    • B.

      Was just right

    • C.

      Was too easy

    Correct Answer
    B. Was just right
    Explanation
    The exam being described as "just right" suggests that it was neither too difficult nor too easy. It implies that the level of difficulty was appropriate and balanced, allowing the test takers to demonstrate their knowledge and skills effectively.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Sep 12, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 23, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Jondahl5
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