Pharm Lect 3 - Pharmacotherapeutics

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Pharm Lect 3 - Pharmacotherapeutics - Quiz

Quiz based on PPP for Pharm Lecture 3 - Pharmacotherapeutics- Routes of administration


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which is not a part of Drug monitoring?

    • A.

      Evaluating the effectiveness of a drug

    • B.

      Knowing beneficial effects and side effects

    • C.

      Educating the patient about how to take medication and why it is prescribed

    • D.

      Observing any adverse drug effects

    • E.

      Making adjustments as needed

    Correct Answer
    C. Educating the patient about how to take medication and why it is prescribed
    Explanation
    drug treatment-educating the patient about how to take medication and why it is prescribed

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  • 2. 

    Ratio between a drugs therapeutics benefits and its toxic effects

    • A.

      Therapeutic index

    • B.

      Tolerance

    • C.

      Dependence

    Correct Answer
    A. Therapeutic index
    Explanation
    The therapeutic index refers to the ratio between a drug's therapeutic benefits and its toxic effects. It is a measure of the safety and effectiveness of a drug. A higher therapeutic index indicates that the drug has a greater margin of safety and is less likely to cause harmful side effects. On the other hand, a lower therapeutic index suggests that the drug has a narrower margin of safety and may pose a higher risk of toxic effects. Therefore, the therapeutic index is an important consideration in determining the appropriate dosage and usage of a drug.

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  • 3. 

    A decreasing response to repetitive drug doses

    • A.

      Therapeutic index

    • B.

      Tolerance

    • C.

      Dependence

    Correct Answer
    B. Tolerance
    Explanation
    Tolerance refers to a decreasing response to repetitive drug doses. It occurs when the body becomes less responsive to the effects of a drug over time, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect. This can be due to various factors such as the body's ability to metabolize the drug more efficiently or the downregulation of drug receptors. Tolerance can be a concern in terms of drug effectiveness and can lead to the need for higher doses, potentially increasing the risk of adverse effects.

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  • 4. 

    A physiological need for a drug

    • A.

      Therapeutic index

    • B.

      Tolerance

    • C.

      Dependence

    Correct Answer
    C. Dependence
    Explanation
    Dependence refers to a state where an individual develops a physical or psychological need for a drug. It occurs when the body adapts to the presence of the drug and requires it to function normally. Dependence is characterized by withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued, and the individual may feel compelled to continue using the drug to avoid these symptoms. This is different from tolerance, which is the body's reduced response to a drug over time, and the therapeutic index, which is a measure of a drug's safety and effectiveness.

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  • 5. 

    Adverse drug events are any unexpected drug reaction that is not desired that occurs with a normal therapeutic dose and is not preventable

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    adverse drug events are from human error and are preventable
    adverse drug reactions are unexpected and not preventable

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  • 6. 

    Which is not an adverse drug reaction

    • A.

      Idiosyncratic

    • B.

      Hypersensitivity

    • C.

      Drug/drug interaction

    • D.

      Hyposensitivity

    • E.

      Drug/food interactions

    Correct Answer
    D. Hyposensitivity
    Explanation
    Hyposensitivity refers to a decreased or inadequate response to a drug, which is not considered an adverse drug reaction. Adverse drug reactions typically involve unwanted or harmful effects caused by a drug, such as idiosyncratic reactions (unpredictable reactions), hypersensitivity reactions (excessive immune response), or drug/drug interactions (interactions between different drugs). However, hyposensitivity does not fit into this category as it does not involve a negative or harmful response to a drug.

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  • 7. 

    Drug interactions- additive effect enhances other drug

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    additive effect makes both drugs more potent that by itself, synergistic makes one drug more potent

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  • 8. 

    Unintentional adverse effects that are treatment induced

    • A.

      Side effects

    • B.

      Drug interactions

    • C.

      Iatrogenic responses

    Correct Answer
    C. Iatrogenic responses
    Explanation
    side effects- are well known and expected

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  • 9. 

    Drug form determines whether a drug action is local or systemic; it influences rate of dissolution and absorption

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the drug form, such as tablet, capsule, or injection, plays a crucial role in determining whether the drug action will be local or systemic. For example, a topical cream is designed to act locally on the skin, while an oral tablet is meant to be absorbed into the bloodstream and have a systemic effect throughout the body. Additionally, the drug form also affects the rate at which the drug dissolves and is absorbed by the body, further influencing its action.

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  • 10. 

    Lozenges(troches) is considered a solid dosage form

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Lozenges, also known as troches, are considered a solid dosage form because they are solid preparations that are intended to be dissolved slowly in the mouth. They are typically used for the local treatment of conditions in the mouth and throat, such as sore throat or cough. Lozenges are made by combining active ingredients with a solid base, such as sugar or gelatin, and they are designed to slowly release the medication as they dissolve in the mouth. Therefore, the statement that lozenges are considered a solid dosage form is true.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following does not describe tablets

    • A.

      Compressed powders that dissolve when wet

    • B.

      May be enteric-coated or buffer coated to prevent stomach irritation

    • C.

      May be sugar coated to taste better

    • D.

      Only buffered or enteric-coated tablets or spansules should be cut or crushed

    Correct Answer
    D. Only buffered or enteric-coated tablets or spansules should be cut or crushed
    Explanation
    only scored tables can be cut in half using a pill cutter
    buffered or enteric coated ones should never be crushed or dissolved

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  • 12. 

    Which is used as a substance that dissolves a drug?

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Oils

    • C.

      Alcohol

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the substances mentioned (water, oils, and alcohol) can be used as solvents to dissolve drugs. Water is a commonly used solvent due to its availability and ability to dissolve many types of drugs. Oils are often used for drugs that are not soluble in water, as they can dissolve lipophilic compounds. Alcohol, such as ethanol, is another common solvent used for dissolving drugs, particularly those that are not soluble in water but are soluble in alcohol. Therefore, all of the above substances can be used as solvents to dissolve drugs.

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  • 13. 

    Drug substances in homogenous mixture with a liquid

    • A.

      Solutions

    • B.

      Aromatic waters

    • C.

      Suspensions

    • D.

      Emulsions

    • E.

      Syrups

    Correct Answer
    A. Solutions
    Explanation
    The correct answer is solutions. Solutions are formed when drug substances are mixed homogeneously with a liquid, resulting in a clear and uniform mixture. In solutions, the drug particles are dissolved at a molecular level, making them readily available for absorption by the body. Aromatic waters, suspensions, emulsions, and syrups may contain drug substances, but they do not necessarily form a homogeneous mixture with a liquid like solutions do.

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  • 14. 

    Aqueous solutions containing volatile oils( oil of spearmint, peppermint, or clove)

    • A.

      Solution

    • B.

      Aromatic waters

    • C.

      Emulsions

    • D.

      Liquors

    Correct Answer
    B. Aromatic waters
    Explanation
    Aromatic waters are aqueous solutions that contain volatile oils, such as oil of spearmint, peppermint, or clove. These oils are known for their strong aromatic properties and are often used in perfumes, cosmetics, and flavorings. Aromatic waters are created by distilling these oils with water, resulting in a solution that has a pleasant scent and can be used for various purposes. Therefore, the given answer "aromatic waters" is the correct choice for the type of solution that contains volatile oils.

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  • 15. 

    Liquid drug with alcohol as the solute

    • A.

      Solutions

    • B.

      Aromatic waters

    • C.

      Emulsions

    • D.

      Liquors

    Correct Answer
    D. Liquors
    Explanation
    Liquors are alcoholic beverages that consist of a liquid drug with alcohol as the solute. They are typically made by fermenting fruits, grains, or vegetables and then distilling the mixture to increase the alcohol content. Liquors are different from other types of solutions, such as aromatic waters and emulsions, as they specifically refer to alcoholic drinks. Therefore, the given answer "liquors" accurately describes a liquid drug with alcohol as the solute.

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  • 16. 

    Mixture of oil and water that improve taste of otherwise distasteful prodcts(cod liver oil)

    • A.

      Solutions

    • B.

      Emulsions

    • C.

      Aromatic waters

    • D.

      Suspensions

    Correct Answer
    B. Emulsions
    Explanation
    Emulsions are a type of mixture that consists of two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, stabilized by an emulsifying agent. In the case of cod liver oil, which is known for its unpleasant taste, emulsions can be used to improve the taste by dispersing the oil droplets throughout the water phase. This allows for a more palatable and homogeneous product, making it easier to consume. Therefore, emulsions are the most suitable answer as they best describe the mixture of oil and water that enhances the taste of otherwise distasteful products like cod liver oil.

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  • 17. 

    Insoluble drug contained in a liquid

    • A.

      Liquors

    • B.

      Suspensions

    • C.

      Syrups

    • D.

      Aromatic waters

    • E.

      Solutions

    Correct Answer
    B. Suspensions
    Explanation
    Suspensions are a type of liquid preparation in which insoluble drugs are dispersed in a liquid. Unlike solutions, suspensions contain undissolved particles that may settle over time and require shaking before use. Liquors, syrups, and aromatic waters are all types of liquid preparations, but they do not necessarily contain insoluble drugs. Therefore, suspensions are the most appropriate choice for an insoluble drug contained in a liquid.

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  • 18. 

    Solutions of sugar and water, usually flavoring and drug

    • A.

      Solutions

    • B.

      Aromatic waters

    • C.

      Syrups

    • D.

      Emulsions

    Correct Answer
    C. Syrups
    Explanation
    Syrups are solutions that typically consist of sugar and water, along with flavoring and sometimes drugs. They are commonly used as sweeteners or flavorings in various food and drink products. Syrups have a thick and viscous consistency, making them easy to pour and mix. They are often used in the preparation of beverages, desserts, and medicines. Syrups can be flavored with various ingredients such as fruits, herbs, or spices, and they can also be used to mask the taste of certain medications.

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  • 19. 

    Dosage form: Gels and Magmas are minerals suspended in alcohol, the minerals settle so these meds need to be shaken before use

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Gels and magmas are suspended in water

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  • 20. 

    Which is not one of the 3 major categories of drug routes

    • A.

      Enteral

    • B.

      Parenteral

    • C.

      Topical

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    The given answer, "none of the above," is correct because all three options - enteral, parenteral, and topical - are indeed major categories of drug routes. Enteral refers to drugs that are administered through the gastrointestinal tract, such as oral medications. Parenteral refers to drugs that are administered through non-oral routes, such as injections. Topical refers to drugs that are applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes. Therefore, none of the options listed are excluded from the major categories of drug routes.

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  • 21. 

    No single method of drug administration is ideal for all drugs in all circumstances

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Different drugs have different properties and characteristics, such as solubility, stability, and absorption rate. Therefore, no single method of drug administration can be universally suitable for all drugs in every situation. Factors such as the drug's chemical properties, desired therapeutic effect, target tissue, and patient's condition all play a role in determining the most appropriate method of drug administration. Thus, it is true that no single method of drug administration is ideal for all drugs in all circumstances.

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  • 22. 

    Routes of Administration: Drug is absorbed into systemic circulation through alimentary canal.  Drug placed directly into GI tract

    • A.

      Enteral

    • B.

      Parenteral

    • C.

      Topical

    Correct Answer
    A. Enteral
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "enteral." Enteral routes of administration involve the drug being absorbed into the systemic circulation through the alimentary canal, which includes the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This means that the drug is taken orally or through other methods that involve direct placement into the GI tract. Other options like parenteral involve routes that bypass the GI tract, such as injections, while topical routes involve applying the drug directly onto the skin.

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  • 23. 

    Needle and/or catheter required for administration

    • A.

      Enteral

    • B.

      Parenteral

    • C.

      Topical

    Correct Answer
    B. Parenteral
    Explanation
    Parenteral refers to a method of administering medication or other substances directly into the body, bypassing the digestive system. This can be done through injections, intravenous infusions, or other means. The term "needle and/or catheter required for administration" suggests that parenteral administration involves the use of a needle or catheter to deliver the substance into the body. Therefore, parenteral is the correct answer.

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  • 24. 

    Drug applied to skin or mucosa or inhaled

    • A.

      Enteral

    • B.

      Parenteral

    • C.

      Topical

    Correct Answer
    C. Topical
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "topical" because it refers to the administration of a drug onto the skin or mucous membranes, or through inhalation. This method allows the drug to act locally on the specific area of application, rather than being absorbed into the bloodstream and distributed throughout the body. Topical medications are commonly used for skin conditions, such as creams or ointments for rashes or infections, or nasal sprays for allergies.

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  • 25. 

    Which is not an enteral route

    • A.

      Sublingual

    • B.

      Rectal

    • C.

      Nasogatric tube/ feeding tube

    • D.

      Ears

    Correct Answer
    D. Ears
    Explanation
    The ears are not an enteral route because enteral routes involve the administration of substances directly into the gastrointestinal tract, bypassing the oral cavity. The sublingual route involves placing medication under the tongue, allowing it to be absorbed through the mucous membranes. The rectal route involves inserting medication into the rectum for absorption. The nasogastric tube/feeding tube route involves delivering medication or nutrition directly into the stomach via a tube inserted through the nose or mouth.

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  • 26. 

    Which is not an advantage of Sublingual Route of administration

    • A.

      Large doses

    • B.

      Avoids first pass effect

    • C.

      Convenient and portable

    • D.

      Rapid abosrption and drug stability

    Correct Answer
    A. Large doses
    Explanation
    The sublingual route of administration does not allow for large doses to be administered. This is because the area under the tongue, where the medication is placed, is limited in size and cannot accommodate large quantities of drugs. Therefore, the sublingual route is not advantageous for delivering large doses of medication.

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  • 27. 

    Which is not a disadvantage of Oral Route of Administration

    • A.

      Variable onset time

    • B.

      Pain free administrations

    • C.

      Cant use in unconscious patients

    • D.

      Subject to first pass

    Correct Answer
    B. Pain free administrations
    Explanation
    The given answer, "pain free administrations," is not a disadvantage of the oral route of administration. This route involves taking medications orally, such as swallowing pills or liquids. One of the advantages of this route is that it is generally painless, unlike other routes that may involve injections or invasive procedures. Therefore, pain-free administration cannot be considered a disadvantage of the oral route.

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  • 28. 

    Which is not an advantage of Rectal route of administration

    • A.

      Useful in unconscious patients

    • B.

      Useful in patients with nausea/vomiting or cannot swallow pills

    • C.

      Self administered

    • D.

      Variable absorption

    Correct Answer
    D. Variable absorption
    Explanation
    The rectal route of administration has several advantages, such as being useful in unconscious patients and in patients with nausea/vomiting or those who cannot swallow pills. Additionally, it can be self-administered. However, one disadvantage of this route is variable absorption, meaning that the absorption of the medication may vary from person to person.

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  • 29. 

    Which is not a parenteral route of administration

    • A.

      Subcutaneous

    • B.

      Vaginal

    • C.

      Intramuscular

    • D.

      Intravenous

    Correct Answer
    B. Vaginal
    Explanation
    Vaginal is not a parenteral route of administration because parenteral routes involve delivering medication directly into the bloodstream, bypassing the digestive system. Subcutaneous, intramuscular, and intravenous routes are all examples of parenteral routes as they involve injecting medication into the layers of skin, muscles, or veins, respectively. However, vaginal administration involves inserting medication into the vagina, which is not considered a parenteral route.

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  • 30. 

    Intravenous route of administration is the fastest delivery into the blood circulation

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The intravenous route of administration is considered the fastest delivery into the blood circulation because the medication or substance is directly injected into the veins, bypassing the digestive system and any potential barriers or delays. This allows for rapid absorption and immediate distribution throughout the body, resulting in a quicker onset of action compared to other routes of administration such as oral or topical.

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  • 31. 

    Drug is injected into subarachnoid space of spinal cord

    • A.

      Intraosseous

    • B.

      Intradermal

    • C.

      Intramuscular

    • D.

      Intrathecal

    Correct Answer
    D. Intrathecal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is intrathecal. Intrathecal administration refers to the injection of a drug into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord. This route allows the drug to directly reach the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord and brain, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. It is commonly used for the administration of anesthesia, chemotherapy drugs, and pain medications.

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  • 32. 

    Which is not true about Intravascular route of administration

    • A.

      Avoids first ass- 100% bioavailability, rapid onset

    • B.

      Cannot be self-administered

    • C.

      No pain of repeated injections

    • D.

      Risks of infection, embolus, extravasation, electrolyte imbalance, fluid overload

    • E.

      Only small doses can be given because of increased risks of adverse effects

    Correct Answer
    E. Only small doses can be given because of increased risks of adverse effects
    Explanation
    large doses can be given because dosing is more accurate

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  • 33. 

    Which is not true about IM route of administration

    • A.

      Can be done at deltoid, rectus femoris or vastus lateralis

    • B.

      Susceptible to first pass effect

    • C.

      Can be done at gluteus medius ( dorso/ventro gluteal)

    • D.

      Not convenient and portable, not easily self administered

    Correct Answer
    B. Susceptible to first pass effect
    Explanation
    The statement "susceptible to first pass effect" is not true about the IM (intramuscular) route of administration. The first pass effect refers to the metabolism of a drug that occurs in the liver before it reaches systemic circulation. However, with the IM route, the drug is directly injected into the muscle, bypassing the liver, and therefore, it is not susceptible to the first pass effect.

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  • 34. 

    IM drug administration should be done in the vastus lateralis of infants/young children and should not be done in the gluteals until after 1 full year of walking

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because intramuscular (IM) drug administration in infants and young children should be done in the vastus lateralis muscle, which is located in the thigh. The gluteal muscles, which are located in the buttocks, should not be used for IM injections until the child has been walking for at least one year. This is because the gluteal muscles are not fully developed and may not provide adequate absorption of the medication. Therefore, it is important to administer IM drugs in the appropriate muscle to ensure proper absorption and effectiveness of the medication.

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  • 35. 

    Which is not true about subQ route of administration

    • A.

      Wide selection of sites ( emergency administration of epinephrine anywhere)

    • B.

      Convenient and portable

    • C.

      Small amounts and limited number or meds appropriate

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    The statement "none of the above" is the correct answer because all of the statements mentioned about the subQ route of administration are true. The subQ route allows for a wide selection of sites for administration, making it convenient and portable. It is also suitable for administering small amounts and a limited number of medications. Therefore, none of the statements provided in the options are false about the subQ route of administration.

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  • 36. 

    Which route of administrations provides a wide field for allergy testing but  can only be used with a limited number of meds, in small amounts and has a painful administration 

    • A.

      Intradermal

    • B.

      Intramuscular

    • C.

      SubQ

    Correct Answer
    A. Intradermal
    Explanation
    Intradermal administration provides a wide field for allergy testing because it involves injecting the allergen just beneath the skin. This allows for a localized reaction to occur, indicating whether or not the person is allergic to the substance. However, intradermal administration can only be used with a limited number of medications and in small amounts. Additionally, it is known to be a painful method of administration, which may make it less desirable for some patients.

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  • 37. 

    Which is not true about topical routes of administration

    • A.

      Inaccurate dosing

    • B.

      Non-invasive and portable

    • C.

      Susceptible to first pass

    • D.

      Messy and sometimes malodorous

    Correct Answer
    C. Susceptible to first pass
    Explanation
    avoids first pass effect

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