Drugs That Affect Autonomic Nervous System! Trivia Quiz

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Drugs That Affect Autonomic Nervous System! Trivia Quiz - Quiz

The autonomic nervous system is a control system that is charged with the fight or flight mechanism or the body. This system is in charge of regulating involuntary body functions. How much do you understand how this system meets its functions? Take up the question below and get to see if you may need more revision time. All the best!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Pregangleonic neurons use:

    • A.

      Acetylcholine

    • B.

      Phenoxybenzamine

    • C.

      Epineherine

    • D.

      Norepinepherine

    Correct Answer
    A. Acetylcholine
    Explanation
    Preganglionic neurons use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine is released from the preganglionic neurons and binds to receptors on the postganglionic neurons, transmitting the signal from the central nervous system to the peripheral nervous system. This neurotransmitter is involved in various functions such as muscle contraction, autonomic nervous system regulation, and cognitive processes.

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  • 2. 

    Postgangleonic neurons consist of 2 divisions. What are they?

    • A.

      Cholinergic & Sympathetic Divisions

    • B.

      Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Divisions

    • C.

      Cholinergic & Autonomic Divisions

    • D.

      Parasympathetic & Adrenergic Divisions

    Correct Answer
    B. Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Divisions
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Divisions. Postganglionic neurons are part of the autonomic nervous system, which is responsible for regulating involuntary bodily functions. The autonomic nervous system is divided into two main divisions: the sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division. The sympathetic division is responsible for the "fight or flight" response, while the parasympathetic division is responsible for the "rest and digest" response. Therefore, the correct answer is Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Divisions.

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  • 3. 

    What receptors are involved in the Parasympathetic division?

    • A.

      Adrenergic Receptors

    • B.

      Ligand Gated Receptors

    • C.

      Cholinergic Receptors

    • D.

      Norepinepherine Receptors

    Correct Answer
    C. Cholinergic Receptors
    Explanation
    The parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is primarily involved in rest and digest activities. Cholinergic receptors are the receptors involved in this division. These receptors are activated by acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter released by the parasympathetic nerves. Activation of cholinergic receptors leads to various responses such as slowing of heart rate, constriction of pupils, and increased digestive activity. Adrenergic receptors, on the other hand, are involved in the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. They are activated by norepinephrine, which is released by sympathetic nerves.

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  • 4. 

    Adrenergic receptors are associated with...

    • A.

      Acetylcholine

    • B.

      Sympathetic Division

    • C.

      Parasympathetic Division

    • D.

      Pregangleonic Neurons

    Correct Answer
    B. Sympathetic Division
    Explanation
    Adrenergic receptors are associated with the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. The sympathetic division is responsible for the fight-or-flight response, which prepares the body for intense physical activity or stress. Adrenergic receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which is released by sympathetic neurons. These receptors play a role in increasing heart rate, constricting blood vessels, and mobilizing energy stores, among other effects. Therefore, the correct answer is the sympathetic division.

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  • 5. 

    Where are Muscarinic receptors found?

    • A.

      Liver

    • B.

      Smooth Muscle

    • C.

      Autonomic Ganglia

    • D.

      Neuromuscular Junction

    Correct Answer
    B. Smooth Muscle
    Explanation
    Muscarinic receptors are found in smooth muscle. Muscarinic receptors are a type of acetylcholine receptor that is activated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. These receptors are primarily located in smooth muscle tissues, which are found in various organs such as the digestive system, respiratory system, and urinary system. Activation of muscarinic receptors in smooth muscle leads to smooth muscle contraction, which plays a crucial role in various physiological processes such as digestion, respiration, and bladder control.

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  • 6. 

    The 2 types of cholinergic receptors are:

    • A.

      Nicotinic and Alpha 1

    • B.

      Beta 3 and Muscarinic

    • C.

      Muscarinic and Epinepherine

    • D.

      G-protein coupled and Ligand Gated

    Correct Answer
    D. G-protein coupled and Ligand Gated
    Explanation
    The correct answer is G-protein coupled and Ligand Gated. Cholinergic receptors are classified into two types based on their mechanism of action. G-protein coupled receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that activate intracellular signaling pathways through interaction with G-proteins. Ligand-gated ion channels, on the other hand, are ion channels that open or close in response to binding of a specific neurotransmitter or ligand. Cholinergic receptors can be found in both types, with different subtypes of receptors exhibiting different properties and functions.

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  • 7. 

    Where do cholinergic agonist drugs produce their effect?

    • A.

      Muscarinic receptors

    • B.

      Everywhere

    • C.

      Pre-synaptic membranes in ganglia

    • D.

      Pregangleonic neurons

    Correct Answer
    A. Muscarinic receptors
    Explanation
    Direct-acting cholinergic agonists operate by directly engaging and activating muscarinic receptors. Notable examples of direct-acting cholinergic agents encompass choline esters such as acetylcholine, methacholine, carbachol, and bethanechol, as well as alkaloids like muscarine, pilocarpine, and cevimeline.

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  • 8. 

    How many muscarinic receptor types are there?

    • A.

      7

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      6

    • D.

      5

    Correct Answer
    D. 5
    Explanation
    There are five muscarinic receptor types.

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  • 9. 

    How many adrenergic receptor types are there?

    • A.

      3

    • B.

      5

    • C.

      4

    • D.

      7

    Correct Answer
    B. 5
    Explanation
    There are five adrenergic receptor types. Adrenergic receptors are a type of receptor found in the sympathetic nervous system that bind to the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also known as adrenaline). These receptors are classified into alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, beta-2, and beta-3 subtypes. Each subtype has different functions and is located in different tissues throughout the body. Therefore, the correct answer is 5.

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  • 10. 

    TRUE or FALSE: Nicotinic receptors are found in autonomic ganglia, Neuromuscular junction and the adrenal medulla.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    Nicotinic receptors are indeed found in autonomic ganglia, neuromuscular junctions, and the adrenal medulla. These receptors are a type of cholinergic receptor that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. In autonomic ganglia, nicotinic receptors mediate the transmission of signals between preganglionic and postganglionic neurons. At the neuromuscular junction, they are responsible for the transmission of signals from motor neurons to skeletal muscles. In the adrenal medulla, nicotinic receptors play a role in the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 11. 

    Nicoinic receptors are:

    • A.

      G-protein Gated

    • B.

      Ligand Gated

    • C.

      Found in Pregangleonic Neurons

    • D.

      Found in Smooth Muscle

    Correct Answer
    B. Ligand Gated
    Explanation
    Nicotinic receptors are ligand-gated ion channels. This means that they are activated by the binding of a specific ligand, in this case, acetylcholine. When acetylcholine binds to the receptor, it causes the ion channel to open, allowing the flow of ions across the cell membrane. This activation leads to various physiological responses, such as muscle contraction and neurotransmitter release. Nicotinic receptors can be found in both preganglionic neurons, which are part of the autonomic nervous system, and smooth muscle cells.

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  • 12. 

    Beta receptor stimulation involves what?

    • A.

      Phospholipase C & G-proteins

    • B.

      G-proteins & cAMP

    • C.

      IP3 & Diacyglycerol

    • D.

      The Calcium Second Messenger System

    Correct Answer
    B. G-proteins & cAMP
    Explanation
    Beta receptor stimulation involves G-proteins and cAMP. When beta receptors are stimulated, G-proteins are activated, which in turn activate the enzyme adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase then converts ATP into cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which acts as a second messenger. cAMP triggers a cascade of intracellular events, leading to various physiological responses such as increased heart rate, bronchodilation, and glycogenolysis. Therefore, G-proteins and cAMP play a crucial role in transmitting the signal from beta receptors to the intracellular environment.

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  • 13. 

    Alpha 1 receptor stimulation involves:

    • A.

      Stimulation of Phospholipase C, which catalyses IP3 and Diacyglycerol

    • B.

      Production of cAMP

    • C.

      Calmodulin and G-proteins

    • D.

      The cAMP Second Messenger System, which activates Protein Kinase

    Correct Answer
    A. Stimulation of Phospholipase C, which catalyses IP3 and Diacyglycerol
    Explanation
    Alpha 1 receptor stimulation involves the activation of Phospholipase C, an enzyme that catalyzes the production of two second messengers, IP3 (Inositol trisphosphate) and Diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 acts by releasing calcium ions from intracellular stores, leading to various cellular responses, while DAG activates protein kinase C, which regulates multiple cellular processes. This signaling pathway is important for mediating the effects of alpha 1 receptor activation on smooth muscle contraction, vasoconstriction, and other physiological responses.

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  • 14. 

    Many cholinergic agonist drugs have adverse affects which can be remembered as 'DUMBELS'; What does the 'DUM" stand for? There may be more than one correct answer.

    • A.

      Diarrhoea

    • B.

      Urination

    • C.

      Miosis (contraction of pupil)

    • D.

      Uptake of Iron

    • E.

      Drooling

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Diarrhoea
    B. Urination
    C. Miosis (contraction of pupil)
    Explanation
    The 'DUM' in 'DUMBELS' stands for Diarrhoea, Urination, and Miosis (contraction of pupil). These are adverse effects commonly associated with cholinergic agonist drugs. Cholinergic agonists stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system, leading to increased gastrointestinal motility and secretion, increased bladder contraction and urination, and constriction of the pupil. These effects can be remembered using the acronym 'DUMBELS'.

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  • 15. 

    Many cholinergic agonist drugs have adverse affects which can be remembered as 'DUMBELS'; What does the 'BELS" stand for?

    • A.

      Bronchoconstriction

    • B.

      Excitation of skeletal muscle

    • C.

      EC50 Increases

    • D.

      Sweating

    • E.

      Lacrimation

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Bronchoconstriction
    B. Excitation of skeletal muscle
    D. Sweating
    E. Lacrimation
    Explanation
    The acronym 'DUMBELS' is used to remember the adverse effects of cholinergic agonist drugs. The 'BELS' in the acronym stands for bronchoconstriction, excitation of skeletal muscle, sweating, and lacrimation. This means that these drugs can cause narrowing of the airways in the lungs, increased activity of skeletal muscles, excessive sweating, and excessive tearing.

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  • 16. 

    What does the alpha 1 effect produce?

    • A.

      Bronchodilation

    • B.

      Vasodilation

    • C.

      Vasoconstriction

    • D.

      Smooth Muscle Relaxation

    Correct Answer
    C. Vasoconstriction
    Explanation
    The alpha 1 effect produces vasoconstriction. This means that it causes the blood vessels to constrict or narrow, leading to an increase in blood pressure. Vasoconstriction is a normal physiological response that can occur in various situations, such as during stress or to regulate blood flow to certain organs.

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  • 17. 

    What does the beta 1 effect produce?

    • A.

      Decrease in force of contraction of the heart

    • B.

      Increase in force of contraction of the heart

    • C.

      Bronchoconstriction

    • D.

      Relaxation of Smooth Muscle

    Correct Answer
    B. Increase in force of contraction of the heart
    Explanation
    The beta 1 effect refers to the stimulation of beta 1 adrenergic receptors in the heart. When these receptors are activated, it leads to an increase in the force of contraction of the heart. This means that the heart muscle contracts more forcefully, resulting in a stronger heartbeat. This effect is important in increasing cardiac output and maintaining adequate blood flow throughout the body.

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  • 18. 

    The beta 2 effect produces which of the following?

    • A.

      Relaxation of smooth Muscle

    • B.

      Vasoconstriction

    • C.

      Skeletal muscle relaxation

    • D.

      Vasodilation

    Correct Answer
    A. Relaxation of smooth Muscle
    Explanation
    The beta 2 effect refers to the activation of beta 2 adrenergic receptors, which are primarily found in smooth muscle cells. When these receptors are stimulated, it leads to the relaxation of smooth muscle. This effect is particularly important in the respiratory system, where the relaxation of smooth muscle in the bronchioles helps to open up the airways and improve airflow.

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  • 19. 

    Epinepherine is what type of drug?

    • A.

      Cholinergic agonist

    • B.

      Non-selective adrenergic agonist

    • C.

      Alpha agonist

    • D.

      Indirect acting cholinergic antagonist

    Correct Answer
    B. Non-selective adrenergic agonist
    Explanation
    Epinephrine is classified as a non-selective adrenergic agonist because it acts on both alpha and beta adrenergic receptors. It stimulates these receptors, leading to various physiological responses such as increased heart rate, bronchodilation, and vasoconstriction. Its non-selective nature means that it binds to and activates both alpha and beta receptors, producing a wide range of effects throughout the body.

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  • 20. 

    At low doses epinepherine acts on what type of receptors?

    • A.

      Alpha 1

    • B.

      Alpha 2

    • C.

      Muscarinic 3 & 1

    • D.

      Beta 1 & 2

    Correct Answer
    D. Beta 1 & 2
    Explanation
    Epinephrine acts on beta 1 and beta 2 receptors at low doses. Beta 1 receptors are found in the heart and when stimulated, they increase heart rate and force of contraction. Beta 2 receptors are found in the smooth muscles of the bronchioles in the lungs and when stimulated, they cause relaxation and dilation of the airways, leading to improved breathing. Thus, epinephrine's action on these receptors helps in increasing heart rate and improving breathing at low doses.

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  • 21. 

    At high doses, epinepherine acts on what receptor?

    • A.

      Alpha 1

    • B.

      Muscarinic 3

    • C.

      Nicotinic

    • D.

      Beta 2

    Correct Answer
    A. Alpha 1
    Explanation
    Epinephrine acts on the alpha 1 receptor at high doses. The alpha 1 receptor is a type of adrenergic receptor found in various tissues, including blood vessels, smooth muscle, and the urinary bladder. Activation of the alpha 1 receptor leads to vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and relaxation of smooth muscles in organs such as the bladder. This response is important in conditions such as anaphylaxis, where epinephrine is used to counteract severe allergic reactions and restore normal blood pressure.

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  • 22. 

    TRUE or FALSE: Epinepherine produces the alpha 1 and beta 1/2 effects

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    Epinephrine is a hormone and neurotransmitter that can bind to both alpha 1 and beta 1/2 adrenergic receptors. When it binds to alpha 1 receptors, it produces vasoconstriction, which leads to increased blood pressure. When it binds to beta 1 receptors, it increases heart rate and contractility, while binding to beta 2 receptors causes bronchodilation and relaxation of smooth muscles in blood vessels. Therefore, it is correct to say that epinephrine produces both the alpha 1 and beta 1/2 effects.

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  • 23. 

    Epinepherine treats what?

    • A.

      Cancer

    • B.

      Bronchospasm

    • C.

      Urinary Retention

    • D.

      Hypertesion

    Correct Answer
    B. Bronchospasm
    Explanation
    Epinephrine is a medication commonly used to treat bronchospasm, a condition characterized by the constriction of the airways in the lungs. It works by relaxing the muscles in the airways, allowing for easier breathing. Epinephrine is often used in the treatment of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory conditions. It is not used to treat cancer, urinary retention, or hypertension.

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  • 24. 

    TRUE or FALSE: Norepinepherine does not effect beta 2 receptors.

    • A.

      TRUE

    • B.

      FALSE

    Correct Answer
    A. TRUE
    Explanation
    Norepinephrine does not affect beta 2 receptors. This is because norepinephrine primarily acts on alpha receptors, not beta 2 receptors. Beta 2 receptors are mainly stimulated by other substances such as epinephrine. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 25. 

    Norepinepherine produces...

    • A.

      Vasodilation

    • B.

      Vasoconstriction

    • C.

      Hypotension

    • D.

      Shock

    Correct Answer
    B. Vasoconstriction
    Explanation
    Norepinephrine produces vasoconstriction. This means that it causes the blood vessels to constrict or narrow, leading to a decrease in the diameter of the blood vessels. This constriction increases the resistance to blood flow, which in turn increases blood pressure. Vasoconstriction is an important physiological response that helps regulate blood pressure and maintain adequate blood flow to vital organs.

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  • 26. 

    At moderate doses Dopamine effects what receptor/s?

    • A.

      Alpha 1

    • B.

      Alpha 1 & Beta 3

    • C.

      Beta 1

    • D.

      Dopamine 1 & 2

    Correct Answer
    C. Beta 1
    Explanation
    Dopamine at moderate doses primarily affects the Beta 1 receptors. This means that it mainly acts on the Beta 1 adrenergic receptors in the body. These receptors are found in various tissues, including the heart, and are responsible for regulating heart rate and contractility. Stimulation of the Beta 1 receptors by dopamine can increase heart rate and strengthen the force of cardiac contractions.

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  • 27. 

    At high doses Dopamine effects what receptor/s?

    • A.

      Beta 1

    • B.

      Alpha 1

    • C.

      Dopamine 1 & 2

    • D.

      Beta 3 & Alpha 1

    Correct Answer
    B. Alpha 1
    Explanation
    At high doses, dopamine primarily affects the Alpha 1 receptors.

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  • 28. 

    At low doses Dopamine effects what receptor/s?

    • A.

      Dopamine 1, 2 and Beta 1

    • B.

      Beta 1, 3 & Alpha 2

    • C.

      Dopamine 2 & Beta 1

    • D.

      Alpha 1

    Correct Answer
    A. Dopamine 1, 2 and Beta 1
    Explanation
    Dopamine has effects on multiple receptors in the body. At low doses, it primarily affects dopamine 1, dopamine 2, and beta 1 receptors. These receptors are involved in various physiological processes, including blood pressure regulation, renal blood flow, and vasodilation. Activation of these receptors by dopamine can lead to increased blood flow to certain organs and tissues, as well as relaxation of smooth muscles. 

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  • 29. 

    What type of drug is norepinepherine?

    • A.

      Alpha selective agonist

    • B.

      Non-selective adrenergic agonist

    • C.

      Beta selective agonist

    • D.

      Cholinergic antagonist

    Correct Answer
    B. Non-selective adrenergic agonist
    Explanation
    Norepinephrine is classified as a non-selective adrenergic agonist. This means that it activates both alpha and beta adrenergic receptors in the body. Adrenergic agonists mimic the effects of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which is involved in the "fight or flight" response. As a non-selective agonist, norepinephrine can have a wide range of effects on various organs and tissues that have alpha and beta receptors.

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  • 30. 

    What type of drug is Dopamine?

    • A.

      Non-selective Adrenergic Agonist

    • B.

      Beta selective agonist

    • C.

      Muscarinic Antagonist

    • D.

      Nicotinic Agonist

    Correct Answer
    A. Non-selective Adrenergic Agonist
    Explanation
    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter and a catecholamine that acts as a non-selective adrenergic agonist. It stimulates both alpha and beta adrenergic receptors, resulting in various physiological effects such as increased heart rate, vasoconstriction, and increased blood pressure. Dopamine is commonly used in medical settings to treat conditions such as low blood pressure and heart failure.

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  • 31. 

    What are Phenylepherine and Methoxamine most commonly used to treat?

    • A.

      Nasal congestion

    • B.

      Hypertension

    • C.

      Blurred Vision

    • D.

      Constipation

    Correct Answer
    A. Nasal congestion
    Explanation
    Phenylephrine and Methoxamine are most commonly used to treat nasal congestion. These medications work by constricting the blood vessels in the nasal passages, reducing swelling and congestion. They are often found in over-the-counter decongestant medications and can provide temporary relief from symptoms such as a stuffy or runny nose.

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  • 32. 

    What receptor/s do Phenylepherine and Methoxamine act on?

    • A.

      Alpha 1 ONLY

    • B.

      Beta 2 ONLY

    • C.

      Alpha 1 & Beta 3

    • D.

      Alpha 1 & Beta 2

    Correct Answer
    A. Alpha 1 ONLY
    Explanation
    Phenylephrine and Methoxamine act on the Alpha 1 receptors only. These receptors are found in various tissues, including blood vessels and smooth muscles. Activation of the Alpha 1 receptors leads to vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. Therefore, these drugs are commonly used as nasal decongestants and to treat low blood pressure. They do not act on Beta 2 or Beta 3 receptors, which have different functions in the body.

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  • 33. 

    Clonidine is what type of drug?

    • A.

      Alpha agonist

    • B.

      Beta Agonist

    • C.

      Muscarinic Antagonist

    • D.

      Nicotinic Agonist

    Correct Answer
    A. Alpha agonist
    Explanation
    Clonidine is classified as an alpha agonist because it acts on alpha receptors in the body. Alpha agonists stimulate these receptors, leading to various effects such as reduced blood pressure and decreased sympathetic nervous system activity. Clonidine specifically targets alpha-2 receptors, resulting in the inhibition of norepinephrine release, which ultimately leads to its antihypertensive and sedative effects.

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  • 34. 

    What receptor does Clonidine act on?

    • A.

      Alpha 1

    • B.

      Alpha 2

    • C.

      Beta 2

    • D.

      Beta 1

    Correct Answer
    B. Alpha 2
    Explanation
    Clonidine acts on the Alpha 2 receptor.

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  • 35. 

    What effect does Clonidine have? 

    • A.

      Vasodilation

    • B.

      Decreases Blood Pressure

    • C.

      Hypotension

    • D.

      Vasoconstriction

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreases Blood Pressure
    Explanation
    Clonidine is a medication commonly used to treat high blood pressure. It works by stimulating certain receptors in the brain, which leads to a decrease in the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. This ultimately results in a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and a reduction in heart rate, leading to a decrease in blood pressure. Therefore, the correct answer is "Decreases Blood Pressure."

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  • 36. 

    Methyldopa is what type of drug?

    • A.

      Muscarinic antagonist

    • B.

      Adrenergic Antagonist

    • C.

      Muscarinic agonist

    • D.

      Adrenergic Agonist

    Correct Answer
    D. Adrenergic Agonist
    Explanation
    Methyldopa is classified as an adrenergic agonist. Adrenergic agonists are drugs that stimulate the adrenergic receptors in the sympathetic nervous system, leading to increased release of norepinephrine and epinephrine. Methyldopa works by being converted into alpha-methylnorepinephrine, which acts as a false neurotransmitter and stimulates alpha-adrenergic receptors in the brainstem. This activation leads to a decrease in sympathetic outflow, resulting in decreased blood pressure. Therefore, Methyldopa is an adrenergic agonist rather than a muscarinic antagonist or agonist.

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  • 37. 

    What receptor/s does Methydopa act on?

    • A.

      Beta 2

    • B.

      Beat 2 & 3

    • C.

      Alpha 1

    • D.

      Alpha 2

    Correct Answer
    D. Alpha 2
    Explanation
    Methydopa acts on the Alpha 2 receptors.

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  • 38. 

    What effect does Methyldopa have?

    • A.

      Increases Blood Pressure

    • B.

      Decreases Blood Pressure

    • C.

      Hypertension

    • D.

      Nasal Decongestion

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreases Blood Pressure
    Explanation
    Methyldopa is a medication used to treat high blood pressure. It works by relaxing and dilating the blood vessels, which leads to a decrease in blood pressure. Therefore, the correct answer is "Decreases Blood Pressure."

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  • 39. 

    What type of drug is Dobutamine?

    • A.

      Cholinergic Agonist

    • B.

      Cholinergic Antagonist

    • C.

      Beat agonist

    • D.

      Alpha antagonist

    Correct Answer
    C. Beat agonist
    Explanation
    Dobutamine is classified as a beta agonist. Beta agonists are drugs that stimulate beta adrenergic receptors, which are present in various tissues and organs throughout the body. Dobutamine specifically targets beta-1 adrenergic receptors in the heart, leading to increased heart rate and contractility. This drug is commonly used in medical settings to improve cardiac output in conditions such as heart failure or during certain surgical procedures.

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  • 40. 

    What receptor/s does Doutamine act on?

    • A.

      Alpha 2

    • B.

      Beta 1

    • C.

      Beta 3 & 2

    • D.

      Alpha 1 and Beta 1

    Correct Answer
    B. Beta 1
    Explanation
    Dopamine primarily acts on beta 1 receptors. These receptors are found in the heart and play a role in increasing heart rate and contractility. Activation of beta 1 receptors by dopamine can lead to increased cardiac output. Alpha 2 receptors are not the primary target of dopamine, and while beta 3 receptors exist, they are not the main receptors through which dopamine exerts its effects. Therefore, the correct answer is beta 1 receptors.

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  • 41. 

    What effect does Dobutamine produce?

    • A.

      Negative chronotropic and inotropic effects

    • B.

      Decrease lacrimal secretions

    • C.

      Increase Gastric secretions

    • D.

      Positive chronotropic and inotropic effects

    Correct Answer
    D. Positive chronotropic and inotropic effects
    Explanation
    Dobutamine produces positive chronotropic and inotropic effects. This means that it increases the heart rate (chronotropic effect) and strengthens the force of the heart's contractions (inotropic effect). This can be beneficial in certain medical conditions where the heart is not pumping effectively, such as heart failure or cardiogenic shock. Dobutamine helps to improve cardiac output and increase blood flow to the body's tissues.

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  • 42. 

    What type of drug is Isoproterenol?

    • A.

      Alpha agonist

    • B.

      Alpha and Beta agonist

    • C.

      Non-selective adrenergic agonist

    • D.

      Beta agonist

    Correct Answer
    D. Beta agonist
    Explanation
    Isoproterenol is classified as a beta agonist. Beta agonists are drugs that stimulate beta-adrenergic receptors, leading to relaxation of smooth muscles in the airways and blood vessels, and increased heart rate and contractility. Isoproterenol specifically targets and activates beta receptors, making it a selective beta agonist. This drug is commonly used to treat conditions such as asthma and heart rhythm disorders.

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  • 43. 

    What receptor/s does Isoproterenol act on?

    • A.

      Beta 2 & 3

    • B.

      Alpha 1

    • C.

      Beta 1 & 2

    • D.

      Alpha 1 & 2

    Correct Answer
    C. Beta 1 & 2
    Explanation
    Isoproterenol acts on beta 1 and beta 2 receptors. Beta 1 receptors are primarily found in the heart and are responsible for increasing heart rate and contractility. Beta 2 receptors are found in the smooth muscles of the bronchi, blood vessels, and uterus, and their activation leads to relaxation of these muscles. Therefore, Isoproterenol's action on both beta 1 and beta 2 receptors results in increased heart rate and contractility, as well as relaxation of bronchial and vascular smooth muscles.

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  • 44. 

    What effect does Isoproterenol have?

    • A.

      Positive chronotropic and inotropic effects

    • B.

      Smooth Muscle relaxation

    • C.

      Smooth Muscle contraction

    • D.

      Negative Chronotropic and inotropic effects

    Correct Answer
    A. Positive chronotropic and inotropic effects
    Explanation
    Isoproterenol is a medication that acts as a beta-adrenergic agonist. It stimulates beta receptors in the heart, leading to an increase in heart rate (chronotropic effect) and an increase in the force of contraction (inotropic effect). Therefore, the correct answer is positive chronotropic and inotropic effects.

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  • 45. 

    What type of drug is Terbutaline?

    • A.

      Cholinergic agonist

    • B.

      Adrenergic Agonist

    • C.

      Adrenergic Antagonist

    • D.

      Acetylcholine Reactivator

    Correct Answer
    B. Adrenergic Agonist
    Explanation
    Terbutaline is classified as an adrenergic agonist. Adrenergic agonists stimulate the adrenergic receptors in the sympathetic nervous system, leading to the activation of the fight-or-flight response. Terbutaline specifically targets the beta-2 adrenergic receptors, which are found in the smooth muscles of the bronchioles. By activating these receptors, Terbutaline relaxes the smooth muscles and dilates the airways, making it an effective medication for treating asthma and other respiratory conditions.

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  • 46. 

    What receptor/s does Terbutaline act on?

    • A.

      Alpha 2

    • B.

      Alpha 1 & 2

    • C.

      Beta 2

    • D.

      Beta 2 & 3

    Correct Answer
    C. Beta 2
    Explanation
    Terbutaline is a medication that acts on beta 2 receptors. Beta 2 receptors are primarily found in the smooth muscles of the bronchioles in the lungs, and their activation leads to relaxation of these muscles, resulting in bronchodilation. This makes Terbutaline an effective treatment for conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) where bronchoconstriction occurs. By acting specifically on beta 2 receptors, Terbutaline avoids potential side effects associated with the activation of other receptors such as alpha 1 or alpha 2.

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  • 47. 

    What type of drugs are Albuterol and Metaproterenol?

    • A.

      Adrenergic agonists

    • B.

      Adrenergic antagonists

    • C.

      Cholinergic antagonists

    • D.

      Indirect Acting Adrenergic Agonists

    Correct Answer
    A. Adrenergic agonists
    Explanation
    Albuterol and Metaproterenol are classified as adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic agonists are drugs that stimulate the adrenergic receptors in the sympathetic nervous system, leading to the activation of the fight or flight response. These drugs are commonly used to treat conditions such as asthma and bronchospasm, as they relax the smooth muscles in the airways, allowing for easier breathing. By mimicking the effects of adrenaline, adrenergic agonists can also increase heart rate and blood pressure. Overall, Albuterol and Metaproterenol belong to the class of drugs that enhance the activity of the adrenergic system.

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  • 48. 

    What effect does Terbutaline have?

    • A.

      Smooth Muscle Contraction

    • B.

      Vasodilation

    • C.

      Smooth Muscle Relaxation

    • D.

      Increases Heart Rate

    Correct Answer
    C. Smooth Muscle Relaxation
    Explanation
    Terbutaline is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as beta-2 adrenergic agonists. It works by stimulating the beta-2 adrenergic receptors in the smooth muscles of the airways, leading to their relaxation. This relaxation helps in relieving bronchospasms and improving airflow in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, the effect of Terbutaline is smooth muscle relaxation.

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  • 49. 

    What receptor/s do Albuterol and Metaproterenol act on?

    • A.

      Beta 2

    • B.

      Alpha 1

    • C.

      Alpha 2

    • D.

      Beta 3 & 2

    Correct Answer
    A. Beta 2
    Explanation
    Albuterol and Metaproterenol act on the Beta 2 receptors. These receptors are found in the smooth muscles of the bronchioles in the lungs. Activation of the Beta 2 receptors causes relaxation of the bronchial smooth muscles, leading to bronchodilation and improved airflow in conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). By specifically targeting the Beta 2 receptors, Albuterol and Metaproterenol help to relieve bronchoconstriction and alleviate respiratory symptoms.

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  • 50. 

    What type of drug is Tyramine?

    • A.

      Cholinergic Agonist

    • B.

      Muscarinic Antagonist

    • C.

      Adrenergic Antagonist

    • D.

      Indirect Acting Adrenergic Agonist

    Correct Answer
    D. Indirect Acting Adrenergic Agonist
    Explanation
    Tyramine is classified as an indirect acting adrenergic agonist because it indirectly stimulates the release of norepinephrine from nerve terminals. It does this by displacing norepinephrine from storage vesicles, leading to an increase in its release. This results in various physiological effects, including vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure.

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