Week 129 Autonomic Nervous System

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Autonomic Nervous System Quizzes & Trivia

A self-test for week 129, the Autonomic Nervous System


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Activation of the sympathetic system results in which set of responses

    • A.

      "Fight or Flight"

    • B.

      "Rest and Digest"

    Correct Answer
    A. "Fight or Flight"
    Explanation
    Parasympathetic activation = "Rest and Digest". Obviously these are simplified classifications, but they are fairly useful.

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  • 2. 

    Activation of the sympathetic system will result in (tick all that apply)

    • A.

      Pupil dilation

    • B.

      Increase in heart rate and force

    • C.

      Increase in saliva production

    • D.

      Increase in urine production

    • E.

      Increased adrenaline production by the adrenal medulla

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Pupil dilation
    B. Increase in heart rate and force
    E. Increased adrenaline production by the adrenal medulla
    Explanation
    Activation of the sympathetic system leads to the release of norepinephrine, which causes the pupils to dilate. It also stimulates the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla, resulting in an increase in heart rate and force of contraction. This activation of the sympathetic system also leads to the inhibition of salivation, so there is a decrease in saliva production. Additionally, the sympathetic system stimulates the release of renin, which leads to vasoconstriction and a decrease in urine production. Therefore, the correct answers are pupil dilation, increase in heart rate and force, and increased adrenaline production by the adrenal medulla.

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  • 3. 

    Activation of the parasympathetic system will result in (tick all that apply)

    • A.

      Increased production of gastric juices

    • B.

      Relaxation of the bladder wall

    • C.

      Contraction of the bronchial muscles

    • D.

      Increased mucus production from the nasal mucosa

    • E.

      Decreased intestinal motility

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Increased production of gastric juices
    C. Contraction of the bronchial muscles
    D. Increased mucus production from the nasal mucosa
    Explanation
    Activation of the parasympathetic system stimulates the release of acetylcholine, which increases the production of gastric juices in the stomach. It also causes contraction of the bronchial muscles, leading to bronchoconstriction. Additionally, activation of the parasympathetic system increases mucus production from the nasal mucosa, helping to moisten and protect the respiratory tract. However, the parasympathetic system does not directly affect the relaxation of the bladder wall or decrease intestinal motility.

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  • 4. 

    Preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic system arise from (tick all that apply)

    • A.

      Cranial nerve III (Oculomotor)

    • B.

      Cranial nerve IV (Trochlear)

    • C.

      Cranial Nerve X (Vagus)

    • D.

      Thoracic segments T2-T4

    • E.

      Sacral segments S2-S4

    Correct Answer
    A. Cranial nerve III (Oculomotor)
    Explanation
    Preganglionic sources of the parasympathetic system "top and tail" those of the sympathetic system, which arises from spinal segments T1-L2.

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  • 5. 

    Released by the preganglionc neurones of the parasympathetic system

    • A.

      Acetylcholine

    • B.

      Noradrenaline

    Correct Answer
    A. Acetylcholine
    Explanation
    Acetylcholine is the correct answer because it is released by the preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic system. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the parasympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for rest and digest functions. It is released by the preganglionic neurons to transmit signals to the postganglionic neurons, allowing for communication between nerve cells and facilitating the parasympathetic response.

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  • 6. 

    Released by the preganglionc neurones of the sympathetic system

    • A.

      Acetylcholine

    • B.

      Noradrenaline

    Correct Answer
    A. Acetylcholine
    Explanation
    Acetylcholine is the correct answer because it is released by the preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic system. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that is involved in the transmission of nerve impulses in the autonomic nervous system. It is released by the preganglionic neurons to activate the postganglionic neurons in the sympathetic system. This release of acetylcholine helps in the transmission of signals and coordination of various physiological responses in the body. Noradrenaline, on the other hand, is released by the postganglionic neurons and is involved in the activation of target organs in the sympathetic system.

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  • 7. 

    Released by the postganglionic neurones of the parasympathetic system

    • A.

      Acetylcholine

    • B.

      Noradrenaline

    Correct Answer
    A. Acetylcholine
    Explanation
    Acetylcholine is the correct answer because it is released by the postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic system. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the parasympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for rest and digest functions in the body. It is released by the postganglionic neurons to transmit signals to target organs and tissues, leading to various physiological responses such as increased digestion, decreased heart rate, and relaxed muscles. Noradrenaline, on the other hand, is predominantly released by the postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic system, which is responsible for the fight or flight response.

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  • 8. 

    Released by the postganglionic neurones of the sympathetic system

    • A.

      Acetylcholine

    • B.

      Noradrenaline

    Correct Answer
    B. Noradrenaline
    Explanation
    Noradrenaline is the correct answer because it is released by the postganglionic neurons of the sympathetic system. The sympathetic system is responsible for the "fight or flight" response in the body, and noradrenaline is one of the key neurotransmitters involved in this response. It helps to activate various physiological processes such as increasing heart rate, constricting blood vessels, and increasing blood pressure. Acetylcholine, on the other hand, is primarily released by the postganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic system, which is responsible for rest and digestion.

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  • 9. 

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are (tick all that apply)

    • A.

      Located on postganglionic neurones of both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems

    • B.

      Ionotropic

    • C.

      Activated by nicotine

    • D.

      Blocked by propanolol

    • E.

      Stimulated by clonidine

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Located on postganglionic neurones of both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    B. Ionotropic
    C. Activated by nicotine
    Explanation
    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are located on postganglionic neurons of both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. These receptors are ionotropic, meaning they allow the flow of ions across the cell membrane when activated. They are specifically activated by nicotine, which binds to these receptors and triggers a response. However, they are not blocked by propranolol, which is a non-selective beta blocker. Additionally, they are not directly stimulated by clonidine, which is an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist.

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  • 10. 

    Muscarinic acetlycholine receptors are (tick all that apply)

    • A.

      Located on the effector organs of the sympathetic system

    • B.

      Located on the effector organs of the parasympathetic system

    • C.

      Blocked by nicotine

    • D.

      Blocked by prazosin

    • E.

      Stimulated by pilocarpine

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Located on the effector organs of the parasympathetic system
    E. Stimulated by pilocarpine
    Explanation
    Muscarinic receptors are pretty good pharmacological targets because the different subtypes (M1-M5) show tissue-specific distribution. However there are not currently any good subtype-specific drugs.

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  • 11. 

    Propanolol

    • A.

      Is an agonist of alpha-adrenergic receptors

    • B.

      Is an antagonist of alpha-adrenergic receptors

    • C.

      Is an agonist of beta-adrenergic receptors

    • D.

      Is an antagonist of beta-adrenergic receptors

    Correct Answer
    D. Is an antagonist of beta-adrenergic receptors
    Explanation
    Propanolol is an antagonist of beta-adrenergic receptors. This means that it blocks the action of beta-adrenergic receptors in the body. Beta-adrenergic receptors are responsible for responding to adrenaline and noradrenaline, which are hormones involved in the "fight or flight" response. By blocking these receptors, propanolol can reduce the effects of these hormones, such as reducing heart rate and blood pressure. It is commonly used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure, angina, and certain heart rhythm disorders.

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  • 12. 

    Clonidine

    • A.

      Is an agonist of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors

    • B.

      Is an antagonist of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors

    • C.

      Is an agonist of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors

    • D.

      Is an antagonist of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors

    Correct Answer
    C. Is an agonist of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors
    Explanation
    Clonidine is an agonist of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. This means that it binds to and activates these receptors, leading to a decrease in sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system. By stimulating alpha-2 receptors, clonidine reduces the release of norepinephrine, resulting in decreased blood pressure and heart rate. It is commonly used to treat hypertension, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and withdrawal symptoms from opioids or nicotine.

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  • 13. 

    Effector organs are innervated by postganglionic neurones. The ganglia from which those postganglionic neurones arise are themselves innervated by preganglionic neurones which arise in the central nervous system. Can you identify an exception; an organ which is directly innervated by preganglionic neurones?

    • A.

      Adrenal Medulla

    • B.

      Heart

    • C.

      Lungs

    • D.

      Salivary glands

    • E.

      Stomach

    Correct Answer
    A. Adrenal Medulla
    Explanation
    The cells of the adrenal medulla are basically modified postganglionic neurones that release noradrenaline (and other catecholamines) into the circulation

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  • 14. 

    Referred pain is

    • A.

      Pain that spreads beyond the site of injury due to the actions of inflammatory cytokines released at the site of injury

    • B.

      Pain that a GP cannot explain and thus requires the opinion of a consultant

    • C.

      When a painful skin condition results in painful sensations in visceral organs whose autonomic innervation enters the spinal cord at the same level as that of the injured skin

    • D.

      Pain that is felt "centrally" (ie not localised) due to it being carried by the autonomic nervous system rather than specialised nociceptors

    • E.

      Pain felt at a site that is not itself injured, due to the sensory innervation for that site entering the spinal cord at the same level as the sensory innervation for an injured site

    Correct Answer
    E. Pain felt at a site that is not itself injured, due to the sensory innervation for that site entering the spinal cord at the same level as the sensory innervation for an injured site
    Explanation
    Referred pain occurs when pain is felt in a site that is not actually injured, but is innervated by the same spinal cord level as the injured site. This happens because the sensory nerves from both sites converge on the same spinal cord level, leading to a confusion in the brain about the source of the pain. This phenomenon is commonly seen in conditions such as heart attacks, where pain is felt in the left arm or jaw instead of the chest.

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  • 15. 

    Sympathetic preganglionc neurons (tick all that apply)

    • A.

      Are myelinated

    • B.

      Release noradrenaline

    • C.

      Arise in the spinal cord

    • D.

      Terminate on effector organs

    • E.

      Always terminate in the sympathetic chain

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Are myelinated
    C. Arise in the spinal cord
    Explanation
    Some sympathetic ganglia are located outside the sympathetic chains. Those of you paying attention may remember that preganglionic sympathetic neurones do terminate on the adrenal medulla, so don't feel too bad if you checked option 4!

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  • 16. 

    Orthostatic hypotension (tick all that apply)

    • A.

      Is more prevalent in the elderly

    • B.

      Is usually treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

    • C.

      Is usually treated with "ganglion blockers"

    • D.

      Is a side effect of drugs which block the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor

    • E.

      Is a drop in blood pressure caused by the autonomic system not "reacting quickly enough" when rising to a standing position

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Is more prevalent in the elderly
    D. Is a side effect of drugs which block the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor
    E. Is a drop in blood pressure caused by the autonomic system not "reacting quickly enough" when rising to a standing position
    Explanation
    Orthostatic hypotension is a condition characterized by a drop in blood pressure when transitioning from a sitting or lying position to a standing position. It is more prevalent in the elderly, possibly due to age-related changes in the autonomic nervous system. It can also be a side effect of drugs that block the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor, which can affect blood vessel constriction. The condition occurs because the autonomic system does not react quickly enough to maintain blood pressure when standing up.

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  • 17. 

    A division of the autonomic nervous system that controls gastrointestinal motility and secretion

    • A.

      Amygdala

    • B.

      Enteric

    • C.

      Madonna

    • D.

      Substantia gelatinosa

    • E.

      Submandibular ganglion

    Correct Answer
    B. Enteric
    Explanation
    The enteric division of the autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling gastrointestinal motility and secretion. It consists of a complex network of nerves that are located within the walls of the digestive tract. This division operates independently of the central nervous system, allowing it to regulate digestion and other gastrointestinal functions without conscious control. The enteric division plays a crucial role in coordinating the movement of food through the digestive system and in regulating the release of digestive enzymes and hormones.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the cranial nerves contributes the parasympathetic innervation of the abdominal and thoracic viscera

    • A.

      Cranial nerve III (Oculomotor)

    • B.

      Cranial nerve VII (Facial)

    • C.

      Cranial Nerve IX (Glossopharyngeal)

    • D.

      Cranial Nerve X (Vagus)

    Correct Answer
    D. Cranial Nerve X (Vagus)
    Explanation
    The vagus nerve is perhaps the most important source of parasympathetic preganglionic neurones.

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  • 19. 

    Sympathetic innervation of the viscera is carried via which nerves

    • A.

      Auriculotemporal

    • B.

      Lacrimal

    • C.

      Pelvic

    • D.

      Petrosal

    • E.

      Splanchnic

    Correct Answer
    E. Splanchnic
    Explanation
    The sympathetic innervation of the viscera is carried via the splanchnic nerves. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sympathetic signals to the organs located in the abdominal and pelvic regions. The splanchnic nerves originate from the sympathetic chain ganglia and travel to the target organs, where they synapse with postganglionic neurons. This sympathetic innervation plays a crucial role in regulating various visceral functions, including blood flow, digestion, and organ activity.

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  • 20. 

    Sympathetic postganglionic neurons innervating the structures of the face arise from which ganglion?

    • A.

      Ciliary

    • B.

      Coeliac

    • C.

      Inferior cervical

    • D.

      Superior cervical

    • E.

      Superior mesenteric

    Correct Answer
    D. Superior cervical
    Explanation
    The sympathetic postganglionic neurons innervating the structures of the face arise from the superior cervical ganglion. This ganglion is located in the neck, at the level of the second and third cervical vertebrae. It receives preganglionic fibers from the thoracic spinal cord via the sympathetic chain and sends postganglionic fibers to various structures in the face, including the blood vessels, sweat glands, and smooth muscles.

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  • 21. 

    Parasympathetic postganglionic neurones innervating the lacrimal gland arise from which ganglion

    • A.

      Ciliary

    • B.

      Otic

    • C.

      Pterygopalatine

    • D.

      Submandibular

    Correct Answer
    C. Pterygopalatine
    Explanation
    The parasympathetic postganglionic neurons innervating the lacrimal gland arise from the pterygopalatine ganglion. This ganglion is located in the pterygopalatine fossa, which is a small space in the skull. From this ganglion, the postganglionic fibers travel to the lacrimal gland to stimulate tear production.

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