Pathophysiology Chapter 49 (Neuro)

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Pathophysiology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Sense position and movement of the body

    • A.

      Special somatic afferent neurons

    • B.

      General somatic afferent neurons

    • C.

      General visceral afferent neurons

    • D.

      First-order neurons

    • E.

      Second-order neurons

    • F.

      Third-order neurons

    • G.

      Dorsal root ganglion neurons

    • H.

      Trigeminal sensory neurons

    Correct Answer
    A. Special somatic afferent neurons
    Explanation
    Special somatic afferent neurons are responsible for sensing the position and movement of the body. They transmit sensory information from the skin, muscles, and joints to the central nervous system. These neurons play a crucial role in proprioception, which is the ability to sense the body's position in space and detect changes in movement. They are specialized sensory receptors that provide feedback on body position, allowing for coordinated movement and balance.

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  • 2. 

    Sensations such as pain, touch, and temperature

    • A.

      Special somatic afferent neurons

    • B.

      General somatic afferent neurons

    • C.

      General visceral afferent neurons

    • D.

      First-order neurons

    • E.

      Second-order neurons

    • F.

      Third-order neurons

    • G.

      Dorsal root ganglion neurons

    • H.

      Trigeminal sensory neurons

    Correct Answer
    B. General somatic afferent neurons
    Explanation
    General somatic afferent neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information from the skin, muscles, and joints to the central nervous system. These neurons detect sensations such as pain, touch, and temperature and send signals to the brain for processing. They play a crucial role in our ability to perceive and respond to the environment around us.

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  • 3. 

    Transmit sensory information from the periphery to the CNS

    • A.

      Special somatic afferent neurons

    • B.

      General somatic afferent neurons

    • C.

      General visceral afferent neurons

    • D.

      First-order neurons

    • E.

      Second-order neurons

    • F.

      Third-order neurons

    • G.

      Dorsal root ganglion neurons

    • H.

      Trigeminal sensory neurons

    Correct Answer
    D. First-order neurons
    Explanation
    First-order neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information from the periphery to the central nervous system (CNS). They are the first step in the sensory pathway, receiving input from sensory receptors and transmitting it to the spinal cord or brainstem. This allows for the perception of various sensory stimuli such as touch, temperature, and pain.

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  • 4. 

    Sense fullness and discomfort

    • A.

      Special somatic afferent neurons

    • B.

      General somatic afferent neurons

    • C.

      General visceral afferent neurons

    • D.

      First-order neurons

    • E.

      Second-order neurons

    • F.

      Third-order neurons

    • G.

      Dorsal root ganglion neurons

    • H.

      Trigeminal sensory neurons

    Correct Answer
    C. General visceral afferent neurons
    Explanation
    General visceral afferent neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information from the internal organs to the central nervous system. These neurons detect sensations such as fullness and discomfort in the organs, allowing the brain to monitor and regulate bodily functions. This is different from special somatic afferent neurons, which transmit sensory information from special senses such as vision and hearing, and general somatic afferent neurons, which transmit sensory information from the skin and musculoskeletal system. Therefore, general visceral afferent neurons are the most appropriate choice for explaining the sensation of fullness and discomfort.

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  • 5. 

    Communicate with various reflex networks and sensory pathways in the spinal cord and travel directly to the thalamus

    • A.

      Special somatic afferent neurons

    • B.

      General somatic afferent neurons

    • C.

      General visceral afferent neurons

    • D.

      First-order neurons

    • E.

      Second-order neurons

    • F.

      Third-order neurons

    • G.

      Dorsal root ganglion neurons

    • H.

      Trigeminal sensory neurons

    Correct Answer
    E. Second-order neurons
    Explanation
    Second-order neurons communicate with various reflex networks and sensory pathways in the spinal cord and travel directly to the thalamus. They receive input from first-order neurons and transmit this information to higher levels of the central nervous system. These neurons play a crucial role in processing and relaying sensory information from the body to the brain.

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  • 6. 

    Relay information from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex

    • A.

      Special somatic afferent neurons

    • B.

      General somatic afferent neurons

    • C.

      General visceral afferent neurons

    • D.

      First-order neurons

    • E.

      Second-order neurons

    • F.

      Third-order neurons

    • G.

      Dorsal root ganglion neurons

    • H.

      Trigeminal sensory neurons

    Correct Answer
    F. Third-order neurons
    Explanation
    Third-order neurons relay information from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus acts as a relay station for sensory information, receiving input from various sensory pathways and sending it to the appropriate areas of the cerebral cortex for further processing and interpretation. Third-order neurons receive input from second-order neurons in the thalamus and transmit this information to specific regions of the cerebral cortex, allowing for perception and conscious awareness of sensory stimuli.

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  • 7. 

    Transmits all somatosensory information from the limbs and trunk

    • A.

      Special somatic afferent neurons

    • B.

      General somatic afferent neurons

    • C.

      General visceral afferent neurons

    • D.

      First-order neurons

    • E.

      Second-order neurons

    • F.

      Third-order neurons

    • G.

      Dorsal root ganglion neurons

    • H.

      Trigeminal sensory neurons

    Correct Answer
    G. Dorsal root ganglion neurons
    Explanation
    Dorsal root ganglion neurons transmit all somatosensory information from the limbs and trunk. These neurons are located in the dorsal root ganglia, which are clusters of cell bodies located along the spinal cord. When sensory information is detected by receptors in the skin, muscles, and joints of the limbs and trunk, it is transmitted to the dorsal root ganglion neurons. These neurons then send the information to the central nervous system for processing and interpretation. Therefore, the correct answer is dorsal root ganglion neurons.

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  • 8. 

    Somatosensory information from the face and cranial structures

    • A.

      Special somatic afferent neurons

    • B.

      General somatic afferent neurons

    • C.

      General visceral afferent neurons

    • D.

      First-order neurons

    • E.

      Second-order neurons

    • F.

      Third-order neurons

    • G.

      Dorsal root ganglion neurons

    • H.

      Trigeminal sensory neurons

    Correct Answer
    H. Trigeminal sensory neurons
    Explanation
    Trigeminal sensory neurons are responsible for transmitting somatosensory information from the face and cranial structures. These neurons are part of the trigeminal nerve, which is the fifth cranial nerve. They play a crucial role in sensing touch, pain, and temperature in the face, as well as in controlling movements of the jaw muscles. Trigeminal sensory neurons are considered a type of general somatic afferent neuron, as they transmit sensory information from the skin and muscles of the face to the central nervous system.

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  • 9. 

    Identifies the size and shape of objects and their movement across the skin, temperature sensation, sense of movement of the limbs and joints of the body, and nociception, or pain

    • A.

      Discriminative touch

    • B.

      Sensory unit

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Dermatome

    • G.

      Discriminative pathway

    • H.

      Stereognosis

    • I.

      Anterolateral pathway

    • J.

      Free nerve endings

    • K.

      Nociceptors

    Correct Answer
    A. Discriminative touch
    Explanation
    Discriminative touch refers to the ability to identify the size and shape of objects, as well as their movement across the skin. It also includes the sense of movement of the limbs and joints of the body, as well as the perception of temperature and pain. This sensory information is transmitted through various types of nerve fibers, such as Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers, which are responsible for fast, sharp sensations, and Type B fibers, which transmit slower, dull sensations. Discriminative touch is processed through the discriminative pathway, which helps in the perception of touch and spatial awareness.

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  • 10. 

    The cell body of the dorsal root ganglion neuron, its peripheral branch (which innervates a small area of periphery), and its central axon (which projects to the CNS)

    • A.

      Discriminative touch

    • B.

      Sensory unit

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Dermatome

    • G.

      Discriminative pathway

    • H.

      Stereognosis

    • I.

      Anterolateral pathway

    • J.

      Free nerve endings

    • K.

      Nociceptors

    Correct Answer
    B. Sensory unit
    Explanation
    A sensory unit refers to a single sensory neuron and all the peripheral structures it innervates. In the given answer, it mentions the cell body of the dorsal root ganglion neuron, its peripheral branch, and its central axon. This description encompasses all the components of a sensory unit, suggesting that the correct answer is "sensory unit".

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  • 11. 

    Convey cutaneous pressure and touch sensation, cold sensation, mechanical pain, and heat pain

    • A.

      Discriminative touch

    • B.

      Sensory unit

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Dermatome

    • G.

      Discriminative pathway

    • H.

      Stereognosis

    • I.

      Anterolateral pathway

    • J.

      Free nerve endings

    • K.

      Nociceptors

    Correct Answer
    C. Type A fibers
    Explanation
    Type A fibers are responsible for conveying cutaneous pressure and touch sensation, cold sensation, mechanical pain, and heat pain. These fibers are sensory nerves that transmit information from the skin to the brain, allowing us to perceive different sensations such as touch, temperature, and pain. They are classified into two subtypes: A-alpha fibers, which are larger and transmit information related to touch and pressure, and A-delta fibers, which are smaller and transmit information related to temperature and pain.

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  • 12. 

    Transmit information about muscle length and tendon stretch

    • A.

      Discriminative touch

    • B.

      Sensory unit

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Dermatome

    • G.

      Discriminative pathway

    • H.

      Stereognosis

    • I.

      Anterolateral pathway

    • J.

      Free nerve endings

    • K.

      Nociceptors

    Correct Answer
    D. Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers
    Explanation
    Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers transmit information about muscle length and tendon stretch. These fibers are part of the sensory pathway responsible for proprioception, which is the ability to sense the position and movement of our body parts. Proprioceptive information from these fibers helps us maintain balance, coordination, and perform precise movements. These fibers have a fast conduction velocity, allowing for quick transmission of information from the muscles and tendons to the central nervous system.

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  • 13. 

    Transmit information from cutaneous and subcutaneous mechanoreceptors

    • A.

      Discriminative touch

    • B.

      Sensory unit

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Dermatome

    • G.

      Discriminative pathway

    • H.

      Stereognosis

    • I.

      Anterolateral pathway

    • J.

      Free nerve endings

    • K.

      Nociceptors

    Correct Answer
    E. Type B fibers
    Explanation
    Type B fibers transmit information from cutaneous and subcutaneous mechanoreceptors. These fibers are involved in discriminative touch and sensory perception. They are responsible for relaying information about pressure, vibration, and proprioception. Unlike Type A fibers, which are larger and faster, Type B fibers are smaller and slower. They play a crucial role in the discriminative pathway, which allows us to perceive and interpret sensory information accurately.

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  • 14. 

    The region of the body wall that is supplied by a single pair of dorsal root ganglia

    • A.

      Discriminative touch

    • B.

      Sensory unit

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Dermatome

    • G.

      Discriminative pathway

    • H.

      Stereognosis

    • I.

      Anterolateral pathway

    • J.

      Free nerve endings

    • K.

      Nociceptors

    Correct Answer
    F. Dermatome
    Explanation
    A dermatome refers to the specific region of the body wall that is innervated by a single pair of dorsal root ganglia. Each dermatome corresponds to a specific spinal nerve, and damage or dysfunction in a particular dermatome can result in sensory loss or other neurological symptoms in that specific region.

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  • 15. 

    Carry the information from the spinal cord to the thalamic level of sensation and relay precise information regarding spatial orientation

    • A.

      Discriminative touch

    • B.

      Sensory unit

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Dermatome

    • G.

      Discriminative pathway

    • H.

      Stereognosis

    • I.

      Anterolateral pathway

    • J.

      Free nerve endings

    • K.

      Nociceptors

    Correct Answer
    G. Discriminative pathway
    Explanation
    The discriminative pathway carries information from the spinal cord to the thalamic level of sensation and relays precise information regarding spatial orientation. This pathway is responsible for transmitting sensory information related to discriminative touch, such as pressure, vibration, and fine touch. It involves the use of Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers, which are myelinated and allow for fast transmission of signals. This pathway is separate from the anterolateral pathway, which carries information related to pain and temperature.

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  • 16. 

    The sense of shape and size of an object in the absence of visualization

    • A.

      Discriminative touch

    • B.

      Sensory unit

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Dermatome

    • G.

      Discriminative pathway

    • H.

      Stereognosis

    • I.

      Anterolateral pathway

    • J.

      Free nerve endings

    • K.

      Nociceptors

    Correct Answer
    H. Stereognosis
    Explanation
    Stereognosis is the ability to perceive and recognize the shape and size of an object through touch and manipulation without visual input. It involves the integration of sensory information from discriminative touch receptors, such as type A-alpha and A-delta fibers, as well as proprioceptive and kinesthetic information. This allows individuals to identify objects solely based on their tactile properties. Stereognosis is processed through the discriminative pathway, which includes the dermatomes and sensory units. It is distinct from nociception, which is the perception of pain, and is mediated by free nerve endings and type B fibers.

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  • 17. 

    Stimulate autonomic nervous system responses, such as a rise in heart rate and blood pressure, dilation of the pupils, and the pale, moist skin that results from the constriction of the cutaneous blood vessels and activation of the sweat glands.

    • A.

      Discriminative touch

    • B.

      Sensory unit

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Dermatome

    • G.

      Discriminative pathway

    • H.

      Stereognosis

    • I.

      Anterolateral pathway

    • J.

      Free nerve endings

    • K.

      Nociceptors

    Correct Answer
    I. Anterolateral pathway
    Explanation
    The anterolateral pathway is responsible for transmitting sensory information related to pain and temperature. It stimulates autonomic nervous system responses such as an increase in heart rate and blood pressure, dilation of the pupils, and changes in skin appearance. This pathway is involved in the body's fight or flight response and helps to protect the body from potential harm.

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  • 18. 

    Detect touch and pressure

    • A.

      Discriminative touch

    • B.

      Sensory unit

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Dermatome

    • G.

      Discriminative pathway

    • H.

      Stereognosis

    • I.

      Anterolateral pathway

    • J.

      Free nerve endings

    • K.

      Nociceptors

    Correct Answer
    J. Free nerve endings
  • 19. 

    Sensory receptors that are activated by noxious insults to peripheral tissues

    • A.

      Discriminative touch

    • B.

      Sensory unit

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Type A-alpha and A-delta fibers

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Dermatome

    • G.

      Discriminative pathway

    • H.

      Stereognosis

    • I.

      Anterolateral pathway

    • J.

      Free nerve endings

    • K.

      Nociceptors

    Correct Answer
    K. Nociceptors
    Explanation
    Nociceptors are sensory receptors that are activated by noxious insults to peripheral tissues. They are responsible for detecting and transmitting signals of pain and discomfort to the central nervous system. When these receptors are stimulated, they send signals through sensory pathways, such as the anterolateral pathway, to the brain, where pain is perceived. Nociceptors are important for our survival as they alert us to potential harm or injury.

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  • 20. 

    A neurologic assessment of the somatosensory function of the body is often necessary for diagnostic information. How is this assessment done?

    • A.

      Testing the integrity of spinal segmental nerves

    • B.

      Testing the integrity of cranial nerves

    • C.

      Testing the integrity of peripheral nerves

    • D.

      Testing the integrity of the CNS

    Correct Answer
    A. Testing the integrity of spinal segmental nerves
    Explanation
    A neurologic assessment of the somatosensory function involves testing the integrity of spinal segmental nerves. These nerves are responsible for relaying sensory information from different parts of the body to the central nervous system (CNS). By assessing the integrity of these nerves, healthcare professionals can gather diagnostic information about the somatosensory function of the body. This can include testing for sensations such as touch, pain, temperature, and proprioception. By evaluating the spinal segmental nerves, any abnormalities or impairments in the somatosensory system can be identified.

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  • 21. 

    When testing nociceptive stimuli to elicit a withdrawal reflex in the body, what stimuli are commonly used?

    • A.

      Weak electrical current

    • B.

      Pressure from a sharp object

    • C.

      Skin temperature damp cotton ball

    • D.

      Water heated to 5 degrees Celsius above skin temperature

    Correct Answer
    B. Pressure from a sharp object
    Explanation
    When testing nociceptive stimuli to elicit a withdrawal reflex in the body, pressure from a sharp object is commonly used. This is because sharp objects can cause pain and activate the nociceptors, which are sensory receptors that respond to harmful or potentially harmful stimuli. The pressure applied by a sharp object can trigger the withdrawal reflex, causing the body to quickly move away from the source of the pain.

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  • 22. 

    One of the neurotransmitters between the nociceptive neurons and the dorsal horn neurons is a major excitatory neurotransmitter. What is this neurotransmitter?

    • A.

      Norepinephrine

    • B.

      Substance P

    • C.

      Glutamate

    • D.

      Dopamine

    Correct Answer
    C. Glutamate
    Explanation
    Glutamate is the correct answer because it is a major excitatory neurotransmitter between nociceptive neurons and dorsal horn neurons. Glutamate plays a crucial role in transmitting pain signals in the central nervous system and is involved in the perception and modulation of pain. It is released by nociceptive neurons and activates the dorsal horn neurons, contributing to the transmission of pain signals to the brain.

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  • 23. 

    Which tract in the spinal cord conducts the diffuse, dull, aching sensations that are associated with chronic and visceral pain?

    • A.

      Multisynaptic tract

    • B.

      Neospinothalamic tract

    • C.

      Anterolateral tract

    • D.

      Paleospinothalamic tract

    Correct Answer
    D. Paleospinothalamic tract
    Explanation
    The paleospinothalamic tract is responsible for conducting diffuse, dull, aching sensations that are associated with chronic and visceral pain. This tract carries information from the spinal cord to the thalamus, which then relays the information to the somatosensory cortex. Unlike the neospinothalamic tract, which carries sharp, localized pain sensations, the paleospinothalamic tract is involved in the transmission of more generalized and chronic pain signals.

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  • 24. 

    Type of pain experienced from a sprained ankle

    • A.

      Deep somatic pain

    • B.

      Cutaneous pain

    • C.

      Visceral pain

    • D.

      Referred pain

    • E.

      Guarding

    • F.

      Acute pain

    • G.

      Chronic pain

    Correct Answer
    A. Deep somatic pain
    Explanation
    Deep somatic pain is the correct answer because a sprained ankle involves damage to the ligaments, tendons, and muscles surrounding the joint. This type of pain is typically described as a deep, dull ache or throbbing sensation. It is different from cutaneous pain, which is felt on the surface of the skin, and visceral pain, which is associated with internal organs. Referred pain occurs when pain is felt in a different area than the actual source of the problem. Guarding refers to the protective muscle contractions that occur to protect an injured area. Acute pain is short-term and usually resolves as the injury heals, while chronic pain persists for longer periods.

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  • 25. 

    A sharp pain with a burning quality that may be abrupt or slow in onset

    • A.

      Deep somatic pain

    • B.

      Cutaneous pain

    • C.

      Visceral pain

    • D.

      Referred pain

    • E.

      Guarding

    • F.

      Acute pain

    • G.

      Chronic pain

    Correct Answer
    B. Cutaneous pain
    Explanation
    Cutaneous pain refers to pain that originates from the skin or subcutaneous tissue. It is typically described as a sharp pain with a burning quality. This type of pain can occur suddenly or gradually. Cutaneous pain is different from deep somatic pain, which originates from the muscles, ligaments, and bones, and visceral pain, which originates from the internal organs. Referred pain is pain that is felt in a different area of the body than where the actual cause of the pain is located. Guarding refers to the involuntary tensing of muscles to protect an injured or painful area. Acute pain is short-term pain, while chronic pain is long-lasting pain.

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  • 26. 

    Diffuse and poorly localized nature with a tendency to be referred to other locations

    • A.

      Deep somatic pain

    • B.

      Cutaneous pain

    • C.

      Visceral pain

    • D.

      Referred pain

    • E.

      Guarding

    • F.

      Acute pain

    • G.

      Chronic pain

    Correct Answer
    C. Visceral pain
    Explanation
    Visceral pain refers to pain that originates from the internal organs. It is often described as diffuse and poorly localized, meaning that the exact location of the pain may be difficult to pinpoint. Additionally, visceral pain has a tendency to be referred to other locations, meaning that the pain may be felt in a different area of the body than where the problem is actually occurring. This can make it challenging to diagnose and treat visceral pain.

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  • 27. 

    Perceived at a site different from its point of origin, but innervated by the same spinal segment

    • A.

      Deep somatic pain

    • B.

      Cutaneous pain

    • C.

      Visceral pain

    • D.

      Referred pain

    • E.

      Guarding

    • F.

      Acute pain

    • G.

      Chronic pain

    Correct Answer
    D. Referred pain
    Explanation
    Referred pain is the correct answer because it refers to pain that is perceived at a site different from its point of origin, but is innervated by the same spinal segment. This means that the pain is felt in a location that is not directly related to the source of the pain.

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  • 28. 

    A protective reflex rigidity; its purpose is to protect the affected body parts

    • A.

      Deep somatic pain

    • B.

      Cutaneous pain

    • C.

      Visceral pain

    • D.

      Referred pain

    • E.

      Guarding

    • F.

      Acute pain

    • G.

      Chronic pain

    Correct Answer
    E. Guarding
    Explanation
    Guarding refers to a protective reflex rigidity that occurs in response to pain or injury. It is a natural response of the body to protect the affected body parts from further harm or damage. The purpose of guarding is to limit movement and prevent any potential aggravation of the injury. It is a subconscious reflex that helps to immobilize the affected area and promote healing.

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  • 29. 

    The pain's location, radiation, intensity, and duration, as well as those factors that aggravate or relieve it provide essential diagnostic clues

    • A.

      Deep somatic pain

    • B.

      Cutaneous pain

    • C.

      Visceral pain

    • D.

      Referred pain

    • E.

      Guarding

    • F.

      Acute pain

    • G.

      Chronic pain

    Correct Answer
    F. Acute pain
    Explanation
    The given answer "Acute pain" is correct because the question mentions that the pain's location, radiation, intensity, and duration, as well as factors that aggravate or relieve it, provide essential diagnostic clues. Acute pain refers to pain that has a sudden onset and is typically sharp or intense. It is usually temporary and serves as a warning sign of tissue damage or injury. Therefore, the characteristics mentioned in the question are commonly associated with acute pain.

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  • 30. 

    Extends for long periods of time and generally represents low levels of underlying pathology that does not explain the presence and/or extent of the pain

    • A.

      Deep somatic pain

    • B.

      Cutaneous pain

    • C.

      Visceral pain

    • D.

      Referred pain

    • E.

      Guarding

    • F.

      Acute pain

    • G.

      Chronic pain

    Correct Answer
    G. Chronic pain
    Explanation
    Chronic pain refers to pain that lasts for long periods of time and is typically associated with low levels of underlying pathology that cannot fully explain the presence and/or extent of the pain. This means that the pain persists even after the initial injury or condition has healed, and there may not be a clear reason for the ongoing pain. Chronic pain can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and may require long-term management and treatment.

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  • 31. 

    When giving medicine for acute pain, health care workers are reluctant to provide much needed opioid pain medicine. What is your major concern when providing opioid pain relief?

    • A.

      Fear of addiction

    • B.

      Fear of depressed respirations

    • C.

      Fear of over-sedation

    • D.

      Fear of adverse reactions

    Correct Answer
    A. Fear of addiction
    Explanation
    The major concern when providing opioid pain relief is the fear of addiction. Opioids have a high potential for addiction and misuse, which can lead to serious health consequences for the patient. Health care workers may be hesitant to provide opioid pain medicine due to the risk of patients developing a dependence on these medications. It is important to carefully assess and monitor patients when prescribing opioids to minimize the risk of addiction and ensure safe and effective pain management.

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  • 32. 

    It is often necessary to assess a patient's pain. What factors would you assess when assessing pain? Mark all that apply.

    • A.

      Nature and severity of pain

    • B.

      Severity and spinal reflex involvement of pain

    • C.

      Location and radiation of pain

    • D.

      Spinal reflex involvement and nature of pain

    • E.

      Spinal tract involvement and radiation of pain

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Nature and severity of pain
    C. Location and radiation of pain
    Explanation
    When assessing a patient's pain, it is important to consider the nature and severity of the pain as well as the location and radiation of the pain. These factors can provide valuable information about the underlying cause and help guide treatment decisions. Assessing the nature of the pain can help determine if it is sharp, dull, throbbing, or burning, which may indicate different causes or mechanisms of pain. Severity of pain is important to assess in order to determine the level of distress and the appropriate interventions. Location and radiation of pain can provide clues about the affected body part or organ and any potential referred pain.

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  • 33. 

    Chronic pain is difficult to treat. Cancer, a common cause of chronic pain, has been especially addressed by the World Health Organization (WHO). What has WHO created to assist clinicians in choosing appropriate analgesics?

    • A.

      An opioid ladder for pain control

    • B.

      An analgesic ladder for pain control

    • C.

      Stepping stones for pain control

    • D.

      A list of nonpharmacologic ways to control pain

    Correct Answer
    B. An analgesic ladder for pain control
    Explanation
    The World Health Organization (WHO) has created an analgesic ladder for pain control to assist clinicians in choosing appropriate analgesics. This ladder provides a step-by-step approach to managing pain, starting with non-opioid medications and progressing to stronger opioids if necessary. It helps clinicians make informed decisions about the type and dosage of analgesics based on the severity of the pain. This approach ensures that patients receive effective pain relief while minimizing the risk of side effects and opioid dependence.

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  • 34. 

    In describing the ideal analgesic, what factors would be included? Mark all that apply.

    • A.

      Inexpensive

    • B.

      Have minimal adverse effects

    • C.

      Effective

    • D.

      Addictive

    • E.

      Decrease the level of consciousness

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Inexpensive
    B. Have minimal adverse effects
    C. Effective
    Explanation
    The ideal analgesic should be inexpensive, have minimal adverse effects, and be effective. These factors are important to ensure that the medication is accessible and affordable, while also minimizing any potential negative side effects. Additionally, the analgesic should effectively relieve pain without causing addiction or decreasing the level of consciousness.

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  • 35. 

    Awareness of the stimuli, localization and discrimination of their characteristics, and interpretation of their meaning

    • A.

      Perception

    • B.

      Somesthesia

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Polymodal receptors

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Hunting reflex

    • G.

      Primary somatosensory cortex

    • H.

      Hyperpathia

    • I.

      Type C fibers

    • J.

      Type A-alpha fibers

    Correct Answer
    A. Perception
    Explanation
    Perception refers to the process of becoming aware of stimuli, localizing and discriminating their characteristics, and interpreting their meaning. It involves the integration of sensory information from various senses to form a coherent understanding of the environment. Perception allows us to make sense of the world around us and respond accordingly.

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  • 36. 

    The perception of tactual, proprioceptive, or gut sensations

    • A.

      Perception

    • B.

      Somesthesia

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Polymodal receptors

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Hunting reflex

    • G.

      Primary somatosensory cortex

    • H.

      Hyperpathia

    • I.

      Type C fibers

    • J.

      Type A-alpha fibers

    Correct Answer
    B. Somesthesia
    Explanation
    Somesthesia refers to the perception of tactual, proprioceptive, or gut sensations. It involves the activation of various sensory fibers, including Type A, Type B, and Type C fibers. Polymodal receptors play a role in somesthesia, as they are able to respond to multiple types of stimuli. The primary somatosensory cortex is responsible for processing and interpreting these sensory signals. Hyperpathia, which is an increased sensitivity to pain, can also be a part of somesthesia. Therefore, the given answer correctly identifies somesthesia as the perception of these sensations.

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  • 37. 

    Convey cutaneous pressure and touch sensation, cold sensation, mechanical pain, and heat pain

    • A.

      Perception

    • B.

      Somesthesia

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Polymodal receptors

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Hunting reflex

    • G.

      Primary somatosensory cortex

    • H.

      Hyperpathia

    • I.

      Type C fibers

    • J.

      Type A-alpha fibers

    Correct Answer
    C. Type A fibers
    Explanation
    Type A fibers are a type of nerve fibers that convey sensory information related to cutaneous pressure and touch sensation, cold sensation, mechanical pain, and heat pain. These fibers are responsible for transmitting signals quickly and efficiently, allowing for rapid perception and response to different sensory stimuli.

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  • 38. 

    Respond to mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli

    • A.

      Perception

    • B.

      Somesthesia

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Polymodal receptors

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Hunting reflex

    • G.

      Primary somatosensory cortex

    • H.

      Hyperpathia

    • I.

      Type C fibers

    • J.

      Type A-alpha fibers

    Correct Answer
    D. Polymodal receptors
    Explanation
    Polymodal receptors are sensory receptors that respond to multiple types of stimuli, including mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli. These receptors are found in various parts of the body and play a crucial role in the perception of different sensations. They are responsible for transmitting signals to the brain, allowing us to perceive and interpret sensations such as touch, temperature, and pain. Polymodal receptors are classified as Type C fibers, which are unmyelinated and transmit slower signals, compared to Type A fibers. Overall, polymodal receptors are essential for our ability to sense and respond to various stimuli in our environment.

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  • 39. 

    Transmit information from cutaneous and subcutaneous mechanoreceptors

    • A.

      Perception

    • B.

      Somesthesia

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Polymodal receptors

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Hunting reflex

    • G.

      Primary somatosensory cortex

    • H.

      Hyperpathia

    • I.

      Type C fibers

    • J.

      Type A-alpha fibers

    Correct Answer
    E. Type B fibers
    Explanation
    Type B fibers transmit information from cutaneous and subcutaneous mechanoreceptors. These mechanoreceptors are responsible for detecting mechanical stimuli such as pressure, touch, and vibration on the skin and in the underlying tissues. Type B fibers are slower conducting compared to Type A fibers, which transmit sharp, localized pain sensations. Type B fibers are involved in transmitting information related to touch and pressure sensations, contributing to the perception of somesthesia. They play a role in the Hunting reflex, which is a protective reflex that causes muscles to contract when the skin is stimulated. The information carried by Type B fibers is ultimately processed in the primary somatosensory cortex.

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  • 40. 

    Circulation to a cooled area undergoes alternating periods of pallor caused by ischemia and flushing caused by hyperemia

    • A.

      Perception

    • B.

      Somesthesia

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Polymodal receptors

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Hunting reflex

    • G.

      Primary somatosensory cortex

    • H.

      Hyperpathia

    • I.

      Type C fibers

    • J.

      Type A-alpha fibers

    Correct Answer
    F. Hunting reflex
  • 41. 

    Receives primary sensory information by way of direct projections from the thalamus

    • A.

      Perception

    • B.

      Somesthesia

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Polymodal receptors

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Hunting reflex

    • G.

      Primary somatosensory cortex

    • H.

      Hyperpathia

    • I.

      Type C fibers

    • J.

      Type A-alpha fibers

    Correct Answer
    G. Primary somatosensory cortex
    Explanation
    The primary somatosensory cortex receives primary sensory information directly from the thalamus. This means that it is the first area of the brain to receive and process sensory information related to touch, pressure, temperature, and pain. The thalamus acts as a relay station, sending this information to the primary somatosensory cortex for further processing and interpretation.

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  • 42. 

    Sensory threshold is raised

    • A.

      Perception

    • B.

      Somesthesia

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Polymodal receptors

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Hunting reflex

    • G.

      Primary somatosensory cortex

    • H.

      Hyperpathia

    • I.

      Type C fibers

    • J.

      Type A-alpha fibers

    Correct Answer
    H. Hyperpathia
    Explanation
    Hyperpathia is a condition characterized by an increased sensitivity to pain and a heightened perception of pain stimuli. This means that the sensory threshold, which is the level of stimulus needed to detect a sensation, is raised in individuals with hyperpathia. As a result, they may experience pain from stimuli that would not typically be painful for others. This can be caused by damage or dysfunction in the nervous system, specifically in the pain pathways.

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  • 43. 

    Convey warm-hot sensation and mechanical and chemical as well as heat- and cold-induced pain sensation

    • A.

      Perception

    • B.

      Somesthesia

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Polymodal receptors

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Hunting reflex

    • G.

      Primary somatosensory cortex

    • H.

      Hyperpathia

    • I.

      Type C fibers

    • J.

      Type A-alpha fibers

    Correct Answer
    I. Type C fibers
    Explanation
    Type C fibers are unmyelinated nerve fibers that transmit pain signals. They are responsible for conveying heat- and cold-induced pain sensation, as well as mechanical and chemical pain. These fibers are slower in conducting nerve impulses compared to other types of nerve fibers.

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  • 44. 

    Transmit information about muscle length and tendon stretch

    • A.

      Perception

    • B.

      Somesthesia

    • C.

      Type A fibers

    • D.

      Polymodal receptors

    • E.

      Type B fibers

    • F.

      Hunting reflex

    • G.

      Primary somatosensory cortex

    • H.

      Hyperpathia

    • I.

      Type C fibers

    • J.

      Type A-alpha fibers

    Correct Answer
    J. Type A-alpha fibers
    Explanation
    Type A-alpha fibers are a type of sensory nerve fibers that transmit information about muscle length and tendon stretch. These fibers are responsible for proprioception, which is the perception of the position and movement of our body parts. They provide feedback to the brain about the length and tension in our muscles and tendons, allowing us to have a sense of where our body is in space and to make coordinated movements. These fibers have a large diameter and are myelinated, which allows for fast transmission of signals.

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  • 45. 

    Detect touch and pressure

    • A.

      Free nerve endings

    • B.

      Meissner corpuscles

    • C.

      Merkel disks

    • D.

      Pacinian corpuscles

    • E.

      Hair follicle end-organs

    • F.

      Ruffini end-organs

    Correct Answer
    A. Free nerve endings
    Explanation
    Free nerve endings are sensory receptors that are widely distributed throughout the body. They are responsible for detecting touch and pressure stimuli. These nerve endings are the simplest and most common type of sensory receptors in the body. They are found in the skin, mucous membranes, and various internal organs. Free nerve endings have unmyelinated nerve fibers that detect changes in temperature, pain, and mechanical stimuli such as touch and pressure. They play a crucial role in the body's ability to sense and respond to external stimuli.

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  • 46. 

    Elongated, encapsulated nerve ending that is present in non-hairy parts of the skin

    • A.

      Free nerve endings

    • B.

      Meissner corpuscles

    • C.

      Merkel disks

    • D.

      Pacinian corpuscles

    • E.

      Hair follicle end-organs

    • F.

      Ruffini end-organs

    Correct Answer
    B. Meissner corpuscles
    Explanation
    Meissner corpuscles are elongated, encapsulated nerve endings that are present in non-hairy parts of the skin. They are responsible for detecting light touch and low-frequency vibrations. These corpuscles are found in high concentrations in areas such as the fingertips, lips, and palms, where tactile sensitivity is important. They are sensitive to changes in texture and provide information about the fine details of objects that come into contact with the skin.

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  • 47. 

    Are responsible for giving steady-state signals that allow for continuous determination of touch against the skin

    • A.

      Free nerve endings

    • B.

      Meissner corpuscles

    • C.

      Merkel disks

    • D.

      Pacinian corpuscles

    • E.

      Hair follicle end-organs

    • F.

      Ruffini end-organs

    Correct Answer
    C. Merkel disks
    Explanation
    Merkel disks are responsible for giving steady-state signals that allow for continuous determination of touch against the skin. These specialized nerve endings are found in the skin's epidermis and are particularly sensitive to light touch and pressure. They play a crucial role in our ability to perceive and interpret tactile sensations.

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  • 48. 

    Stimulated by rapid movements of the tissues and adapts within a few hundredths of a second

    • A.

      Free nerve endings

    • B.

      Meissner corpuscles

    • C.

      Merkel disks

    • D.

      Pacinian corpuscles

    • E.

      Hair follicle end-organs

    • F.

      Ruffini end-organs

    Correct Answer
    D. Pacinian corpuscles
    Explanation
    Pacinian corpuscles are sensory receptors located in the skin that are sensitive to rapid changes in pressure and vibration. When there are rapid movements of the tissues, such as during a tap or a vibration, the Pacinian corpuscles are stimulated and adapt to these changes within a few hundredths of a second. This allows them to quickly transmit signals to the brain, providing information about the external environment.

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  • 49. 

    Unmyelinated fibers entwined around most of the length of the hair follicle that detect movement on the surface of the body

    • A.

      Free nerve endings

    • B.

      Meissner corpuscles

    • C.

      Merkel disks

    • D.

      Pacinian corpuscles

    • E.

      Hair follicle end-organs

    • F.

      Ruffini end-organs

    Correct Answer
    E. Hair follicle end-organs
    Explanation
    Hair follicle end-organs are unmyelinated fibers that are wrapped around the length of the hair follicle. These end-organs are responsible for detecting movement on the surface of the body. They are sensitive to changes in the position of the hair and can detect even subtle movements. This allows them to provide sensory information about the movement of objects or air currents on the skin.

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  • 50. 

    Found in joint capsules

    • A.

      Free nerve endings

    • B.

      Meissner corpuscles

    • C.

      Merkel disks

    • D.

      Pacinian corpuscles

    • E.

      Hair follicle end-organs

    • F.

      Ruffini end-organs

    Correct Answer
    F. Ruffini end-organs
    Explanation
    Ruffini end-organs are found in joint capsules. These sensory receptors are responsible for detecting mechanical deformation and are sensitive to continuous pressure and stretch. They are found in the deep layers of the skin and respond to changes in joint position and movement, providing information about joint angle and joint movement.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 03, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Bikisoucy
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