2240 Motor Control

38 Questions

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Engineering Quizzes & Trivia

Lecture 6 - - Motor Control Theories - Proprioception - Vision - Motor Control Characteristics


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Which of the following is not a characteristic of a closed loop control system:
    • A. 

      Uses Feedback

    • B. 

      Information issued only to initiate movement

    • C. 

      Movement is typically over very early

  • 2. 
    Which of the following is the most correct definition of coordination:
    • A. 

      The process or state of coordinating or being coordinated

    • B. 

      The organization of the different elements of a complex body or activity so as to enable them to work together effectively

    • C. 

      Patterning of the body and limb motions relative to the patterning of environmental objects and events

    • D. 

      Having the ability to function in a sporting environment (ie. catch a ball, hit a pitch)

  • 3. 
    Throwing a baseball pitch would be an example of what control system?
    • A. 

      Open Loop

    • B. 

      Closed Loop

    • C. 

      Efference Copy

    • D. 

      Central Centre (Executive)

  • 4. 
    How many degrees of freedom are there in the shoulder?
    • A. 

      1

    • B. 

      2

    • C. 

      3

    • D. 

      4

  • 5. 
    The degrees of freedom problem explains:
    • A. 

      The number of independent elements in a central system and the ways each component can act

    • B. 

      All the possible movements around a specific limb or joint

    • C. 

      The various movement possibilities applicable to the body

    • D. 

      Context of the environment of the head, body and/or limb movements so that actions can be accomplished

  • 6. 
    Which of the following Motor Control Theories emphasises the role of a memory representation in the control of coordinated action?
    • A. 

      Schmidt's Schema Theory

    • B. 

      Dynamic Pattern Theory

    • C. 

      Motor Program-based Theories

    • D. 

      Fitt's Law

  • 7. 
    The Dynamic Pattern Theory:
    • A. 

      Is a memory based construct that controls coordinated movement

    • B. 

      Describes and explains the role of coordinated movement that emphasises the role of information in the environment and properties of the body/limbs

    • C. 

      Hypothesises a Generalised Motor Program (GMP)

    • D. 

      Helps to explain the degrees of freedom problem and describes how the nervous system produces coordinated movement of motor skills

  • 8. 
    Invariant features are defined as:
    • A. 

      Features of a GMP that can be varied from one performance of a skill to another

    • B. 

      A unique set of characteristics that defines a GMP and does not vary from one performance to the next

    • C. 

      A memory representation that stores information needed o perform an action

    • D. 

      The fundamental of the class of actions

  • 9. 
    Schmidt's Schema Theory proposes that:
    • A. 

      Memory is the most important component of a GMP

    • B. 

      A GMP serves as the central, memory-based mechanism for the control of motor skill performance

    • C. 

      Open and closed loop control systems send movement instructions to the GMP and initiate a movement

    • D. 

      When a specific action is performed, specific parameter values must be added to the GMP

  • 10. 
    In order to adapt an overarm throw for distance in a softball game, which part of the GMP must be altered?
    • A. 

      Invariant features

    • B. 

      Regulatory conditions

    • C. 

      Parameters

    • D. 

      Attractors

  • 11. 
    Anti-phase to In-phase organisation (ie. tapping fingers at seperate patterns - out of phase - will eventually lead to tapping at the same time - in-phase) is an exmaple of what:
    • A. 

      Control Parameter

    • B. 

      Self-Organisation

    • C. 

      Coordinated Structures

    • D. 

      Dynamical Systems

  • 12. 
    Which of the following is not a characteristic of the Motor Program Based Theory?
    • A. 

      Instructions are specified by the CNS

    • B. 

      Control process is managed by a motor program

    • C. 

      Motor Program organizes, initiates, and carries out intended actions

    • D. 

      Non-linear changes in movement behaviour

  • 13. 
    Which of the following does not apply to proprioception?
    • A. 

      Refers to the sensation and perception of limb, trunk, head position and movement

    • B. 

      Densory information is transmitted to the CNS (movement direction, location in space etc.)

    • C. 

      More important in open-loop control systems rather than closed-loop control systems

    • D. 

      Important source of feedback

  • 14. 
    The function of muscles spindles are:
    • A. 

      To detect change in muscle fibre length, limb movement velocity and acceleration and limb spatial position

    • B. 

      To detect force through the tendon due to lengthening of skeletal muscle

    • C. 

      To help detect joint spatial position, joint velocity and joint direction

    • D. 

      Act to detect the limits of joint flexion and extension

  • 15. 
    • A. 

      Muscle Spindles

    • B. 

      Joint Receptors

    • C. 

      Golgi tendon organs

    • D. 

      Alpha motor neurons

  • 16. 
    As observed by Taub and Berman (1963, 1968), Monkeys that had undergone Surgical Deafferentation showed:
    • A. 

      Increased precision of motor skills

    • B. 

      An inability to perform previously known motor skills

    • C. 

      A lesser degree of precision when performing motor skills

    • D. 

      No difference in level of motor skill proficiency

  • 17. 
    Which of the following statements about Sensory Polyneuropathy is false?
    • A. 

      Large myelinated fibres degenerate - leading to loss of all sensory information including pain and temperature

    • B. 

      Efferent motor pathways are (usually) intact - strength is normal

    • C. 

      Patients who are unable to see their limbs cannot sense their position nor detect motion of joints

    • D. 

      A) and b)

    • E. 

      None of the above

  • 18. 
    If I were to vibrate both of the Achilles Tendons of an individual whom was standing with their eyes closed, the likely postural response would be to:
    • A. 

      Do nothing

    • B. 

      Initiate step forwards

    • C. 

      Sway forwards and fall over

    • D. 

      Sway backwards and fall over

  • 19. 
    The info from motor areas of the brain that is destined for the muscles is also sent as:
    • A. 

      An attractor

    • B. 

      An efference copy

    • C. 

      The executive

    • D. 

      Feedback

  • 20. 
    • A. 

      Believe our muscles (ie. proprioception)

    • B. 

      Believe our eyes

    • C. 

      Get so confused our heads explode

    • D. 

      Need to make an executive decision to decide which sensory source to rely on

  • 21. 
    The clear surface that covers the front of the eye is:
    • A. 

      Pupil

    • B. 

      Iris

    • C. 

      Lens

    • D. 

      Cornea

  • 22. 
    Which of the following is the eye structure that covers the back of the eye as an extension of the brain (contains neuro-receptors that transmit visual information to the brain):
    • A. 

      Pupil

    • B. 

      Retina

    • C. 

      Iris

    • D. 

      Lens

  • 23. 
    Which of the following statements about the neural components of the eye is FALSE:
    • A. 

      Rods are photoreceptor cells that respond to low levels of light

    • B. 

      Cones are photoreceptor cells that respond to bright light

    • C. 

      The Optic Nerve is a cranial nerve - it transfers visual information from the retina to the brain

    • D. 

      A) & b)

    • E. 

      All of the above are correct

  • 24. 
    Vision for 'action' is processed via which stream:
    • A. 

      Dorsal

    • B. 

      Ventral

  • 25. 
    Which of the following statements about vision is FALSE:
    • A. 

      Skilled tennis players view an opponents trunk-hip and head-shoulder areas

    • B. 

      Less skilled spent more time looking at the opponents racquet

    • C. 

      Event Occlusion is defined as excluding a part of an opponents body in a picture

    • D. 

      Novices found that they had a lower percentage of error predicting the next action of a tennis player during Temporal Occlusion

  • 26. 
    Central vision (ie. information detected from a small area with a range of about 2 - 5 degrees) can also be explained as:
    • A. 

      Monocular Vision

    • B. 

      Binocular Vision

    • C. 

      Foveal Vision

    • D. 

      Peripheral Vision

  • 27. 
    • A. 

      Transportation to reach forward is blocked

    • B. 

      The grasp is not affected

    • C. 

      The grasp is affected

    • D. 

      A) & b)

  • 28. 
    In order to successfully catch an oncoming object you must see the object until:
    • A. 

      You catch it

    • B. 

      Halfway through its flight

    • C. 

      You can predict the rest of the flight

    • D. 

      It leaves the hand of the person throwing it

  • 29. 
    The optical variable Tau is defined as:
    • A. 

      Tc = kA/A

    • B. 

      Time to contact

    • C. 

      The speed and accuracy tradeoff

    • D. 

      The visual field 200 degrees horizontally and 160 degrees vertically

  • 30. 
    The Ventral Visual system:
    • A. 

      Is the pathway for Action

    • B. 

      Projects from the primary visual cortex to the posterior parietal cortex

    • C. 

      Projects from the primary visual cortex to the inferotemporal cortex

    • D. 

      Is the pathway for Perception

    • E. 

      A) & b)

    • F. 

      A) & c)

    • G. 

      C) & d)

  • 31. 
    There is no single, absolute estimate of the time to process information, however there is a certain value that is considered reasonable for many tasks. This value is:
    • A. 

      215-250ms

    • B. 

      100-160ms

    • C. 

      150-200ms

    • D. 

      180-230ms

  • 32. 
    Describe Fitt's Law and explain how it relates to the speed-accuracy trade off
  • 33. 
    Prehension describes actions involving reaching for and grasping objects. There are 3 components for prehension. Which of the following is not one of them...
    • A. 

      Transport

    • B. 

      Limb Movement

    • C. 

      Grasp

    • D. 

      Object Manipulation

  • 34. 
    • A. 

      Asymmetric

    • B. 

      Symmetric

    • C. 

      Disassociate

    • D. 

      Difficult

  • 35. 
    The "reach and grasp" component of Prehension are no two seperate movement components but are interdependent.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 36. 
    Which of the following statements about handwriting are FALSE?
    • A. 

      There is a great deal of individual variation with limb segment involvement

    • B. 

      Handwriting demonstrates only cognitive elements within a control process

    • C. 

      Motor equivalence demonstrates a person adapting to specific demands with regard to muscle involvement (eg. writing samples)

    • D. 

      Lexical, semantic and motor control processes occur simultaneously when writing

  • 37. 
    Which of the following statesments about Gait is FALSE?
    • A. 

      There is a non-rhythmic structure of gait patterns that exist between arms and legs

    • B. 

      Identification of gait patterns allow assessment techniques of coordination patterns

    • C. 

      Head Stability is a high priority is the gait motor control system

    • D. 

      Locomotion cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments adopt 'abnormal' gait to enable head stability

  • 38. 
    • A. 

      It makes contact with the bat

    • B. 

      100-160ms after it leaves the pictures hand

    • C. 

      Only to a certain spot (before contact) in order to synchronise with the step forward

    • D. 

      Until you can predict where the ball will fall in the strikers zone