# Gait Analysis Trivia Quiz

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Ready for an informative Gait analysis trivia quiz? A gait is understood as a pattern of limb movements that are made during locomotion. Human gaits are known as the various ways in which a human can move. This can be natural or a result of specialized training. These are some questions to test your knowledge of Gait. Let's find out how much you know, and we hope you enjoy it. Good luck!

• 1.

### Normal gait cycle occurs during:

• A.

Running

• B.

Dancing

• C.

Walking

• D.

Hopping

C. Walking
Explanation
The normal gait cycle occurs during walking. Walking is a rhythmic movement of the legs and body, where one foot is always in contact with the ground while the other is swinging forward. This cyclic motion involves the coordination of various muscles and joints, allowing for efficient and balanced movement. Running, dancing, and hopping also involve leg movement, but they have different patterns and characteristics compared to the normal gait cycle of walking.

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• 2.

### The distance between successive contact points of opposite feet:

• A.

Gait or step length

• B.

Stride length

• C.

Lateral pelvic shift

• D.

Base width

A. Gait or step length
Explanation
The distance between successive contact points of opposite feet is referred to as "gait or step length." This measurement represents the distance covered by a person with each step taken during walking or running. It is an important parameter to assess an individual's walking pattern and can be used to evaluate gait abnormalities or changes in walking ability.

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• 3.

### Distance between the two feet when viewed anterior or posterior:

• A.

Gait or step length

• B.

Lateral pelvic shift

• C.

Stride length

• D.

Base width

D. Base width
Explanation
Base width refers to the distance between the two feet when viewed from the front or back. It is a measure of the width of the base of support during gait or movement. A wider base width indicates a more stable and balanced stance, while a narrower base width may indicate a less stable stance. Therefore, base width is the correct answer for the given question.

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• 4.

### Distance between successive points of contact of the same foot:

• A.

Base width

• B.

Stride length

• C.

Gait or step length

• D.

Mid-stance

B. Stride length
Explanation
Stride length refers to the distance between successive points of contact of the same foot. It is the measurement of how far an individual's foot travels from one step to the next. This can be calculated by measuring the distance between the heel strike of one foot and the next heel strike of the same foot. Stride length is an important parameter in analyzing gait patterns and can provide valuable information about an individual's walking or running efficiency.

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• 5.

### Side to side movement of the pelvis during walking:

• A.

Anterior pelvic shift

• B.

Posterior pelvic shift

• C.

Lateral pelvic shift

• D.

Medial pelvic shift

C. Lateral pelvic shift
Explanation
During walking, the pelvis undergoes a lateral pelvic shift. This means that the pelvis moves from side to side as we take steps. This movement is important for maintaining balance and stability while walking. It allows for the transfer of weight from one leg to the other, ensuring smooth and efficient movement. The lateral pelvic shift also helps to counterbalance the movement of the upper body, reducing strain on the spine and preventing excessive rotation.

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• 6.

### This gait parameter reaches its highest point at mid-stance and its lowest point at initial contact:

• A.

Step length

• B.

Vertical pelvic shift

• C.

Lateral pelvic shift

• D.

Pelvic rotation

B. Vertical pelvic shift
Explanation
The correct answer is vertical pelvic shift. During the gait cycle, the vertical pelvic shift refers to the upward and downward movement of the pelvis. It reaches its highest point at mid-stance, which is the phase when the body weight is directly over the supporting limb, and its lowest point at initial contact, which is the moment when the foot makes contact with the ground. This parameter is important for maintaining balance and stability during walking.

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• 7.

### Normal speed of walking:

• A.

90-120 steps/minute

• B.

150-180 steps/minute

• C.

40-50 steps/minute

• D.

250-300 steps/minute

A. 90-120 steps/minute
Explanation
The normal speed of walking is typically measured by the number of steps taken per minute. The range of 90-120 steps per minute is considered to be the normal speed for walking. This range allows for a comfortable and efficient pace, ensuring that the individual maintains a steady rhythm and does not exert too much effort. Walking at a speed within this range also promotes cardiovascular health and endurance.

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• 8.

### The entire right foot is flat on the floor and the left foot is still touching the floor, so this continues to be a period of double support.  The right foot is in:

• A.

Flat foot

• B.

Mid-stance

• C.

Heel off

• D.

Toe off

A. Flat foot
Explanation
In this scenario, the entire right foot is on the floor, indicating that the foot is in contact with the ground. The left foot is also still touching the floor, suggesting that both feet are supporting the body weight at this moment. Therefore, this position is considered a period of double support. The term "flat foot" accurately describes this position where the entire foot is in contact with the ground, making it the correct answer.

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• 9.

### The right leg alone carries the body weight while the left leg goes through its swing phase and becomes the leading leg.  The right foot is in:

• A.

Heel off

• B.

Mid-stance

• C.

Flat foot

• D.

Toe off

B. Mid-stance
Explanation
Mid-stance refers to the phase of walking or running where the body weight is evenly distributed between both feet. During mid-stance, the right leg is carrying the body weight while the left leg is in its swing phase. This means that the right foot is on the ground and the weight is being supported by the entire foot, from the heel to the toes. Therefore, mid-stance is the correct answer in this context.

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• 10.

### Heel of foot rises off the floor in:

• A.

Flat foot

• B.

Toe off

• C.

Heel off

• D.

Mid-stance

C. Heel off
Explanation
The term "heel off" refers to the moment when the heel of the foot lifts off the floor during the walking or running gait cycle. This occurs after the mid-stance phase, where the foot is flat on the ground, and before the toe off phase, where the toes push off the ground. During the heel off phase, the weight of the body is transferred from the heel to the ball of the foot, preparing for the propulsion phase of the gait cycle.

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• 11.

### The stance leg (right leg) unloads body weight to the opposite leg and the toe of the right foot rises off the floor.  The right foot is in:

• A.

Heel strike

• B.

Heel off

• C.

Toe off

• D.

Flat foot

C. Toe off
Explanation
The given information states that the toe of the right foot rises off the floor while the stance leg unloads body weight to the opposite leg. This indicates that the right foot is in the "toe off" position.

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• 12.

### The left foot is coming off the floor while the right foot is accepting the body weight. The right foot is in:

• A.

Heel strike

• B.

Mid-stance

• C.

Heel off

• D.

Toe off

A. Heel strike
Explanation
The given scenario describes the moment when the left foot is being lifted off the ground and the right foot is supporting the body weight. This indicates that the right foot is in the heel strike phase of the gait cycle. During heel strike, the heel of the foot makes initial contact with the ground, absorbing the impact of the body weight and preparing for the next phase of the gait cycle.

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• 13.

### When the shoulder is elevated, the following muscles could be hypotonic EXCEPT:

• A.

Upper trapezius

• B.

Levator scapula

• C.

Rhomboids

• D.

Lower trapezius

D. Lower trapezius
Explanation
The lower trapezius muscle is not hypotonic when the shoulder is elevated. Hypotonicity refers to a decrease in muscle tone or tension, leading to weakness or decreased function. When the shoulder is elevated, the upper trapezius, levator scapula, and rhomboids muscles may become hypotonic due to their involvement in shoulder elevation. However, the lower trapezius muscle is responsible for shoulder depression and retraction, not elevation, so it would not be hypotonic in this scenario.

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• 14.

### Hypertonic muscle that causes the abdomen to protrude:

• A.

Ilipsoas

• B.

Rectus abdominis

• C.

Obliques

• D.

Transverse abdominis

A. Ilipsoas
Explanation
The ilipsoas muscle is responsible for flexing the hip joint and also helps in stabilizing the spine. When this muscle becomes hypertonic or overly contracted, it can cause the abdomen to protrude. This is because the ilipsoas muscle attaches to the lumbar spine and when it contracts excessively, it can pull the spine forward, leading to a protruding abdomen.

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• 15.

### Winging of the scapula can be caused by the following hypertonic muscles:

• A.

Upper trapezius, infraspinatus, teres minor

• B.

Middle and lower trapezius

• C.

Upper trapezius, pectoralis minor, levator scapula

• D.

Serratus anterior, rhomboids, levator scapula

C. Upper trapezius, pectoralis minor, levator scapula
Explanation
Winging of the scapula refers to the abnormal protrusion or sticking out of the scapula bone on the back. This condition can be caused by the weakness or dysfunction of certain muscles that stabilize the scapula. The upper trapezius, pectoralis minor, and levator scapula muscles are all involved in scapular stabilization. If these muscles are hypertonic (overly tight or contracted), they can pull the scapula into an abnormal position, causing winging. Therefore, the combination of upper trapezius, pectoralis minor, and levator scapula muscles being hypertonic can explain the occurrence of scapular winging.

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• 16.

### Pelvis is considered to have "anterior tilt" when lumbar spine is

• A.

Hypolordotic

• B.

Hyperlordotic

• C.

Kyphotic

• D.

Hypokyphotic

B. Hyperlordotic
Explanation
When the lumbar spine is hyperlordotic, it means that there is an excessive inward curve in the lower back. This causes the pelvis to tilt forward, resulting in an anterior tilt. The term "hyper" in hyperlordotic indicates an excessive or increased curve, which leads to the pelvis being in an anteriorly tilted position.

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• 17.

### Weakened erector spinae muscles in lumbar spine can cause:

• A.

Anterior pelvic tilt

• B.

Kyphotic curve

• C.

Posterior pelvic tilt

• D.

Hyperlordotic curve

C. Posterior pelvic tilt
Explanation
Posterior pelvic tilt is the correct answer because weakened erector spinae muscles in the lumbar spine can lead to an imbalance in the muscles surrounding the pelvis. This imbalance causes the pelvis to tilt backward, resulting in a posterior pelvic tilt. This can lead to a flattening of the lumbar curve and an increase in the curvature of the thoracic spine, known as a kyphotic curve. It is important to note that weakened erector spinae muscles can also contribute to other postural abnormalities, but in this case, the specific effect is a posterior pelvic tilt.

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• 18.

### Knock knee appearance can be caused by a weakened:

• A.

Vastus medialis

• B.

TFL

• C.

Vastus lateralis

• D.

Biceps femoris

A. Vastus medialis
Explanation
The weakened vastus medialis muscle can cause a knock knee appearance. The vastus medialis is one of the quadriceps muscles located on the inner side of the thigh. It helps to stabilize the knee joint and is responsible for keeping the leg straight during movement. When this muscle is weakened, it can lead to an imbalance in the muscles around the knee, causing the knee to bend inward and creating a knock knee appearance.

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• 19.

### In a military posture, the lumbar spine is:

• A.

Hyperlordotic

• B.

Hypolordotic

• C.

Normal lordosis

• D.

Posterior pelvic tilt

A. Hyperlordotic
Explanation
In a military posture, the lumbar spine is hyperlordotic. This means that there is an excessive inward curve or sway in the lower back. This posture is commonly seen in military personnel due to the need to maintain an upright and rigid stance. The hyperlordotic posture helps to distribute weight evenly and maintain stability while standing for long periods of time.

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• 20.

### If a client has a positive functional leg test where the leg is short on the left, the hypertonic muscle group responsible could be:

• A.

• B.

Left abductors

• C.

• D.

Left gastrocenimeus

Explanation
A positive functional leg test where the leg is short on the left suggests that there is hypertonicity in the left adductor muscle group. The adductors are responsible for bringing the leg towards the midline of the body. If the left leg is shorter, it indicates that the left adductor muscles are contracted and pulling the leg towards the midline more strongly than the right side. This muscular imbalance can cause the leg to appear shorter on the left side. Therefore, the left adductors are the likely hypertonic muscle group in this scenario.

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• 21.

### A low ilium can be caused by the following hypertonic muscles except:

• A.

TFL

• B.

Gluteal group

• C.

Hamstrings

• D.

Obliques

D. Obliques
Explanation
A low ilium refers to a condition where one side of the hip bone is lower than the other. This can be caused by hypertonic (overly tight) muscles pulling on the ilium. The TFL (tensor fasciae latae), the gluteal group, and the hamstrings are all muscles that can contribute to a low ilium when they become hypertonic. However, the obliques, which are muscles located in the abdomen, do not directly attach to the ilium and therefore do not have the ability to cause a low ilium.

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• 22.

### Bowlegged appearance can be caused by the following weakened muscles except:

• A.

TFL

• B.

Vastus lateralis

• C.

Gracilis

• D.

Gluteus maximus

C. Gracilis
Explanation
The gracilis muscle is not responsible for causing a bowlegged appearance. The TFL (tensor fasciae latae) muscle, vastus lateralis muscle, and gluteus maximus muscle can all contribute to a bowlegged appearance when weakened. However, the gracilis muscle is not directly involved in the alignment of the legs and does not play a significant role in causing a bowlegged appearance.

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• 23.

### Foot pronation can be caused by the following hypertonic muscle:

• A.

Gluteus medius

• B.

Gluteus minimus

• C.

Tibialis posterior

• D.

Gastrocnemius

D. Gastrocnemius
Explanation
The correct answer is gastrocnemius because it is a major muscle in the calf that plays a significant role in foot pronation. When the gastrocnemius muscle is hypertonic or tight, it can lead to excessive pronation or inward rolling of the foot. This can cause various foot and lower leg issues such as flat feet, plantar fasciitis, and shin splints. Therefore, the hypertonicity of the gastrocnemius muscle can contribute to foot pronation.

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• 24.

### A unilaterally rotated ilium is called:

• A.

Anterior tilt

• B.

Posterior tilt

• C.

Extended ilium

• D.

Neutral

C. Extended ilium
Explanation
An extended ilium refers to a unilaterally rotated ilium. When the ilium is extended, it means that it is rotated forward or anteriorly. This rotation can cause an imbalance in the pelvis and affect the alignment of the spine. Therefore, an extended ilium is a term used to describe this specific type of rotation.

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• 25.

### A high ilium is caused by hypertonicity of:

• A.

QL and lumbar erector spinae group

• B.

Gluteal group and hamstrings

• C.

TFL and sartorius

• D.

Rectus femoris and hamstrings

A. QL and lumbar erector spinae group
Explanation
A high ilium refers to an elevated position of the iliac crest. The QL (quadratus lumborum) and lumbar erector spinae group are responsible for stabilizing and extending the lumbar spine. Hypertonicity in these muscles can cause an imbalance in the pelvis, leading to a high ilium.

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• 26.

### When client's head is rotated to the right, the following muscles may be found hypertonic:

• A.

Left upper trap and right levator scapula

• B.

Right upper trap and right levator scapula

• C.

Left suboccipitals and right anterior scalene

• D.

Right SCM and right anterior scalene

A. Left upper trap and right levator scapula
Explanation
When the client's head is rotated to the right, the left upper trap and right levator scapula muscles may become hypertonic. This means that these muscles are overly contracted or tense. The upper trap muscle is responsible for elevating the shoulder and rotating the scapula upward, while the levator scapula muscle helps in elevating the scapula. So, when the head is rotated to the right, these muscles on the opposite side may become hypertonic to compensate for the movement and maintain stability.

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• 27.

### Client's foot is externally rotated and could be caused by a weakened:

• A.

Fibularis (peroneus) group

• B.

Gluteus medius

• C.

Gluteus maximus

• D.

Deep Six Lateral rotators

B. Gluteus medius
Explanation
The client's foot being externally rotated suggests a weakness in the gluteus medius muscle. The gluteus medius is responsible for stabilizing the pelvis and controlling the movement of the hip joint. When it is weak, it can lead to compensatory movements in the lower extremities, such as external rotation of the foot. This can cause imbalances and potential issues with gait and overall lower body alignment.

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• 28.

### When observing a client's gait from the anterior, the therapist is checking for all of the following findings EXCEPT:

• A.

Normal base width

• B.

Sideways swing of trunk

• C.

Lateral tilt to the pelvis

• D.

Uneven duration of steps

D. Uneven duration of steps
Explanation
When observing a client's gait from the anterior, the therapist is checking for various findings to assess any abnormalities or imbalances in their walking pattern. These include normal base width, sideways swing of the trunk, and lateral tilt to the pelvis. However, the therapist is not specifically looking for uneven duration of steps as a finding. This means that the client's steps should ideally have a consistent duration, and any variation in step duration may indicate an issue with their gait.

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• 29.

### When checking a client's feet and footwear, the therapist is looking for all the following findings EXCEPT:

• A.

Observing wear and tear on the shoes

• B.

Observing lateral movement of the spine

• C.

Observing the client walking in normal footwear and bare foot

• D.

Examining feet for callus formation, blisters and bunions

B. Observing lateral movement of the spine
Explanation
The therapist is checking the client's feet and footwear to assess any issues related to their feet, such as wear and tear on the shoes, callus formation, blisters, and bunions. However, observing lateral movement of the spine is not a relevant finding when examining the client's feet and footwear. The focus is on the feet and any potential foot-related problems, rather than the spine.

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• 30.

### When observing a client's gait from the side, the therapist is checking for all of the following findings EXCEPT:

• A.

Wearing on the shoes

• B.

Uneven duration of steps

• C.

Limitation of hip flexion and extension

• D.

Hyper or hyoplordosis

A. Wearing on the shoes
Explanation
When observing a client's gait from the side, the therapist is checking for various findings to assess their walking pattern and identify any abnormalities. These findings may include uneven duration of steps, limitation of hip flexion and extension, and hyper or hypolordosis (excessive or reduced curvature of the spine). However, the therapist is not specifically checking for wearing on the shoes as it is not directly related to the client's gait pattern.

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• 31.

### Knock knee is known as:

• A.

Genu varus

• B.

Pes pedis

• C.

Pes cavis

• D.

Genu valgum

D. Genu valgum
Explanation
Genu valgum is the correct answer because it is a condition commonly known as "knock knee". It is characterized by the inward angulation of the knees when standing with the feet together, resulting in the knees touching each other while the ankles remain apart. Genu varus refers to "bowlegged" appearance, pes pedis refers to "foot of the foot" which is not related to knock knee, and pes cavis refers to "hollow foot" which is also unrelated to knock knee.

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• 32.

### In ideal posture, the therapist finds:

• A.

Balance between abdominal and hip extensors

• B.

Hypertonic hip flexors and low back muscles

• C.

Hypotonic abdominal and hip extensors

• D.

Hypotonic hip flexors and hip extensors

A. Balance between abdominal and hip extensors
Explanation
In ideal posture, the therapist finds a balance between the abdominal and hip extensors. This means that both the abdominal muscles and the hip extensor muscles are equally engaged and working together to maintain proper alignment and stability of the spine and pelvis. This balance ensures that there is no excessive tension or weakness in either muscle group, which can lead to postural imbalances and potential pain or dysfunction in the lower back and hips.

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• Current Version
• Aug 27, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Nov 11, 2011
Quiz Created by
Jen9schultz

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