Whose grandmother had breast cancer
Who has 7 children
Who started her period at 9 years of age
Whose first pregnancy was at 42 years old
Herpes simplex 2
Irregular menstral periods
Increased estrogen levels
Exposure to sexually transmitted infections
Positive psa (prostatic specific antigen) test
It is a benign growth that might become malignant
The gland becomes small, nodular, and firm.
Complaints of hesitancy and decreased urinary stream
Each testis contains the ductus deferens.
The testes are suspended by the spermatic cord.
Each testis has its own scrotal sac and seminal vesicle.
The testes must be kept at a temperature slightly above body temperature.
The complete process takes about 28 days.
Maturation of sperm takes place in the seminal vesicles.
It is controlled by FSH and testosterone.
The process is initiated after each ejaculation.
B. Testicular cancer
Both A and B
Neither A or B
A hard nodule in the gland and pelvic pain
Soft, tender, enlarged gland and dysuria
Hesitancy and increased urinary output
Mild fever, vomiting, and leucopenia
The tumor usually becomes malignant in time
The gland becomes small, nodular, and firm
Manifestations include hesitancy, dribbling, and frequency
Lower abdominal or pelvic pain develops
Increased volume of dilute urine
Irritation of the bladder and urethra
Impaired micturitaion reflex
Incomplete emptying of the bladder
It is clear or whiteish
It has a pH of 4 to 5
It does not contain any cells
It contains mucus
It forms a mature ovarian follicle
It secretes hCG
It secretes estrogen and progesterone during the last half of the menstrual cycle.
It produces gonadotropins for the next cycle.
Obstruction in the fallopian tubes
Inflammation around ectopic endometrial tissue
Hormonal imbalance causing uterine contractions
Fibrous tissue responding to hormonal changes
The fallopian tubes are obstructed, and purulent exudate cannot drain into the uterus.
The uterus is perforated because of infection, allowing bacteria to leak out.
Most of the primary infections do not respond to antimicrobial drugs.
Microbes are highly virulent
Development of malignancy
Irregular menstral cycles
Interference with ovulation
Abnormal bleeding such as menorrhagia
Progressive development of fluid-filled cysts and fibrous tissue
Proliferation of atypical cells with high risk of malignancy
Benign tumors that develop after menopause
Any tissue changes other than the normal response to hormonal changes
It presents as a tender, painful, firm nodule.
Tumor cells may demonstrate estrogen receptors on the membrane.
Occasionally, a genetic factor may have a small role in tumor development.
The tumor is invasive but does not metastasize until very late.
The invasive stage
The stage of mild dysplasia
The time before it can be detected by a Pap test
Noninvasive severe dysplaisa
High estrogen levels
Infection with HPV
Early age of onset for menstral cycles
A positive Pap test
Minor vaginal bleeding or spotting
Infection resistance to treatment
All of the above