# Rocks And Minerals Pre-assessment (Earth Science Regents)

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Rocks and Minerals Pre-Assessment (Grade 8)

• 1.

### The table below shows the hardness of four materials. Which statement best describes the hardness of dolomite. This question may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables (Standard 3.1 a) Hardness of Four Materials Material Hardness Human Fingernail 2.5 Copper Penny 3.0 Window Glass 4.5 Steel Nail 6.5

• A.

Dolomite can scratch a copper penny, but cannot be scratched by a steel nail.

• B.

Dolomite can scratch a copper penny, but cannot be scratched by a fingernail.

• C.

Dolomite can scratch window glass, but cannot be scratched by a steel nail.

• D.

Dolomite can scratch window glass, but cannot be scratched by a fingernail.

• E.

Dolomite cannot be scratched by any other material.

B. Dolomite can scratch a copper penny, but cannot be scratched by a fingernail.
Explanation
Based on the table, dolomite has a hardness greater than 2.5 (hardness of a human fingernail) but less than 3.0 (hardness of a copper penny). This means that dolomite can scratch a copper penny, but since it has a hardness less than 3.0, it cannot be scratched by a fingernail.

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• 2.

### The graph below shows the relationship between mass and volume for three samples, A, B, and C, of a given material. What is the density of this material? This question may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables (Standard 3.1a).

• A.

10.0 g/cm3

• B.

5.0 g/cm3

• C.

2.0 g/cm3

• D.

1.0 g/cm3

• E.

20.0 g/cm3

A. 10.0 g/cm3
• 3.

### The diagrams below show the crystals of four different rocks viewed through the same hand lens. Which crystals most likely formed from molten material that cooled and solidified most rapidly? This question may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables (Standard 3.1b).Crystal A: Crystal B:Crystal C:Crystal D:

• A.

Crystal A

• B.

Crystal B

• C.

Crystal C

• D.

Crystal D

D. Crystal D
Explanation
Crystal D most likely formed from molten material that cooled and solidified most rapidly. This is because the crystal in Crystal D appears to have a fine-grained texture, with small and closely packed crystals. Fine-grained textures are typically associated with rapid cooling, as the molten material does not have enough time to form larger crystals. In contrast, the other crystals (A, B, and C) have larger and more spread-out crystals, suggesting slower cooling processes.

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• 4.

### Which three minerals are most commonly found in the igneous rock granite? This question may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables (Standard 3.1c).

• A.

Plagioclase feldspar, potassium feldspar, and quartz

• B.

Plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, and olivine

• C.

Amphibole, calcite, and hematite

• D.

Amphibole, biotite mica, and gypsum

• E.

Biotie, Olivine, and pyroxine

A. Plagioclase feldspar, potassium feldspar, and quartz
Explanation
The correct answer is Plagioclase feldspar, potassium feldspar, and quartz. Granite is an igneous rock that is composed mainly of these three minerals. Plagioclase feldspar and potassium feldspar are both types of feldspar minerals that make up the majority of the rock's composition. Quartz is another common mineral found in granite and is usually present in smaller amounts. These three minerals give granite its characteristic appearance and properties, such as its hardness and resistance to weathering.

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• 5.

### Which rock is metamorphic and shows evidence of foliation? This question may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables (Standard 3.1c).

• A.

Rock 1

• B.

Rock 2

• C.

Rock 3

• D.

Rock 4

A. Rock 1
Explanation
Rock 1 is the correct answer because it is metamorphic and shows evidence of foliation. Foliation is a characteristic of metamorphic rocks where the minerals are arranged in parallel layers or bands. This can be seen in Rock 1, indicating that it has undergone metamorphism and experienced intense pressure and heat, causing the minerals to align in a specific pattern.

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• 6.

### Rocks are classified as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic based primarily on their (Standard 2.1m):

• A.

Texture

• B.

Mineral Composition

• C.

Crystal or Grain Size

• D.

Method of Formation

• E.

Density

D. Method of Formation
Explanation
Rocks are classified as igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic based primarily on their method of formation. This refers to the process through which the rock is formed. Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification of molten material, sedimentary rocks are formed from the accumulation and compaction of sediment, and metamorphic rocks are formed through the alteration of existing rocks through heat and pressure. By examining the method of formation, geologists can determine the characteristics and properties of the rocks, allowing for their classification.

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• 7.

### The fossil below was found in surface bedrock in the eastern United States. Which statement best describes the formation of the rock containing this fossil? This question may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables (Standard 1.2f).

• A.

The rock was formed by the metamorphism of sedimentary deposited in a terrestrial environment during the Cretaceous Period.

• B.

The rock was formed by the compaction and cementation of sediments deposited in a terrestrial environment during the Triassic Period.

• C.

The rock was formed from the solidification of magma in a marine environment during the Triassic Period.

• D.

The rock was formed by the metamorphism of sedimentary deposited in a terrestrial environment during the Triassic Period.

• E.

The rock was formed by the compaction and cementation of sediments deposited in a marine environment during the Cambrian Period.

E. The rock was formed by the compaction and cementation of sediments deposited in a marine environment during the Cambrian Period.
Explanation
The presence of a fossil in the rock suggests that it was formed from the compaction and cementation of sediments, as this process is known to preserve organic remains. The fact that the fossil was found in surface bedrock in the eastern United States indicates that the rock was formed in a terrestrial environment. Additionally, the reference to the Cambrian Period suggests that the rock is relatively old, as this period occurred around 541 to 485 million years ago. Therefore, the correct answer is that the rock was formed by the compaction and cementation of sediments deposited in a marine environment during the Cambrian Period.

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• 8.

### Base your answer to this question on the cross section and data table shown below. The cross section shows a sediment-laden river flowing into the ocean. The arrow shows the direction of river flow. Different zones of sorted sediments, A, B, C, and D, have been labeled. Sediments have been taken from these zones and measured. The data table shows the range of sediment sizes in each zone.The sedimentary rock, shale, will most likely form from sediments deposited in which zone? This question may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables (Standard 2.1v). DATA TABLE Zone Major Sediment Sizes A 0.04 cm to 6 cm B 0.006 cm to 0.1 cm C 0.0004 cm to 0.006 cm D Less than 0.0004 cm

• A.

Zone A

• B.

Zone B

• C.

Zone C

• D.

Zone D

D. Zone D
Explanation
Shale is a type of sedimentary rock that is formed from very fine-grained sediments. The data table shows that Zone D has sediments that are less than 0.0004 cm in size, which indicates that they are very fine-grained. Therefore, it is most likely that shale will form from sediments deposited in Zone D.

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• 9.

### New York State bedrock was formed as a result of which of the following processes? This question may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables (Standard 2.1v).

• A.

In a delta from sand grain deposited, and cemented together by minerals

• B.

In Earth’s interior where temperatures exceeded the melting point of quartz

• C.

On Earth’s surface from the cooling of molten lava

• D.

In a desert when heat and metamorphic pressure caused quartz crystals to fuse together

• E.

Meteor impact from a large asteroid 65 million years ago.

A. In a delta from sand grain deposited, and cemented together by minerals
Explanation
The correct answer is "In a delta from sand grain deposited, and cemented together by minerals." This is because deltas are formed at the mouth of a river where sediment is deposited. Over time, the sand grains in the delta can become cemented together by minerals, forming solid bedrock. This process is known as lithification. The other options listed do not accurately describe the formation of bedrock in New York State.

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• 10.

### Rate, on a scale of 1 – 4, 1 being the lowest and 4 being the highest, how much you already know about maps and measurement.

1
2
3
4
Explanation
The answer "1,2,3,4" suggests that the person knows all levels of knowledge about maps and measurement, ranging from the lowest (1) to the highest (4). It implies that the person has a comprehensive understanding of maps and measurement, including basic knowledge (1), intermediate knowledge (2), advanced knowledge (3), and expert-level knowledge (4).

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• 11.

### Rate, on a scale of 1 – 4, 1 being the lowest and 4 being the highest, how interested are you in maps and measurement.

1
2
3
4
Explanation
This question asks the respondent to rate their interest in maps and measurement on a scale of 1 to 4. The answer options include all possible ratings from 1 to 4, indicating that the respondent can choose any level of interest they have in maps and measurement.

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• 12.

### Part of a gemstone’s value is based on the way the gemstone shines in reflected light. The way a mineral reflects light is described as the mineral’s. This question may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables (Standard 3.1a).

• A.

Fracture

• B.

Hardness

• C.

Streak

• D.

Luster

• E.

Cleavage

D. Luster
Explanation
Luster refers to the way a mineral reflects light. It describes the appearance or quality of the mineral's surface when it interacts with light. The luster of a gemstone is an important factor in determining its value because it affects its overall appearance and beauty. Different minerals can have different types of luster, such as metallic, vitreous, pearly, or greasy. The way a gemstone shines in reflected light contributes to its luster and therefore its value.

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• Current Version
• Mar 22, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Sep 20, 2009
Quiz Created by
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