Chapter 9 Terms 5

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| By Sharroncking
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Sharroncking
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Quizzes Created: 3 | Total Attempts: 307
Questions: 19 | Attempts: 96

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Health Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    An abnormal sound heard in auscultation

    Explanation
    A bruit is an abnormal sound that can be heard during auscultation, which is the process of listening to the internal sounds of the body using a stethoscope. These sounds are typically caused by turbulent blood flow through narrowed or blocked blood vessels. Bruits can be heard in various parts of the body, such as the neck, abdomen, or limbs, and they can indicate underlying conditions like arterial disease or aneurysms. Therefore, the term "bruit" accurately describes an abnormal sound heard during auscultation.

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  • 2. 

    Pathologic accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac.

    Explanation
    Cardiac tamponade refers to the pathologic accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac. This condition occurs when there is an excessive build-up of fluid, such as blood or effusion, in the space around the heart. As the fluid accumulates, it puts pressure on the heart, preventing it from filling and pumping blood effectively. This can lead to symptoms such as low blood pressure, shortness of breath, and decreased cardiac output. Prompt medical intervention, such as draining the fluid and treating the underlying cause, is necessary to relieve the pressure on the heart and restore normal cardiac function.

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  • 3. 

    A heartbeat that originates from some part of the heart other than the SA node.

    Explanation
    An ectopic beat refers to a heartbeat that originates from a location other than the sinoatrial (SA) node, which is the natural pacemaker of the heart. This can occur when another area of the heart, such as the atria or ventricles, takes over the role of initiating the electrical signal for a heartbeat. Ectopic beats can be caused by various factors, including stress, caffeine, certain medications, or underlying heart conditions. These beats may feel like a skipped or extra heartbeat and can sometimes be harmless, but in some cases, they may indicate an underlying heart problem that requires further evaluation.

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  • 4. 

    Premature heart contraction that occurs separately from the normal beat and originates from a part of the heart other than the SA node.

    Explanation
    Extrasystole refers to a premature heart contraction that occurs independently from the regular heartbeat and originates from a different part of the heart than the sinoatrial (SA) node, which is responsible for initiating the normal heartbeat. This condition disrupts the normal rhythm of the heart and can cause palpitations or a feeling of skipped beats. Extrasystole can be caused by various factors such as stress, caffeine, nicotine, or underlying heart conditions. Treatment may involve addressing the underlying cause or using medication to regulate the heart rhythm.

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  • 5. 

    Very rapid (200-300bpm) but regular contractions, as in the atria or the ventricles.

    Explanation
    Flutter refers to a condition where there are very rapid but regular contractions in either the atria or the ventricles of the heart, typically occurring at a rate of 200-300 beats per minute. This abnormal heart rhythm is characterized by a fast and regular pattern, which distinguishes it from other arrhythmias. Flutter can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, and dizziness. It is important to diagnose and treat flutter promptly to prevent complications such as blood clots or heart failure.

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  • 6. 

    A condition of lower-than-normal blood pressure

    Explanation
    Hypotension refers to a condition of lower-than-normal blood pressure. This means that the pressure exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels is lower than what is considered normal. Hypotension can result in symptoms such as dizziness, fainting, and fatigue. It can be caused by various factors including dehydration, medication side effects, and certain medical conditions. Treatment for hypotension may involve addressing the underlying cause, increasing fluid intake, and making lifestyle changes.

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  • 7. 

    Pain in a muscle during exercise caused by inadequate blood supply.

    Explanation
    Intermittent Claudication refers to the pain experienced in a muscle during exercise due to inadequate blood supply. This condition is typically caused by atherosclerosis, which leads to the narrowing of arteries and reduced blood flow to the muscles. As a result, the muscle does not receive enough oxygen and nutrients, causing pain and discomfort during physical activity. This condition is commonly seen in individuals with peripheral artery disease and is relieved by rest.

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  • 8. 

    Movement of the mitral valve cusps into the left atrium when the ventricles contract

    Explanation
    Mitral valve prolapse refers to the abnormal movement of the mitral valve cusps into the left atrium when the ventricles contract. This condition occurs when the valve does not close properly, allowing blood to leak back into the atrium. Mitral valve prolapse is often asymptomatic, but in some cases, it can cause symptoms such as chest pain, palpitations, and shortness of breath. It can also lead to complications like mitral regurgitation. Treatment options for mitral valve prolapse may include medication, lifestyle changes, or in severe cases, surgery to repair or replace the valve.

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  • 9. 

    Arteriosclerotic disease of the vessels, usually peripheral vessels

    Explanation
    Occlusive Vascular Disease refers to a condition where there is a narrowing or blockage of blood vessels, typically in the peripheral areas of the body. This can occur due to arteriosclerosis, which is the hardening and thickening of the arterial walls. As a result, blood flow to the affected areas is restricted, leading to symptoms such as pain, numbness, and decreased function. Therefore, the given answer "Occlusive Vascular Disease" accurately describes the condition of arteriosclerotic disease of the vessels, particularly in the peripheral areas.

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  • 10. 

    A sensation of abnormally rapid or irregular heartbeat

    Explanation
    Palpitation refers to the sensation of an abnormally rapid or irregular heartbeat. It is characterized by a feeling of the heart pounding, fluttering, or skipping beats. This sensation can be caused by various factors such as anxiety, stress, caffeine intake, or certain medical conditions like arrhythmias. Palpitations are usually harmless and temporary, but in some cases, they may indicate an underlying heart problem that requires medical attention.

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  • 11. 

    Potentially fatal collagen disease causing inflammation of small visceral arteries.

    Explanation
    Polyarteritis nodosa is a potentially fatal collagen disease that is characterized by inflammation of small visceral arteries. This condition leads to the formation of nodules or lesions in the affected arteries, which can cause blockage and damage to various organs and tissues. Without proper treatment, polyarteritis nodosa can result in organ failure and death. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and manage this condition promptly to prevent complications.

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  • 12. 

    A disorder characterized by abnormal constriction of peripheral vessels in the arms and legs on exposure to cold.

    Explanation
    Raynaud Disease is a disorder characterized by abnormal constriction of peripheral vessels in the arms and legs on exposure to cold. This condition causes the affected areas to turn white, then blue, and finally red as the blood flow returns. It is believed to be caused by an overreaction of the blood vessels to cold temperatures or stress. Raynaud Disease is not life-threatening but can cause discomfort and pain. Treatment options include avoiding triggers, keeping warm, and medication to improve blood flow.

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  • 13. 

    A backward flow, such as the backflow of blood through a defective valve

    Explanation
    Regurgitation refers to the backward flow of a substance, such as blood, through a defective valve. In this context, it specifically refers to the backflow of blood through a valve that is not functioning properly. This can occur in conditions such as mitral valve regurgitation, where the mitral valve fails to close properly, allowing blood to flow back into the left atrium. Regurgitation can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. Treatment may involve medication or surgery to repair or replace the faulty valve.

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  • 14. 

    Stoppage of normal flow, as of blood or urine

    Explanation
    Stasis refers to the stoppage or slowing down of normal flow, such as blood or urine. It can occur due to various reasons, such as a blockage in the blood vessels or urinary tract, or a lack of movement in the body. Stasis can lead to complications, such as the formation of blood clots or the buildup of waste products. Therefore, it is important to address and treat stasis to maintain proper bodily functions.

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  • 15. 

    Bacterial growth in a heart or valves previously damaged by rheumatic fever

    Explanation
    Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis is the correct answer because it is a condition characterized by bacterial growth in the heart or valves, particularly in individuals who have previously suffered from rheumatic fever. This condition occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and attach to damaged heart valves, leading to the formation of bacterial colonies. The infection progresses slowly, causing symptoms such as fatigue, fever, and heart murmurs. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as heart failure or septic embolisms. Therefore, Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis is the most suitable explanation for the given scenario.

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  • 16. 

    A combination of four congenital heart abnormalities; pulmonary artery stenosis, interventricular septal defect, displacement of the aorta to the right, and right ventricular hypertrophy.

    Explanation
    The given answer, Tetralogy of Fallot, is correct because it accurately describes a combination of four congenital heart abnormalities. These abnormalities include pulmonary artery stenosis, which is a narrowing of the pulmonary artery; interventricular septal defect, which is a hole in the wall separating the two lower chambers of the heart; displacement of the aorta to the right, where the aorta is positioned over the ventricular septal defect; and right ventricular hypertrophy, which is an enlargement of the right ventricle. Together, these four abnormalities make up the condition known as Tetralogy of Fallot.

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  • 17. 

    Inflammation and thrombus formation resulting in occlusion of small vessels, especially in the legs.

    Explanation
    Thromboangiitis obliterans, also known as Buerger's disease, is a rare inflammatory condition that affects the small and medium-sized blood vessels, particularly in the legs and feet. It is characterized by the formation of blood clots (thrombus) and inflammation, leading to the blockage (occlusion) of these vessels. This can result in reduced blood flow, tissue damage, and pain in the affected areas. Thromboangiitis obliterans is strongly associated with tobacco use and is more common in young male smokers.

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  • 18. 

    Irregular bacterial outgrowths on the heart valves, associated with rheumatic fever.

    Explanation
    The term "vegetation" in this context refers to irregular bacterial outgrowths on the heart valves, which are commonly associated with rheumatic fever. These outgrowths can form on the valves due to the inflammation and damage caused by the immune response to the bacterial infection. The term "vegetation" is used to describe these abnormal growths because they can resemble small, leafy structures.

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  • 19. 

    A cardiac arrhythmia consisting of tachycardia and a premature ventricular beat caused by an alternative conduction pathway.

    Explanation
    Wolff Parkinson White Syndrome is a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by tachycardia and premature ventricular beats. It is caused by an alternative conduction pathway in the heart. This additional pathway, known as an accessory pathway, allows electrical signals to bypass the normal route through the atrioventricular node. As a result, the electrical signals can reach the ventricles prematurely, leading to irregular heartbeats and a rapid heart rate. This condition is often diagnosed through an electrocardiogram (ECG) and can be managed with medications or procedures like catheter ablation.

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