Cardiology/Cardiac Surgery/Thoracic Surgery

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Cardiology/Cardiac Surgery/Thoracic Surgery - Quiz

Objectives Checklist:

*Combinintg forms, prefixes, and suffixes related to the body system.
*Basic structures of the heart and how they function together.
*Major vessels of the circulatory system as well as the difference in vessel types and functions.
*Flow of blood along its full circulatory path and the correct order of coronary structures through which blood flows during the oxygenation process.
*Electrophysiology of the heartbeat, from the role of the sinoatrial node to ventricular contraction.
*Fundamentals of blood pressure adn the indications of elevated and decompressed diastolic and systolic levels.
*Common signs and symptoms associated with coronary and/or circulatory dysfunction or Read moredisease.
*Major disease processes associated with the heart and vessels and the general treatment course for each.
*Diagnostic imaging and nuclear medicine studies used in the assessment and treatmentof heart/vessle disease.
*Terminology related to an electrocardiogram (EKG), including the accurate transcription of leads and trace findings.
*Laboratory tests used in the diagnosis and ongoing evaluatoin of heart/vessel disease.
*Commonly prescribed medications, by type, for diseases and symptoms related to the heart, vessels, and circulation.

The goal of these questions is to test your knowledge in the areas of cardiology, cardiac surgery, and thoracic surgery.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The smooth layer of endothelial cells that lines the interior of the heart and the heart valves is called

    • A.

      Endocardium

    • B.

      Interventricular septum

    • C.

      Myocardium

    • D.

      Pericardium

    Correct Answer
    A. Endocardium
    Explanation
    The smooth layer of endothelial cells that lines the interior of the heart and the heart valves is called the endocardium. This layer acts as a protective barrier and helps to prevent blood clots from forming within the heart. It also plays a role in regulating the flow of blood through the heart chambers. The endocardium is essential for maintaining the proper functioning of the heart and ensuring efficient blood circulation throughout the body.

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  • 2. 

    The record used to detect electrical changes in the heart muscle as the heart is beating is called a (an)

    • A.

      Echocardiogram

    • B.

      Electrocardiogram

    • C.

      Electroencephalogram

    • D.

      Sphygmomanometer

    Correct Answer
    B. Electrocardiogram
    Explanation
    An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a record used to detect electrical changes in the heart muscle as the heart is beating. It is a non-invasive test that measures the electrical activity of the heart and provides valuable information about the heart's rhythm and function. By placing electrodes on the chest, limbs, or both, the ECG machine can detect and record the electrical signals produced by the heart. This helps in diagnosing various heart conditions such as arrhythmias, heart attacks, and abnormalities in the heart's structure. Echocardiogram uses sound waves to create images of the heart, electroencephalogram measures brain activity, and a sphygmomanometer is used to measure blood pressure.

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  • 3. 

    Retrosternal pain is located

    • A.

      Above the sternum

    • B.

      Behind the sternum

    • C.

      Below the sternum

    • D.

      Beside the sternum

    Correct Answer
    B. Behind the sternum
    Explanation
    Retrosternal pain refers to pain that is felt behind the sternum, which is the bone in the center of the chest. This pain is typically caused by conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), costochondritis, or heart-related issues like angina. The location of the pain behind the sternum helps differentiate it from other types of chest pain.

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  • 4. 

    A patient comes in with trouble breating, and swelling in the lower legs. The provider suspects

    • A.

      Congestive heart failure

    • B.

      A heart murmur

    • C.

      Myocardial infarction

    • D.

      Aneurysm

    Correct Answer
    A. Congestive heart failure
    Explanation
    Based on the symptoms described, such as trouble breathing and swelling in the lower legs, the most likely condition the provider suspects is congestive heart failure. Congestive heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs, leading to fluid buildup in the lungs and extremities. This condition often presents with symptoms such as shortness of breath and edema, which align with the patient's symptoms. A heart murmur, myocardial infarction, or aneurysm may also cause similar symptoms, but congestive heart failure is the most probable diagnosis based on the given information.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following risk factors for cardiac disease can be modified?

    • A.

      Age

    • B.

      Diabetes mellitus

    • C.

      Family history

    • D.

      Gender

    Correct Answer
    B. Diabetes mellitus
    Explanation
    Diabetes mellitus can be modified as a risk factor for cardiac disease through lifestyle changes and medication. By managing blood sugar levels, following a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and taking prescribed medications, individuals with diabetes can reduce their risk of developing cardiac disease. Additionally, adopting a healthy lifestyle can also help control other risk factors associated with diabetes, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels. Therefore, diabetes mellitus is a risk factor that can be modified to reduce the risk of cardiac disease.

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  • 6. 

    Which test, when elevated, is most indicative of heart failure?

    • A.

      BMP

    • B.

      BNP

    • C.

      CMP

    • D.

      INR

    Correct Answer
    B. BNP
    Explanation
    BNP, or brain natriuretic peptide, is a hormone released by the heart in response to increased pressure and stretching of the heart muscle. Elevated levels of BNP in the blood are highly indicative of heart failure, as it reflects the heart's inability to pump effectively. BNP is a useful diagnostic tool for heart failure, as it helps differentiate it from other causes of shortness of breath and fluid retention. Therefore, in this question, BNP is the most appropriate test to determine the presence of heart failure when elevated.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is a type of heart murmur?

    • A.

      Cyanotic

    • B.

      Serophilic

    • C.

      Sessile

    • D.

      Systolic

    Correct Answer
    D. Systolic
    Explanation
    A heart murmur refers to an abnormal sound heard during a heartbeat. It can be caused by various factors, such as structural abnormalities in the heart valves or blood vessels. "Systolic" refers to the phase of the heartbeat when the heart contracts and pumps blood out. Therefore, "systolic" is a type of heart murmur that occurs during the contracting phase of the heartbeat.

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  • 8. 

    What suffix combined with cardio- means enlarged heart?

    • A.

      -megaly

    • B.

      -metry

    • C.

      -malacia

    • D.

      -myotomy

    Correct Answer
    A. -megaly
    Explanation
    The suffix "-megaly" is combined with "cardio-" to form the term "cardiomegaly," which refers to an enlarged heart. This is a commonly used medical term to describe the condition of an enlarged heart, typically caused by underlying health issues such as hypertension or heart disease.

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  • 9. 

    In this procedure, a small flexible tube is guided into the heart via the femoral artery in order to detect pressures and patterns of blood flow in the heart.

    • A.

      Coronary artery bypass graft

    • B.

      Exercise tolerance test

    • C.

      Cardiac catheterization

    • D.

      Endarerectomy

    Correct Answer
    C. Cardiac catheterization
    Explanation
    Cardiac catheterization is the correct answer because it involves the insertion of a small flexible tube into the heart through the femoral artery. This procedure allows for the detection of pressures and patterns of blood flow in the heart. The other options, coronary artery bypass graft, exercise tolerance test, and endarerectomy, do not involve the insertion of a tube into the heart or the detection of pressures and blood flow patterns.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following laboratory tests is used to diagnose a myocardial infarction?

    • A.

      CEA and CA 19-9

    • B.

      CK-MB and troponin

    • C.

      MCH and MCV

    • D.

      PSA and PTH

    Correct Answer
    B. CK-MB and troponin
    Explanation
    CK-MB and troponin are laboratory tests used to diagnose a myocardial infarction. CK-MB is an enzyme found in the heart muscle, and its levels rise when there is damage to the heart. Troponin is a protein released into the bloodstream when there is damage to the heart muscle. Elevated levels of CK-MB and troponin indicate a myocardial infarction, commonly known as a heart attack. These tests are important in the diagnosis of a heart attack and help guide appropriate treatment.

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  • 11. 

    The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle is

    • A.

      Diastole

    • B.

      Endocardium

    • C.

      Systole

    • D.

      Tachycardia

    Correct Answer
    C. Systole
    Explanation
    The correct answer is systole. The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle is known as systole. During systole, the ventricles of the heart contract, pushing blood out into the arteries. This is an important phase as it allows for the circulation of oxygenated blood throughout the body. Diastole, on the other hand, refers to the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle, where the heart muscles relax and fill with blood. Endocardium is the inner lining of the heart, and tachycardia refers to a rapid heart rate.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is the medical term for a heart attack?

    • A.

      Diphtheritic myocarditis

    • B.

      Myocardial hamartoma

    • C.

      Myocardial infarction

    • D.

      Septal myomectomy

    Correct Answer
    C. Myocardial infarction
    Explanation
    Myocardial infarction is the correct medical term for a heart attack. It refers to the condition where there is a blockage or narrowing of the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle, leading to the death of the heart muscle cells due to lack of oxygen and nutrients. This can result in chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms.

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  • 13. 

    Blood pressure measurement is expressed as

    • A.

      Diastolic pressure over systolic pressure

    • B.

      Sacral pressure over diagonal pressure

    • C.

      Systemic pressure over diaphragm pressure

    • D.

      Systolic pressure over diastolic pressure

    Correct Answer
    D. Systolic pressure over diastolic pressure
    Explanation
    Blood pressure measurement is expressed as systolic pressure over diastolic pressure because systolic pressure represents the maximum pressure exerted on the arteries when the heart contracts, while diastolic pressure represents the minimum pressure exerted on the arteries when the heart is at rest between beats. This ratio provides a standardized way to measure and compare blood pressure readings, with the systolic pressure being the numerator and the diastolic pressure being the denominator.

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  • 14. 

    The antiarrhythmic agent used to treat congestive heart failure and arrhythmias like atrial fibrillation is

    • A.

      Digoxin

    • B.

      Doxepin

    • C.

      Doxycycline

    • D.

      Doxidan

    Correct Answer
    A. Digoxin
    Explanation
    Digoxin is an antiarrhythmic agent that is commonly used to treat congestive heart failure and arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation. It works by increasing the strength and efficiency of the heart's contractions, which helps to improve blood flow and reduce symptoms of heart failure. Digoxin is not only effective in controlling heart rhythm but also helps to alleviate symptoms associated with congestive heart failure, such as shortness of breath and fluid retention. Doxepin, doxycycline, and Doxidan are not antiarrhythmic agents and are not typically used in the treatment of congestive heart failure or arrhythmias.

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  • 15. 

    Which of these terms means an abnormal bulge in the wall of an artery?

    • A.

      Aneuploidy

    • B.

      Aneurysm

    • C.

      Antionecrosis

    • D.

      Annulus

    Correct Answer
    B. Aneurysm
    Explanation
    An aneurysm refers to an abnormal bulge that occurs in the wall of an artery. This bulge is caused by a weakened area in the artery wall, which can lead to the formation of a balloon-like structure. Aneurysms can occur in various parts of the body, such as the brain, aorta, or other arteries. If left untreated, an aneurysm can rupture and cause severe complications or even be life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and treat aneurysms promptly to prevent any potential complications.

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  • 16. 

    Premature heartbeat is also known as

    • A.

      Arrhythmia

    • B.

      Bradycardia

    • C.

      Extrasystole

    • D.

      Tachycardia

    Correct Answer
    C. Extrasystole
    Explanation
    Premature heartbeat, also known as extrasystole, refers to an irregular or abnormal heartbeat that occurs before the regular heartbeat. This condition is characterized by an extra or premature electrical signal that causes the heart to contract earlier than expected. Arrhythmia refers to any abnormal heart rhythm, which can include extrasystole. Bradycardia is a slower than normal heart rate, while tachycardia is a faster than normal heart rate. However, neither of these terms specifically refers to premature heartbeats like extrasystole does.

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  • 17. 

    Pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking with an absence of the pain at rest is called

    • A.

      Claudication

    • B.

      Embolus

    • C.

      Infarction

    • D.

      Occlusion

    Correct Answer
    A. Claudication
    Explanation
    Claudication refers to pain, tension, and weakness in a leg that occurs after walking or exercising, but not at rest. This condition is typically caused by reduced blood flow to the leg muscles, usually due to a narrowing or blockage of the arteries. The symptoms of claudication are often relieved by rest.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following tests isused to monitor a patient on Coumadin therapy?

    • A.

      INR

    • B.

      Transferrin

    • C.

      CBC

    • D.

      Platelet count

    Correct Answer
    A. INR
    Explanation
    INR (International Normalized Ratio) is used to monitor a patient on Coumadin therapy. Coumadin is a medication used as a blood thinner, and it is important to monitor the patient's blood clotting time to ensure the medication is effective and safe. INR measures the time it takes for blood to clot and compares it to a standardized ratio. By regularly monitoring the INR, healthcare providers can adjust the dosage of Coumadin to maintain the desired therapeutic effect and prevent complications such as excessive bleeding or blood clots.

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  • 19. 

    Which node is considered the dominant pacemaker?

    • A.

      Atrioventricular node

    • B.

      Coronary node

    • C.

      Sentinel node

    • D.

      Sinoatrial node

    Correct Answer
    D. Sinoatrial node
    Explanation
    The sinoatrial (SA) node is considered the dominant pacemaker because it is responsible for initiating the electrical impulses that regulate the heart's rhythm. Located in the right atrium of the heart, the SA node generates electrical signals that cause the atria to contract, initiating the heartbeat. It sets the pace for the rest of the heart by determining the heart rate. The other nodes mentioned in the options, such as the atrioventricular node, coronary node, and sentinel node, do not play a role in the heart's pacemaker function.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is placed within a coronary artery to keep the artery patent?

    • A.

      Valve

    • B.

      Stint

    • C.

      Stent

    • D.

      Catheter

    Correct Answer
    C. Stent
    Explanation
    A stent is placed within a coronary artery to keep the artery patent. A stent is a small mesh-like tube made of metal or fabric that is inserted into the artery to prevent it from narrowing or becoming blocked. It helps to improve blood flow and prevent complications such as heart attacks. A valve is not used for this purpose, and a stint and catheter are incorrect spellings of the word stent.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following are forms of cholesterol?

    • A.

      Homocysteine and fibrinogen

    • B.

      Creatinine and LH

    • C.

      AST and ALT

    • D.

      HDL and LDL

    Correct Answer
    D. HDL and LDL
    Explanation
    HDL and LDL are forms of cholesterol. HDL stands for high-density lipoprotein, which is known as "good" cholesterol because it helps remove LDL cholesterol from the arteries. LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein, which is known as "bad" cholesterol because high levels of LDL can lead to the buildup of plaque in the arteries.

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  • 22. 

    Fainting is also referred to as

    • A.

      A cerebrovascular accident

    • B.

      Thrombosis

    • C.

      Claudication

    • D.

      Syncope

    Correct Answer
    D. Syncope
    Explanation
    Fainting is also referred to as syncope. Syncope is a temporary loss of consciousness caused by a temporary decrease in blood flow to the brain. It is often triggered by factors such as low blood pressure, dehydration, or a sudden drop in heart rate. During syncope, the brain does not receive enough oxygen, leading to a loss of consciousness. This condition is commonly known as fainting.

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  • 23. 

    Which are normal heart sounds?

    • A.

      S1 and S2

    • B.

      S1 and S4

    • C.

      S2 and S3

    • D.

      S3 and S4

    Correct Answer
    A. S1 and S2
    Explanation
    S1 and S2 are the normal heart sounds. S1, also known as the "lub" sound, is produced by the closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves at the beginning of ventricular systole. S2, also known as the "dub" sound, is produced by the closure of the aortic and pulmonic valves at the end of ventricular systole. These two sounds are the primary heart sounds heard during a normal cardiac cycle. S4 and S3 are abnormal heart sounds that may indicate underlying heart conditions.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is a humming or buzzing sound caused by the passage of blood through an artery narrowed by arteriosclerosis?

    • A.

      PMI

    • B.

      Rub

    • C.

      Click

    • D.

      Bruit

    Correct Answer
    D. Bruit
    Explanation
    A bruit is a humming or buzzing sound caused by the passage of blood through an artery that has been narrowed by arteriosclerosis. This narrowing of the artery restricts blood flow, causing turbulence and resulting in the audible sound. A bruit is often heard with a stethoscope and can indicate the presence of arterial disease. The other options, PMI, rub, and click, do not specifically refer to sounds caused by arteriosclerosis.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following is a diuretic that is often combined with antihypertensive medications?

    • A.

      Ibuprofen

    • B.

      Acetylsalicylic acid

    • C.

      Lovastatin

    • D.

      Hydrochlorothiazide

    Correct Answer
    D. Hydrochlorothiazide
    Explanation
    Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic that is commonly used in combination with antihypertensive medications. Diuretics help to increase the production of urine, which can help to reduce fluid buildup in the body and lower blood pressure. This medication is often prescribed to individuals with high blood pressure or congestive heart failure. It works by blocking the reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the kidneys, leading to increased urine output and decreased fluid retention. By combining hydrochlorothiazide with antihypertensive medications, the overall effect on blood pressure can be enhanced.

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  • 26. 

    Sudden episodes of labored breathing that awaken the patient from sleep is referred to as

    • A.

      P and D

    • B.

      PCP

    • C.

      PND

    • D.

      O and P

    Correct Answer
    C. PND
    Explanation
    PND stands for paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, which is a medical term used to describe sudden episodes of labored breathing that wake the patient from sleep. This condition is commonly seen in individuals with heart failure, where fluid accumulates in the lungs during sleep, causing difficulty in breathing. Therefore, PND is the correct answer for the given question.

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  • 27. 

    Generic name for a cardiotonic agent

    • A.

      Dobutamine

    • B.

      Dobitamine

    • C.

      Cardiolite

    • D.

      Cardialite

    Correct Answer
    A. Dobutamine
    Explanation
    Dobutamine is the correct answer because it is a generic name for a cardiotonic agent. Cardiotonic agents are medications that increase the strength of the heart's contractions, and dobutamine is commonly used for this purpose. The other options, dobitamine, cardiolite, and cardialite, are not generic names for cardiotonic agents.

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  • 28. 

    Generic name for a coronary vasodilator

    • A.

      Fibrilla

    • B.

      Verapamil

    • C.

      Fabrille

    • D.

      Verpamil

    Correct Answer
    B. Verapamil
    Explanation
    Verapamil is the correct answer because it is a commonly used coronary vasodilator. It works by relaxing and widening the blood vessels in the heart, allowing for increased blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart muscle. Verapamil is often prescribed to treat angina, high blood pressure, and certain heart rhythm disorders. Other options such as fibrilla, fabrille, and verpamil are not recognized as generic names for coronary vasodilators.

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  • 29. 

    Generic name for an antiarrhythmic agent used to treat atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular contractions, and tachycardia

    • A.

      Quindine

    • B.

      Quinidine

    • C.

      Nortrityline

    • D.

      Nortriptyline

    Correct Answer
    B. Quinidine
    Explanation
    Quinidine is the correct answer because it is a generic name for an antiarrhythmic agent used to treat various heart conditions such as atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, premature ventricular contractions, and tachycardia. Quinidine works by regulating the electrical activity of the heart, helping to restore a normal rhythm. It is commonly prescribed by doctors for patients with these specific cardiac arrhythmias.

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  • 30. 

    Characterized by low blood pressure or causing a reduction in blood pressure

    • A.

      Hypercholesterolemia

    • B.

      Hypertensive

    • C.

      Hypocholesterolemia

    • D.

      Hypotensive

    Correct Answer
    D. Hypotensive
    Explanation
    Hypotensive refers to a condition or substance that causes a reduction in blood pressure. It is characterized by low blood pressure. Hypercholesterolemia refers to high levels of cholesterol in the blood, hypertensive refers to high blood pressure, and hypocholesterolemia refers to low levels of cholesterol in the blood. Therefore, hypotensive is the correct answer as it specifically relates to low blood pressure.

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  • 31. 

    Device used to administer electrical shocks to the heart

    • A.

      Cardiomyopathy

    • B.

      Cardioverter

    • C.

      Cardomyopathy

    • D.

      Cardoverter

    Correct Answer
    B. Cardioverter
    Explanation
    A cardioverter is a device used to administer electrical shocks to the heart. It is commonly used to treat abnormal heart rhythms such as ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. By delivering a controlled electric shock, the cardioverter can help restore a normal heart rhythm and prevent sudden cardiac arrest.

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  • 32. 

    Formation of a small depression

    • A.

      Pitting

    • B.

      Iliac

    • C.

      Piting

    • D.

      Ilac

    Correct Answer
    A. Pitting
  • 33. 

    Having a normal-sized head; mesocephalic

    • A.

      Atherosclerotic

    • B.

      Atheriosclerotic

    • C.

      Normocephalic

    • D.

      Normiocephalic

    Correct Answer
    C. Normocephalic
    Explanation
    Normocephalic refers to having a normal-sized head. This term is commonly used in medical and anatomical contexts to describe individuals whose head size falls within the average range. It is derived from the Greek words "normo" meaning normal and "cephalic" meaning head.

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  • 34. 

    Pertaining to the foot or feet

    • A.

      Pedal

    • B.

      Padel

    • C.

      Carotid

    • D.

      Cariotid

    Correct Answer
    A. Pedal
    Explanation
    The word "pedal" refers to a device operated by the foot, typically used in vehicles or musical instruments. It is derived from the Latin word "pes" meaning foot. Therefore, "pedal" is the correct answer as it accurately pertains to the foot or feet.

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  • 35. 

    Redness of the skin due to capillary dilatation

    • A.

      Erythemia

    • B.

      Erythema

    • C.

      Ischema

    • D.

      Ischemia

    Correct Answer
    B. Erythema
    Explanation
    Erythema refers to the redness of the skin caused by the dilation of capillaries. This dilation occurs due to increased blood flow to the affected area, often as a result of inflammation or injury. Erythema can be a symptom of various conditions, such as sunburn, allergic reactions, or infections. It is characterized by a reddening of the skin, which may be accompanied by warmth, swelling, or pain.

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  • 36. 

    Pertaining to the principal artery of the neck

    • A.

      Pedal

    • B.

      Padel

    • C.

      Carotid

    • D.

      Cariotid

    Correct Answer
    C. Carotid
    Explanation
    The term "pertaining to the principal artery of the neck" refers to the carotid artery. The carotid artery is a major blood vessel located in the neck that supplies blood to the brain, head, and neck. The other options, pedal, padel, and cariotid, do not accurately describe the principal artery of the neck.

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  • 37. 

    Sudden recurrence or increase in intensity of symptoms; spasm or seizure

    • A.

      Paroxysm

    • B.

      Paroxism

    • C.

      Aneurism

    • D.

      Aneurysm

    Correct Answer
    A. Paroxysm
    Explanation
    Paroxysm is the correct answer because it refers to a sudden recurrence or increase in the intensity of symptoms, such as spasms or seizures. A paroxysm is a temporary and intense episode that can occur in various medical conditions, including epilepsy, asthma, or even emotional outbursts. It accurately describes the sudden and severe nature of the symptoms mentioned in the question. Aneurism and aneurysm are not appropriate answers as they refer to a localized dilation of a blood vessel, which is unrelated to the symptoms described.

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  • 38. 

    Formation of a blood clot within the vascular system

    • A.

      Myocardial

    • B.

      Myocardal

    • C.

      Thromosis

    • D.

      Thrombosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Thrombosis
    Explanation
    Thrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot within the vascular system. This can occur when there is damage to the blood vessel wall or when there is an imbalance in the clotting factors in the blood. The clot can partially or completely block the blood flow, leading to various complications depending on the location of the clot. Thrombosis can occur in arteries or veins, and it is a common cause of conditions such as heart attack, stroke, and deep vein thrombosis.

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  • 39. 

    Slowness of the heartbeat

    • A.

      Tachycardia

    • B.

      Cachicardia

    • C.

      Bradicardia

    • D.

      Bradycardia

    Correct Answer
    D. Bradycardia
    Explanation
    Bradycardia refers to a condition characterized by an abnormally slow heart rate. This can be caused by various factors such as certain medications, electrolyte imbalances, heart disease, or an underlying medical condition. Slowness of the heartbeat is a common symptom of bradycardia, where the heart beats at a rate lower than the normal range. Tachycardia, on the other hand, refers to a rapid heart rate, while cachicardia and cachicardia are not valid medical terms and do not relate to the given symptom. Therefore, the correct answer for the given symptom is bradycardia.

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  • 40. 

    Trade name for an antihypertensive

    • A.

      Capoten

    • B.

      Capatin

    • C.

      Zyloprim

    • D.

      Zylaprim

    Correct Answer
    A. Capoten
    Explanation
    Capoten is the correct answer because it is a trade name for the antihypertensive medication Captopril. Captopril is commonly prescribed to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. The other options, Capatin, Zyloprim, and Zylaprim, are not trade names for antihypertensive medications and are used to treat different conditions.

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  • 41. 

    Trade name for a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), used to prevent gastric ulcers

    • A.

      Cycotec

    • B.

      Terramycin

    • C.

      Cytotec

    • D.

      Teramycin

    Correct Answer
    C. Cytotec
    Explanation
    Cytotec is the correct answer because it is a trade name for a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to prevent gastric ulcers. The other options, Cycotec, Terramycin, and Teramycin, are not trade names for NSAIDs and are not typically used for preventing gastric ulcers.

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  • 42. 

    Trade name for a diuretic

    • A.

      Ecotrin

    • B.

      Icotrin

    • C.

      Lasix

    • D.

      Laxis

    Correct Answer
    C. Lasix
    Explanation
    Lasix is the correct answer because it is a trade name for a diuretic medication called furosemide. Diuretics are commonly used to increase urine production and help remove excess fluid from the body. Lasix is often prescribed to treat conditions such as edema (swelling) and hypertension (high blood pressure). It works by inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium and chloride in the kidneys, leading to increased urine output.

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  • 43. 

    Trade name for a coronary vasodilator

    • A.

      Persantine

    • B.

      Reglan

    • C.

      Presantine

    • D.

      Relan

    Correct Answer
    A. Persantine
    Explanation
    Persantine is the correct answer as it is a trade name for a coronary vasodilator. It is commonly used to prevent blood clots after heart valve replacements or in the diagnosis of heart conditions. Reglan is a medication used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, Presantine is not a known trade name for any medication, and Relan does not exist as a recognized medication.

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  • 44. 

    Trade name for an antigout agent

    • A.

      Capoten

    • B.

      Capatin

    • C.

      Zyloprim

    • D.

      Zylaprim

    Correct Answer
    C. Zyloprim
    Explanation
    Zyloprim is the correct answer because it is a trade name for an antigout agent.

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  • 45. 

    Cramp-like pains in the calf; limping

    • A.

      Caudication

    • B.

      Claudication

    • C.

      Fibrilation

    • D.

      Fibrillation

    Correct Answer
    B. Claudication
    Explanation
    Claudication refers to cramp-like pains in the calf that cause limping. This condition is typically caused by poor blood circulation in the legs, often due to narrowed or blocked arteries. The pain usually occurs during physical activity and subsides with rest. Therefore, the correct answer is claudication.

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  • 46. 

    Mass of tissues and organs separating the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind

    • A.

      Mediastinum

    • B.

      Venous

    • C.

      Medastinum

    • D.

      Veinous

    Correct Answer
    A. Mediastinum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mediastinum. The mediastinum is the mass of tissues and organs that separate the sternum in front and the vertebral column behind. It is located in the middle of the chest and contains the heart, major blood vessels, esophagus, trachea, thymus, and lymph nodes.

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  • 47. 

    Disorder associated with an inborn error of uric acid metabolism that increases production or interferes with the excretion of uric acid

    • A.

      Guot

    • B.

      Sinus

    • C.

      Gout

    • D.

      Sinnus

    Correct Answer
    C. Gout
    Explanation
    Gout is a disorder associated with an inborn error of uric acid metabolism that increases the production or interferes with the excretion of uric acid. This condition leads to the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints, causing severe pain, inflammation, and swelling. Gout commonly affects the big toe, but it can also affect other joints such as the ankles, knees, elbows, and wrists. It is often characterized by sudden and intense attacks of pain, which can be triggered by factors like alcohol consumption, certain foods, and dehydration. Treatment typically involves medication to manage pain and inflammation, lifestyle changes, and dietary modifications to reduce uric acid levels.

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  • 48. 

    This study involves the injection or radiopaque dye directly into coronary arteries by the same procedure used in cardiac catheterization. This procedure evaluates the patency of coronary arteries and collateral circulation.

    • A.

      Echocardiography

    • B.

      Holter monitoring

    • C.

      Coronary angiography

    Correct Answer
    C. Coronary angiography
    Explanation
    Coronary angiography is the correct answer because it involves the injection of a radiopaque dye directly into the coronary arteries, which is done using the same procedure as cardiac catheterization. This procedure is used to evaluate the patency of the coronary arteries and collateral circulation. Echocardiography and Holter monitoring are not relevant to this specific procedure.

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  • 49. 

    This study is used to provide ultrasound information about the coronary arteries and to assess the size and consistency of plaque, the arterial walls, and the effectiveness of intracoronary artery treatment.

    • A.

      Intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS)

    • B.

      Peripheral arteriography and venography

    • C.

      Electrophysiology study (EPS)

    Correct Answer
    A. Intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS)
    Explanation
    Intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS) is used in this study to provide ultrasound information about the coronary arteries. It helps assess the size and consistency of plaque, the arterial walls, and the effectiveness of intracoronary artery treatment. This technique involves inserting a specialized ultrasound catheter into the coronary arteries to obtain detailed images and measurements. ICUS is a valuable tool in diagnosing and monitoring coronary artery disease and guiding treatment decisions.

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  • 50. 

    This study is used to record intracardiac electrical activity in different cardiac structures using catheters inserted via the femoral vein into the right side of the heart.

    • A.

      Ventriculography

    • B.

      Electrophysiology study (EPS)

    • C.

      Cardiac catheterization

    Correct Answer
    B. Electrophysiology study (EPS)
    Explanation
    An electrophysiology study (EPS) is used to record intracardiac electrical activity in different cardiac structures using catheters inserted via the femoral vein into the right side of the heart. This procedure allows for the evaluation and diagnosis of various cardiac arrhythmias and abnormalities. Ventriculography, on the other hand, is a different diagnostic procedure that involves the injection of contrast dye into the heart's ventricles to visualize their structure and function. Cardiac catheterization is a broader term that encompasses various diagnostic and interventional procedures involving the insertion of catheters into the heart or blood vessels for diagnostic or treatment purposes.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 23, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Fearlessleader
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