Assessment Day 1: Blood And Circulatory/Cvd

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Assessment Day 1: Blood And Circulatory/Cvd - Quiz


What components of blood do you know of? Can you explain the cycle of blood from the time of manufacturing to the time it gets to other organs? This quiz helps in this and more. All the best.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    A thrombus is:

    • A.

      A type of protein

    • B.

      A heart muscle

    • C.

      A foot ulcer

    • D.

      A blood clot in a blood vessel

    Correct Answer
    D. A blood clot in a blood vessel
    Explanation
    A thrombus refers to a blood clot that forms within a blood vessel. This clot can obstruct the flow of blood, potentially leading to serious health complications. It is not a type of protein, heart muscle, or a foot ulcer.

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  • 2. 

    Atherosclerosis occurs in:

    • A.

      Arteries

    • B.

      Veins

    • C.

      Capillaries

    • D.

      Arteries and veins

    Correct Answer
    A. Arteries
    Explanation
    Atherosclerosis occurs in arteries. This condition is characterized by the buildup of plaque, which consists of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other substances, on the inner walls of the arteries. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, leading to reduced blood flow and potentially causing various cardiovascular problems such as heart attacks and strokes. Veins and capillaries are not typically affected by atherosclerosis.

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  • 3. 

    In atherosclerosis, plaque forms beneath the _____________________, in the ________________layer:

    • A.

      Endothelium; Tunica Media

    • B.

      Endothelial Cells; Lumen

    • C.

      Tunica Intima, Tunica Media

    • D.

      Tunica Media; Tunica Adventitia

    • E.

      Endothelium; Tunica Intima

    Correct Answer
    E. Endothelium; Tunica Intima
    Explanation
    Atherosclerosis is a condition in which plaque, consisting of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other substances, builds up in the arteries. The plaque forms beneath the endothelium, which is the innermost layer of the artery. The tunica intima is the layer of the artery that contains the endothelium, so the correct answer is "Endothelium; Tunica Intima."

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  • 4. 

    The problem with a clot is that it can restrict blood flow, and almost certainly will if it dislodges and flows downstream into smaller and smaller vessels. This frequently results in deprivation of oxygen once it lodges.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A clot can restrict blood flow and cause oxygen deprivation if it dislodges and flows into smaller blood vessels. This is because the clot blocks the passage of blood, preventing oxygen from reaching the tissues and organs downstream. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 5. 

    The middle whitish layer in a sample blood tube as blood sits is composed of _________ and _____________, and forms about 1% of the blood.

    • A.

      White Blood Cells, Erythrocytes

    • B.

      Leukocytes, Platelets

    • C.

      Plasma, Platelets

    • D.

      Erythrocytes, Platelets

    Correct Answer
    B. Leukocytes, Platelets
    Explanation
    The middle whitish layer in a sample blood tube is composed of leukocytes and platelets. Leukocytes, also known as white blood cells, are responsible for the immune response and fighting infections. Platelets, on the other hand, are responsible for blood clotting and preventing excessive bleeding. Together, leukocytes and platelets make up about 1% of the blood.

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  • 6. 

    CHECK ALL THAT APPLY.  All of the cells found in the blood come from bone marrow. They begin their life as stem cells, and they mature into three main types of cells: ______________________.

    • A.

      Plasma, Platelets and RBCs

    • B.

      Plasma, WBCs, and RBCs

    • C.

      RBCs, Leukocytes, and Platelets

    • D.

      Platelets, WBCs & Erythrocytes

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. RBCs, Leukocytes, and Platelets
    D. Platelets, WBCs & Erythrocytes
    Explanation
    All of the cells found in the blood come from bone marrow. They begin their life as stem cells, and they mature into three main types of cells: RBCs, Leukocytes, and Platelets. These cells are responsible for various functions in the body. RBCs carry oxygen to the tissues, leukocytes are involved in the immune response, and platelets help in blood clotting. Additionally, platelets, WBCs, and erythrocytes are also correct as they represent the same types of cells mentioned earlier.

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  • 7. 

    The primary function of Erythrocytes is:

    • A.

      Have a role in the immune response

    • B.

      Production of Stem Cells

    • C.

      Deliver oxygen to the tissues and return carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs

    • D.

      Clotting factors

    Correct Answer
    C. Deliver oxygen to the tissues and return carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs
    Explanation
    Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells, are responsible for delivering oxygen to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide from the tissues to be transported back to the lungs. They contain a protein called hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen in the lungs and releases it in the tissues. This process is essential for maintaining the oxygen balance in the body and ensuring that all cells receive the necessary oxygen for their metabolic processes.

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  • 8. 

    Which is not a type of White Blood Cell:

    • A.

      Macrophage

    • B.

      Monocyte

    • C.

      Leukocyte

    • D.

      Erythrocyte

    Correct Answer
    D. Erythrocyte
    Explanation
    Erythrocyte is not a type of White Blood Cell. White Blood Cells, or leukocytes, are responsible for fighting off infections and diseases in the body. Macrophages and monocytes are both types of leukocytes that play important roles in the immune system. However, erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells, are responsible for carrying oxygen to the body's tissues and do not have a role in immune response.

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  • 9. 

    Unless an atherosclerotic plaque ruptures, causing a clot, atherosclerosis usually does not cause any notable symptoms from progressive stenosis until an artery is more than 70% occluded by plaque buildup.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Atherosclerosis is a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries. This plaque can lead to narrowing of the arteries (stenosis) and potentially block blood flow if it becomes severe. However, in the early stages of atherosclerosis, when the plaque is not causing significant blockage, there may not be any noticeable symptoms. It is only when an atherosclerotic plaque ruptures and causes a clot to form that symptoms may become evident. Therefore, it is true that atherosclerosis usually does not cause notable symptoms from progressive stenosis until an artery is more than 70% occluded by plaque buildup.

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  • 10. 

    In atherosclerosis, plaques are formed from:

    • A.

      High concentrations of cholesterol in the blood

    • B.

      Variations in blood pressure

    • C.

      Ruptures of blood vessel walls

    • D.

      Proliferative retinopathy

    Correct Answer
    A. High concentrations of cholesterol in the blood
    Explanation
    Atherosclerosis is a condition characterized by the formation of plaques in the arteries. These plaques are formed from high concentrations of cholesterol in the blood. When there is an excess of cholesterol in the bloodstream, it can accumulate on the inner walls of the arteries, leading to the formation of plaques. Over time, these plaques can grow and harden, narrowing the arteries and restricting blood flow. This can increase the risk of various cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks and strokes. Therefore, high concentrations of cholesterol in the blood play a significant role in the development of atherosclerosis.

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  • 11. 

    Why is atherosclerosis especially dangerous when found in the coronary arteries?

    • A.

      It can cause a heart attack.

    • B.

      It can restrict blood flow to the heart muscle.

    • C.

      It can cause myocardial ischemia.

    • D.

      All of the above options are correct.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above options are correct.
    Explanation
    Atherosclerosis is especially dangerous when found in the coronary arteries because it can cause a heart attack by restricting blood flow to the heart muscle, leading to myocardial ischemia.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is associated with atherosclerosis?

    • A.

      Including fruit and vegetables in every meal

    • B.

      High cholesterol diet

    • C.

      High-fiber diets

    • D.

      Low-salt diets

    • E.

      Increased exercise

    Correct Answer
    B. High cholesterol diet
    Explanation
    Atherosclerosis is a condition characterized by the buildup of plaque in the arteries, leading to narrowing and hardening of the arteries. This can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. A high cholesterol diet is associated with atherosclerosis because it can lead to an increase in LDL (bad) cholesterol levels in the blood. LDL cholesterol can accumulate in the arteries and contribute to the formation of plaque. Therefore, a high cholesterol diet is a risk factor for developing atherosclerosis.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for cardiovascular disease?

    • A.

      Cigarette smoking

    • B.

      Consumption of aspirin

    • C.

      High blood pressure

    • D.

      Elevated blood cholesterol

    • E.

      Obesity

    Correct Answer
    B. Consumption of aspirin
    Explanation
    Consumption of aspirin is not a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In fact, aspirin is often prescribed to individuals who have a high risk of cardiovascular disease as it can help prevent blood clots from forming. Cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood cholesterol, and obesity are all known risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

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  • 14. 

    The symptoms of heart failure include __________.

    • A.

      Fatigue

    • B.

      Shortness of breath

    • C.

      Weakness

    • D.

      Fluid accumulation

    • E.

      All of the above are symptoms of heart failure

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above are symptoms of heart failure
    Explanation
    The symptoms of heart failure include fatigue, shortness of breath, weakness, and fluid accumulation. These symptoms are commonly experienced by individuals with heart failure as a result of the heart's inability to pump blood effectively. Fatigue may occur due to the heart's reduced ability to supply oxygen and nutrients to the body. Shortness of breath can be caused by fluid accumulation in the lungs. Weakness may be a result of the heart's decreased ability to pump blood to the muscles. Fluid accumulation can lead to swelling in the legs, ankles, and abdomen. Therefore, all of the mentioned symptoms are commonly observed in individuals with heart failure.

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  • 15. 

    About 600,000 people die of heart disease in the United States every year–that’s 1 in every 4 deaths.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement provided states that about 600,000 people die of heart disease in the United States every year, which accounts for 1 in every 4 deaths. This indicates that heart disease is a significant cause of mortality in the country. Therefore, the answer "True" is correct.

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  • 16. 

    CVD claims more lives each year than the next 5 leading causes of death combined, which are cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, accidents, diabetes mellitus, influenza and pneumonia.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    CVD, or cardiovascular disease, is a leading cause of death worldwide. It includes conditions such as heart disease and stroke. The statement suggests that CVD claims more lives each year compared to the combined number of deaths caused by cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, accidents, diabetes mellitus, influenza, and pneumonia. This implies that CVD is a significant contributor to mortality, surpassing the other mentioned causes individually and combined. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 17. 

    All arteries carry blood away heart, and all veins carry blood back towards the heart.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body, while veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood back towards the heart. This is a fundamental concept in the circulatory system, where the heart acts as a pump to ensure the flow of blood throughout the body.

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  • 18. 

    In _______________stroke, a blood clot forms somewhere in the body (usually the heart) and travels through the bloodstream to your brain. Once in your brain, the clot eventually travels to a blood vessel small enough to block its passage.

    • A.

      A Hemorrhagic

    • B.

      An Aneuritic

    • C.

      A Thrombotic

    • D.

      An Embolic

    Correct Answer
    D. An Embolic
    Explanation
    In an embolic stroke, a blood clot forms in a different part of the body, usually the heart, and then travels through the bloodstream to the brain. Once it reaches the brain, the clot becomes lodged in a small blood vessel, blocking the flow of blood and causing a stroke. This type of stroke is different from a thrombotic stroke, where the clot forms directly in a blood vessel in the brain.

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  • 19. 

    Living a healthier lifestyle can help prevent heart disease. Which if the is not a lifestyle change that will help prevent/treat CVD?

    • A.

      Stop Smoking

    • B.

      Drink in moderation

    • C.

      Lower your Blood Pressure

    • D.

      Reduce Stress

    Correct Answer
    C. Lower your Blood Pressure
    Explanation
    Lowering your blood pressure is actually a lifestyle change that can help prevent/treat cardiovascular disease. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for heart disease, so making efforts to lower it, such as through diet, exercise, and medication if necessary, is important for maintaining a healthy heart.

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  • 20. 

    ________________is an enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of oxidized phospholipase on LDL. It is a specific marker for vascular inflammation and is produced in unstable atherosclerotic plaque. Elevated levels indicate a 2 fold increase risk for CVD events and ischemic stroke. In combination with HTN the risk jumps to 6 fold and with hsCRP to 11 fold.

    • A.

      HsCRP

    • B.

      LpPla2

    • C.

      NTproBNP

    • D.

      Cystatin C

    Correct Answer
    B. LpPla2
    Explanation
    LpPla2 is an enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of oxidized phospholipase on LDL. It is specifically produced in unstable atherosclerotic plaque and serves as a marker for vascular inflammation. Elevated levels of LpPla2 indicate a 2-fold increase in the risk for cardiovascular disease events and ischemic stroke. When combined with hypertension (HTN), the risk jumps to 6-fold, and when combined with hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein), the risk increases to 11-fold. Therefore, LpPla2 is a significant biomarker for identifying individuals at risk for cardiovascular events.

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  • 21. 

    Which statement(s) is not true about the Heart: (SELECT ALL THAT APPLY)

    • A.

      Muscular, four chambered pump

    • B.

      Contracts 100,000 times per day

    • C.

      Two upper chambers: ventricles

    • D.

      Two lower chambers: atria

    • E.

      All are true of the heart

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Two upper chambers: ventricles
    D. Two lower chambers: atria
    Explanation
    The statement "Two upper chambers: ventricles" is not true about the Heart. The upper chambers of the heart are called atria, not ventricles. The ventricles are the lower chambers of the heart.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following is not a form of CVD:

    • A.

      Atherosclerosis

    • B.

      Coronary heart disease (CHD)

    • C.

      Chest pain (angina pectoris)

    • D.

      Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)

    • E.

      Congestive heart failure (CHF)

    • F.

      Hypertension

    • G.

      Stroke

    Correct Answer
    F. Hypertension
    Explanation
    Hypertension is not a form of CVD because it is a condition characterized by high blood pressure, whereas CVD refers to a group of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. While hypertension is a risk factor for developing CVD, it is not considered a specific form of CVD itself. Atherosclerosis, CHD, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, CHF, and stroke are all examples of CVD as they involve damage or dysfunction of the heart or blood vessels.

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  • 23. 

    __________________are formed when the body sends macrophages to the location of a fatty deposit on the blood vessel walls. The macrophage surrounds the fatty material in an attempt to destroy it. The cell becomes filled with lipids (fats). The lipids surrounded by the macrophage give it a “foamy” appearance.

    • A.

      Fatty Streaks

    • B.

      Ruptures

    • C.

      Foam Cells

    • D.

      Thrombus

    Correct Answer
    C. Foam Cells
    Explanation
    Foam cells are formed when the body sends macrophages to the location of a fatty deposit on the blood vessel walls. The macrophage surrounds the fatty material in an attempt to destroy it, but instead becomes filled with lipids. The lipids surrounded by the macrophage give it a "foamy" appearance.

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  • 24. 

    The arteries on the heart that are associated with heart attack are known as___________________ arteries.

    • A.

      Carotid

    • B.

      Coronary

    • C.

      Femoral

    • D.

      Aorta

    Correct Answer
    B. Coronary
  • 25. 

    About 600,000 people die of heart disease in the US every year, which equates to 1 in every 4 deaths.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Heart disease is a leading cause of death in the US, with approximately 600,000 people dying from it each year. This statistic translates to 1 in every 4 deaths being attributed to heart disease. Therefore, the statement that about 600,000 people die of heart disease in the US every year, and it equates to 1 in every 4 deaths, is true.

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  • 26. 

    The most common cause of death for women is ________________________________.

    • A.

      Breast Cancer

    • B.

      Colon Cancer

    • C.

      Cardiovascular Disease

    • D.

      Diabetes

    Correct Answer
    C. Cardiovascular Disease
    Explanation
    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for women. It includes conditions such as heart attacks, strokes, and other heart-related problems. This disease affects the heart and blood vessels, leading to blockages or damage that can be fatal. It is more prevalent in women due to various risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle. Regular exercise, a healthy diet, and managing risk factors can help prevent cardiovascular disease and reduce the risk of death in women.

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  • 27. 

    _________________________________ refers to the build up of fats, cholesterol and other substances in your artery wall, possibly resulting in the restricting of blood flow to your heart and other parts of your body.

    • A.

      Heart Attack

    • B.

      Stroke

    • C.

      Congestive Heart Failure

    • D.

      Atherosclerosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Atherosclerosis
    Explanation
    Atherosclerosis is the correct answer because it refers to the accumulation of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in the artery walls. This buildup can lead to the narrowing or blocking of arteries, which can restrict blood flow to the heart and other parts of the body. Atherosclerosis is a common cause of heart attacks and strokes.

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    Quiz Edited by
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