YMCA L2 Anatomy - Circulatory SySTEM

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YMCA L2 Anatomy - Circulatory System - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Where is the heart located?

    • A.

      Posterior to the sternum and just right of centre

    • B.

      Posterior to the sternum and just left of centre

    • C.

      Anterior to the lungs and just left of centre

    • D.

      Anterior to the lungs and just right of centre

    Correct Answer
    B. Posterior to the sternum and just left of centre
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Posterior to the sternum and just left of centre." The heart is located behind the sternum, which is the bone in the middle of the chest. It is slightly off-center towards the left side of the body. This positioning allows the heart to pump blood efficiently to the rest of the body.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is a function of the heart?

    • A.

      To produce red blood cells

    • B.

      To produce white blood cells

    • C.

      To pump blood around the body

    • D.

      To pump nutrients around the body

    Correct Answer
    C. To pump blood around the body
    Explanation
    The heart is responsible for pumping blood around the body, which is essential for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removing waste products. The heart acts as a muscular pump that contracts and relaxes rhythmically, allowing blood to flow through the blood vessels and circulate throughout the body. This function ensures that all organs and tissues receive the necessary oxygen and nutrients to function properly.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following supplies the heart muscle with oxygenated blood?

    • A.

      Coronary arteries

    • B.

      Pulmonary artery

    • C.

      Aorta

    • D.

      Vena cava

    Correct Answer
    A. Coronary arteries
    Explanation
    The coronary arteries supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood. These arteries branch off from the aorta, which is the main artery that carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. The coronary arteries wrap around the heart and deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle, allowing it to function properly. The pulmonary artery, on the other hand, carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated. The aorta carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body, while the vena cava carries deoxygenated blood back to the heart from the body.

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  • 4. 

    Which chamber of the heart pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body?

    • A.

      Right atrium

    • B.

      Left atrium

    • C.

      Left ventricle

    • D.

      Right ventricle

    Correct Answer
    C. Left ventricle
    Explanation
    The left ventricle is the chamber of the heart that pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium and contracts to push the blood out through the aorta, which then distributes the oxygenated blood to all the organs and tissues in the body. The left ventricle is the largest and strongest chamber of the heart, as it needs to pump blood to the entire body and overcome the higher resistance in systemic circulation.

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  • 5. 

    De-oxygenated blood is collected in which chamber?

    • A.

      Right atrium

    • B.

      Left atrium

    • C.

      Left ventricle

    • D.

      Right ventricle

    Correct Answer
    A. Right atrium
    Explanation
    De-oxygenated blood is collected in the right atrium. The right atrium receives blood from the body through the superior and inferior vena cava. It is responsible for pumping the de-oxygenated blood into the right ventricle, which then pumps it to the lungs for oxygenation.

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  • 6. 

    How many atria does the heart have?

    • A.

      4

    • B.

      6

    • C.

      2

    • D.

      8

    Correct Answer
    A. 4
    Explanation
    The heart has four atria, which are the upper chambers of the heart. The two atria on the left side of the heart receive oxygenated blood from the lungs and pump it into the lower chambers called ventricles. The two atria on the right side of the heart receive deoxygenated blood from the body and pump it into the lungs for oxygenation. Therefore, the correct answer is 4.

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  • 7. 

    Through which major blood vessel does the left ventricle pump blood?

    • A.

      Aorta

    • B.

      Vena cava

    • C.

      Pulmonary vein

    • D.

      Pulmonary artery

    Correct Answer
    A. Aorta
    Explanation
    The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood out of the heart and into the systemic circulation. The aorta is the major blood vessel that carries this oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body. It is the largest artery in the body and branches out into smaller arteries to supply blood to various organs and tissues. The other options, vena cava, pulmonary vein, and pulmonary artery, are not responsible for carrying blood from the left ventricle. The vena cava carries deoxygenated blood from the body back to the heart, while the pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium, and the pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.

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  • 8. 

    Through which major blood vessel does the right ventricle pump blood?

    • A.

      Aorta

    • B.

      Vena cava

    • C.

      Pulmonary vein

    • D.

      Pulmonary artery

    Correct Answer
    D. Pulmonary artery
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the pulmonary artery. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs through the pulmonary artery. This artery carries the blood from the heart to the lungs where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide. Once the blood is oxygenated, it returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins and enters the left atrium.

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  • 9. 

    The role of the heart valves is to control the

    • A.

      Two-way flow of blood through the heart

    • B.

      Electrical conductivity of the heart

    • C.

      Amount of oxygen in the heart

    • D.

      One-way flow of blood through the heart

    Correct Answer
    D. One-way flow of blood through the heart
    Explanation
    The correct answer is one-way flow of blood through the heart. The heart valves play a crucial role in ensuring that blood flows in one direction through the heart chambers. They open and close to allow blood to move forward and prevent backflow. This mechanism ensures that oxygen-rich blood is efficiently pumped to the body while oxygen-poor blood is directed to the lungs for oxygenation.

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  • 10. 

    What is meant by stroke volume?

    • A.

      Amount of times the heart beats per minute

    • B.

      Amount of blood pumped by a ventricle

    • C.

      Amount of blood pumped out by the ventricle in one minute

    • D.

      Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs

    Correct Answer
    B. Amount of blood pumped by a ventricle
    Explanation
    Stroke volume refers to the amount of blood that is pumped by a ventricle with each heartbeat. It is a measure of the volume of blood ejected from the heart during systole, the contraction phase of the cardiac cycle. Stroke volume is an important determinant of cardiac output, which is the total volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute.

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  • 11. 

    How do you calculate cardiac output?

    • A.

      Heart rate + stroke volume

    • B.

      Heart rate - stroke volume

    • C.

      Stoke volume/heart rate

    • D.

      Heart rate x stroke volume

    Correct Answer
    D. Heart rate x stroke volume
    Explanation
    Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute. It is calculated by multiplying the heart rate (number of heart beats per minute) by the stroke volume (volume of blood pumped by the heart with each beat). This calculation takes into account both the frequency of heart contractions and the amount of blood pumped with each contraction, providing an accurate measure of the overall blood flow from the heart.

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  • 12. 

    What is meant by cardiac output?

    • A.

      Amount of times the heart beats per minute

    • B.

      Amount of blood pumped by a ventricle

    • C.

      Amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles in one minute

    • D.

      Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs

    Correct Answer
    C. Amount of blood pumped out by the ventricles in one minute
    Explanation
    Cardiac output refers to the amount of blood that is pumped out by the ventricles of the heart in one minute. It is a measure of the efficiency and effectiveness of the heart in delivering oxygenated blood to the body's tissues. This measurement is important in assessing overall cardiovascular health and can be influenced by factors such as heart rate and stroke volume.

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  • 13. 

    During pulmonary circulation the 

    • A.

      Left ventricle pumps de-oxygenated blood via an artery to the lungs

    • B.

      Left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood via an artery to the lungs

    • C.

      Right ventricle pumps de-oxygenated blood via an artery to the lungs

    • D.

      Right ventricle pumps oxygenated blood via an artery to the lungs

    Correct Answer
    C. Right ventricle pumps de-oxygenated blood via an artery to the lungs
    Explanation
    During pulmonary circulation, the right ventricle pumps de-oxygenated blood via an artery to the lungs. This is because the right side of the heart receives de-oxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs for oxygenation. Once the blood reaches the lungs, it goes through the process of gas exchange, where carbon dioxide is removed and oxygen is added. The oxygenated blood then returns to the left side of the heart to be pumped to the rest of the body.

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  • 14. 

    During systemic circulation the

    • A.

      Left ventricle pumps de-oxygenated blood via an artery to the body

    • B.

      Left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood via an artery to the body

    • C.

      Right ventricle pumps de-oxygenated blood via an artery to the body

    • D.

      Right ventricle pumps oxygenated blood via an artery to the body

    Correct Answer
    B. Left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood via an artery to the body
    Explanation
    The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body through an artery during systemic circulation. This is because the left ventricle receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and then pumps it out to the rest of the body through the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body.

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  • 15. 

    Which two chambers of the heart are involved in systemic circulation?

    • A.

      Left ventricle/right ventricle

    • B.

      Left atrium/right atrium

    • C.

      Left atrium/left ventricle

    • D.

      Right atrium/right ventricle

    Correct Answer
    C. Left atrium/left ventricle
    Explanation
    The left atrium and left ventricle are involved in systemic circulation. Systemic circulation is the part of the circulatory system that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs and passes it to the left ventricle. The left ventricle then pumps this oxygenated blood out to the rest of the body through the aorta. Therefore, the left atrium and left ventricle play a crucial role in systemic circulation.

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  • 16. 

    Which two chambers of the heart are involved in pulmonary circulation?

    • A.

      Left ventricle/right ventricle

    • B.

      Left atrium/right atrium

    • C.

      Left atrium/left ventricle

    • D.

      Right atrium/right ventricle

    Correct Answer
    D. Right atrium/right ventricle
    Explanation
    The correct answer is right atrium/right ventricle. Pulmonary circulation is the movement of blood between the heart and the lungs. It involves the right atrium receiving deoxygenated blood from the body and pumping it into the right ventricle. The right ventricle then pumps the blood into the pulmonary artery, which carries it to the lungs for oxygenation. Therefore, the right atrium and right ventricle are the two chambers of the heart involved in pulmonary circulation.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following type of circulation is best described as the flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart:

    • A.

      Aortic circulation

    • B.

      Pulmonary circulation

    • C.

      Systemic circulation

    • D.

      Ventricular circulation

    Correct Answer
    B. Pulmonary circulation
    Explanation
    Pulmonary circulation is the correct answer because it refers to the flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart. In this type of circulation, deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right side of the heart to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide. The oxygenated blood then returns to the left side of the heart to be pumped out to the rest of the body through systemic circulation.

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  • 18. 

    Why do veins contain valves?

    • A.

      Assist blood flow back to the heart

    • B.

      To allow for gaseous exchange

    • C.

      To deal with blood under high pressure

    • D.

      Create plasma

    Correct Answer
    A. Assist blood flow back to the heart
    Explanation
    Veins contain valves to assist blood flow back to the heart. These valves prevent the backflow of blood and ensure that it flows in one direction, towards the heart. This is necessary because veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart against the force of gravity. The valves help to maintain the flow of blood by preventing it from pooling or stagnating in the veins, ensuring that it reaches the heart efficiently.

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  • 19. 

    Red blood cells transport

    • A.

      Hormones

    • B.

      Medicine

    • C.

      Oxygen

    • D.

      Nutrients

    Correct Answer
    C. Oxygen
    Explanation
    Red blood cells are responsible for transporting oxygen throughout the body. They contain a protein called hemoglobin that binds to oxygen and carries it from the lungs to the tissues. This oxygen is essential for the proper functioning of cells and organs. The other options mentioned, such as hormones, medicine, and nutrients, are not primarily transported by red blood cells. While hormones and medicine may be transported in the bloodstream, they are carried by other components such as plasma or specialized carrier proteins. Nutrients are also transported through the bloodstream, but not specifically by red blood cells.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following carry blood away from the heart?

    • A.

      Arteries

    • B.

      Veins

    • C.

      Capillaries

    • D.

      Venules

    Correct Answer
    A. Arteries
    Explanation
    Arteries carry blood away from the heart. They are thick-walled blood vessels that transport oxygenated blood from the heart to various parts of the body. Arteries have high pressure and a pulsating flow due to the pumping action of the heart. They branch out into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into capillaries where oxygen and nutrients are exchanged with tissues. Veins, on the other hand, carry blood back to the heart, while capillaries connect arteries and veins. Venules are small veins that receive blood from capillaries and transport it back to larger veins.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following have a thicker and more muscular wall?

    • A.

      Arteries

    • B.

      Veins

    • C.

      Capillaries

    • D.

      Venules

    Correct Answer
    A. Arteries
    Explanation
    Arteries have a thicker and more muscular wall compared to veins, capillaries, and venules. This is because arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to various parts of the body at high pressure. The thick and muscular walls of arteries allow them to withstand and regulate this high pressure, ensuring efficient blood flow. Veins, on the other hand, have thinner walls and rely on valves and skeletal muscle contractions to assist in returning deoxygenated blood back to the heart. Capillaries and venules have even thinner walls to facilitate the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and surrounding tissues.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following have a thin muscular wall?

    • A.

      Arteries

    • B.

      Veins

    • C.

      Capillaries

    • D.

      Arterioles

    Correct Answer
    B. Veins
    Explanation
    Veins have a thin muscular wall. Unlike arteries, veins carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart and have a lower pressure. The thin muscular wall allows veins to expand and contract, helping to pump blood against gravity and prevent backflow. This muscular layer is not as thick as in arteries, as veins do not need to withstand the same high pressure. Capillaries, on the other hand, have a single layer of endothelial cells and do not possess a muscular wall. Arteries have a thicker muscular wall to withstand the high pressure of oxygenated blood being pumped away from the heart. Arterioles are small arteries and also have a thicker muscular wall.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following carry blood back to the heart?

    • A.

      Arteries

    • B.

      Veins

    • C.

      Capillaries

    • D.

      Arterioles

    Correct Answer
    B. Veins
    Explanation
    Veins carry blood back to the heart. Unlike arteries, which carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body, veins carry deoxygenated blood from the body back to the heart. They have valves that prevent blood from flowing backward and rely on the contraction of surrounding muscles to help push the blood towards the heart. Veins also have thinner walls compared to arteries, as they do not experience the same high pressure from the heart's pumping action.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following allow for gaseous exchange?

    • A.

      Arteries

    • B.

      Veins

    • C.

      Capillaries

    • D.

      Venules

    Correct Answer
    C. Capillaries
    Explanation
    Capillaries allow for gaseous exchange. Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in the body and have thin walls, which allows for the exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and surrounding tissues. This exchange is essential for delivering oxygen to cells and removing waste products. Arteries and veins, on the other hand, are responsible for transporting blood but do not directly participate in gaseous exchange. Venules are small veins that also do not directly participate in gaseous exchange.

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  • 25. 

    What is blood pressure?

    • A.

      The pressure within arteries

    • B.

      Where the heart relaxes

    • C.

      Flow of blood though the heart

    • D.

      Exchange of gases in the blood

    Correct Answer
    A. The pressure within arteries
    Explanation
    Blood pressure refers to the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the arteries as it is pumped by the heart. This pressure is highest when the heart contracts (systolic pressure) and lowest when the heart relaxes (diastolic pressure). Therefore, the correct answer is "The pressure within arteries."

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  • 26. 

    Systolic blood pressure is a measure of force that blood exerts on the walls of the 

    • A.

      Arteries

    • B.

      Veins

    • C.

      Capillaries

    • D.

      Veins

    Correct Answer
    A. Arteries
    Explanation
    Systolic blood pressure is a measure of the force that blood exerts on the walls of the arteries. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. When the heart contracts during each heartbeat, it pushes blood into the arteries, causing an increase in pressure. This maximum pressure is known as systolic blood pressure. Therefore, the correct answer is arteries.

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  • 27. 

    How would a long-term regular exercise programme effect high blood pressure?

    • A.

      Systolic pressure only decreases

    • B.

      Diastolic pressure only decreases

    • C.

      Systolic and diastolic pressure decrease

    • D.

      No change

    Correct Answer
    C. Systolic and diastolic pressure decrease
    Explanation
    A long-term regular exercise program can have a positive effect on high blood pressure by reducing both systolic and diastolic pressure. Regular exercise helps to strengthen the heart and improve blood flow, leading to lower blood pressure levels. By engaging in regular physical activity, individuals can experience a decrease in both the top number (systolic pressure) and the bottom number (diastolic pressure) of their blood pressure readings. This is because exercise helps to improve the elasticity of blood vessels, reduce peripheral resistance, and promote overall cardiovascular health.

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  • 28. 

    According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) which of the following blood pressure readings is classified as ‘optimal’?

    • A.

      Systolic blood pressure is 140 mmHg or lower or diastolic blood pressure is 90 mmHg or lower

    • B.

      Systolic blood pressure is 120 mmHg or lower or diastolic blood pressure is 80 mmHg or lower

    • C.

      Systolic blood pressure is 160 mmHg or lower or diastolic blood pressure is 100 mmHg or lower

    • D.

      Systolic blood pressure is 180 mmHg or lower or diastolic blood pressure is 100 mmHg or lower

    Correct Answer
    B. Systolic blood pressure is 120 mmHg or lower or diastolic blood pressure is 80 mmHg or lower
    Explanation
    According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), an optimal blood pressure reading is when the systolic blood pressure is 120 mmHg or lower and the diastolic blood pressure is 80 mmHg or lower. This means that a person's blood pressure is within a healthy range, indicating good cardiovascular health.

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  • 29. 

    According to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), blood pressure is considered ‘high’ if it is measured as above

    • A.

      Systolic blood pressure is 180 mmHg or higher or diastolic blood pressure is 100 mmHg or higher

    • B.

      Systolic blood pressure is 140 mmHg or higher or diastolic blood pressure is 90 mmHg or higher

    • C.

      Systolic blood pressure is 160 mmHg or higher or diastolic blood pressure is 100 mmHg or higher

    • D.

      Systolic blood pressure is 150 mmHg or higher or diastolic blood pressure is 110 mmHg or higher

    Correct Answer
    A. Systolic blood pressure is 180 mmHg or higher or diastolic blood pressure is 100 mmHg or higher
    Explanation
    According to the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), blood pressure is considered 'high' if either the systolic blood pressure is 180 mmHg or higher or the diastolic blood pressure is 100 mmHg or higher.

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  • 30. 

    Diastolic blood pressure is a measure of the force that blood exerts on the walls of the 

    • A.

      Arteries whilst the heart contracts

    • B.

      Veins whilst the heart contracts

    • C.

      Arteries whilst the heart relaxes

    • D.

      Veins whilst the heart relaxes

    Correct Answer
    C. Arteries whilst the heart relaxes
    Explanation
    Diastolic blood pressure is a measure of the force that blood exerts on the walls of the arteries whilst the heart relaxes. During diastole, the heart is in its resting phase and is filling with blood. The pressure in the arteries is at its lowest point during this phase, as the heart is not actively pumping blood. Therefore, the diastolic blood pressure represents the minimum pressure in the arteries, indicating the resistance that the arterial walls experience when blood is not being pumped.

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  • Mar 15, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Feb 06, 2018
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