# Ocean Motion Assessment Mcfadden Period 8

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• 1.

### Water particles in waves move _____________.

• A.

Toward shore

• B.

In a circle

• C.

Sideways

• D.

Backward

B. In a circle
Explanation
Water particles in waves move in a circular motion. As a wave passes through water, the particles are not carried forward in a straight line, but rather move in a circular path. This circular motion is caused by the oscillation of the wave, with the particles moving up and down as the wave passes through. This circular motion allows the energy of the wave to be transmitted through the water, creating the characteristic motion and propagation of waves.

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• 2.

### When a wave approaches shallow water, the ______________ increases.

• A.

Wave height

• B.

Wave length

• C.

Circular motion

• D.

All the above

A. Wave height
Explanation
When a wave approaches shallow water, the wave height increases. This is because the bottom of the wave starts to interact with the ocean floor, causing the wave to slow down and the energy to compress, resulting in an increase in wave height. The wave length and circular motion of the wave may also be affected, but the primary change observed is the increase in wave height.

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• 3.

### When the Moon, Earth, and Sun are in a line, the tidal range is _______________.

• A.

Unchanged

• B.

Unpredictable

• C.

Lowest

• D.

Greatest

D. Greatest
Explanation
When the Moon, Earth, and Sun are in a line, the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun on the Earth combine, resulting in the highest tidal range. This alignment, known as a spring tide, causes the highest high tides and the lowest low tides, leading to the greatest difference between high and low tide levels.

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• 4.

### Giant waves produced by gravity are called _____________.

• A.

Upwellings

• B.

Tidal waves

• C.

Currents

• D.

Tides

D. Tides
Explanation
Giant waves produced by gravity are called tides. Tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun on the Earth's oceans. The gravitational force creates a bulge in the ocean, causing a rise and fall in sea level. These periodic changes in sea level are known as tides and can create large waves, especially in coastal areas. Upwellings, tidal waves, and currents are not specifically related to giant waves produced by gravity.

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• 5.

### When the Sun, Earth, and Moon form a 90 degree angle, we have  _____________ tides.

• A.

Spring

• B.

Neap

• C.

Normal

• D.

Fall

B. Neap
Explanation
When the Sun, Earth, and Moon form a 90 degree angle, we have neap tides. Neap tides occur during the first and third quarter moon phases. During this alignment, the gravitational pull of the Sun and the Moon partially cancel each other out, resulting in weaker tides. Neap tides are characterized by lower high tides and higher low tides compared to normal tides.

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• 6.

### Wavelength is the horizontal distance between adjacent wave ____________.

• A.

Particles

• B.

Amplitudes

• C.

Crests

• D.

Tides

C. Crests
Explanation
The wavelength of a wave is defined as the horizontal distance between two adjacent crests. It is a measure of the length of one complete wave cycle.

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• 7.

### Surface currents are caused by ____________.

• A.

Upwelling

• B.

Cold water

• C.

Warm water

• D.

Winds

D. Winds
Explanation
Surface currents are caused by winds. Winds create friction with the surface of the ocean, causing the water to move in the same direction as the wind. This movement of water forms surface currents. The strength and direction of the winds determine the speed and direction of the surface currents.

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• 8.

### The lowest point on a wave is called the wave ____________________.

• A.

Trough

• B.

Crest

• C.

Height

• D.

Tide

A. Trough
Explanation
The lowest point on a wave is called the trough. The trough is the point on a wave where the displacement of the medium is at its maximum downward position. It is opposite to the crest, which is the highest point on a wave. The height refers to the vertical distance between the crest and the trough, while tide refers to the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the gravitational forces of the moon and the sun.

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• 9.

### Slow-moving, cold currents may rise to the surface.  This ________________ of cold water carries food particles to the surface, resulting in areas of good fishing.

• A.

Upwelling

• B.

Crest

• C.

Tide

• D.

Trough

A. Upwelling
Explanation
Upwelling is the process by which slow-moving, cold currents rise to the surface. This movement of cold water carries food particles to the surface, creating areas of good fishing.

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• 10.

### An increase in ocean salinity can increase ______________, creating a current.

• A.

Wavelength

• B.

Density

• C.

The Coriolis effect

• D.

Wave height

B. Density
Explanation
An increase in ocean salinity can increase density, which in turn can create a current. As the salinity of the water increases, the concentration of dissolved salts also increases, making the water denser. Denser water has a higher mass per unit volume, causing it to sink and create a flow or current. This current can have significant impacts on ocean circulation patterns and the distribution of heat and nutrients within the ocean.

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• 11.

### Every 1 Kg of ocean water contains 35 g of _________________.

• A.

Calcium

• B.

Dissolved salts

• C.

Sulfur

• D.

Chloride ions

B. Dissolved salts
Explanation
Ocean water contains various dissolved salts, including chloride ions, calcium, sulfur, and many others. These salts are the result of the natural processes of weathering and erosion, which wash minerals and other substances into rivers and eventually into the ocean. The concentration of dissolved salts in ocean water is approximately 35 grams per kilogram, making it a crucial characteristic of seawater.

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• 12.

### Surface currents affect _____________.

• A.

High tides

• B.

Low ides

• C.

The ocean bottom

• D.

The climate on continents

D. The climate on continents
Explanation
Surface currents affect the climate on continents because they play a crucial role in the transfer of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere. These currents distribute warm or cold water across different regions, influencing the temperature and moisture levels in the air above them. This, in turn, affects the climate patterns on nearby landmasses. For example, warm surface currents can bring warmer and more humid air, leading to milder climates, while cold currents can result in cooler and drier conditions. Therefore, surface currents have a significant impact on the climate and weather patterns experienced on continents.

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• 13.

### The oceans were formed when precipitation filled low areas on Earth called _________________.

• A.

Basins

• B.

Troughs

• C.

Upwellings

• D.

Groundwater

A. Basins
Explanation
The correct answer is basins. Basins are low areas on Earth's surface that can collect water. When precipitation, such as rain or snow, falls into these basins, it can accumulate and form bodies of water, such as lakes or oceans. Over time, the accumulation of water in these basins resulted in the formation of oceans.

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• 14.

### When the wind blows across a body of water, ____________ between the water and the air causes the water to move.

• A.

Ions

• B.

Gravity

• C.

Friction

• D.

Density

C. Friction
Explanation
When the wind blows across a body of water, the interaction or force of friction between the water and the air causes the water to move. Friction is the force that opposes the relative motion between two surfaces in contact, in this case, the air and the water. As the wind pushes against the surface of the water, the friction between the air molecules and the water molecules causes the water to be dragged along in the direction of the wind, resulting in its movement.

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• 15.

### Earth's _____________ may have filled from water vapor given off by volcanoes.

• A.

Contenents

• B.

Soil

• C.

Oceans

• D.

Minerals

C. Oceans
Explanation
The correct answer is oceans. This is because volcanoes release water vapor along with other gases during eruptions. This water vapor can condense and form clouds, eventually leading to precipitation and the filling of Earth's oceans. Additionally, the water vapor released by volcanoes contributes to the overall water cycle on Earth.

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• 16.

### Once the atmosphere cooled enough, water vapor condensed and _________ began to fall onto the Earth.

• A.

Dust

• B.

Precipitation

• C.

Lava

• D.

Ash

B. Precipitation
Explanation
When the atmosphere cools, water vapor condenses and forms tiny droplets or ice crystals. These droplets or crystals then come together to form clouds. Eventually, the droplets or crystals become too heavy to stay suspended in the air and fall to the Earth's surface as precipitation, which can take the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail. Therefore, precipitation is the correct answer as it refers to the process of water falling from the atmosphere to the Earth's surface.

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• 17.

### Oxygen enters the ocean from the atmosphere and from organisms that _____________.

• A.

Photosynthesize

• B.

Form bones

• C.

Respire

• D.

Form shells

A. Photosynthesize
Explanation
Oxygen enters the ocean from the atmosphere and from organisms that photosynthesize. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose and oxygen. These organisms release oxygen into the water as a byproduct of photosynthesis, which then dissolves into the ocean. This is an important source of oxygen for marine life.

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• 18.

### Dissolved calcium is carried to the ocean by _____________.

• A.

Animals

• B.

Rivers

• C.

Wind

• D.

Gravity

B. Rivers
Explanation
Rivers carry dissolved calcium from the land into the ocean. As water flows over rocks and soil, it picks up dissolved minerals including calcium. These minerals are then transported by rivers and eventually deposited into the ocean. This process is known as erosion and is a natural way for calcium to be transported from the land to the ocean.

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• 19.

### Because substances are constantly being added and substances are constantly being used by plants and animals, the salinity of the oceans _____________.

• A.

Remains balanced

• B.

Increases

• C.

Decreases

• D.

Doubles

A. Remains balanced
Explanation
The salinity of the oceans remains balanced because while substances are constantly being added and used by plants and animals, there is a natural equilibrium that is maintained. The addition of substances, such as salt from rivers or minerals from volcanic activity, is balanced by the removal of substances through processes like evaporation. This balance ensures that the overall salinity of the oceans remains relatively stable over time.

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• 20.

### Sea animals and plants use substances dissolved in Earth's ___________ to form bones and shells

• A.

Atmosphere

• B.

Oceans

• C.

Ocean floor

• D.

Continents

B. Oceans
Explanation
Sea animals and plants rely on substances dissolved in Earth's oceans to form their bones and shells. The oceans provide a rich source of minerals and nutrients, such as calcium and carbonate ions, which are essential for the formation and growth of these structures. These dissolved substances are absorbed by marine organisms and used to build their skeletal systems, ensuring their strength and protection. The vastness and composition of the oceans make them the primary source for these vital building blocks in the marine ecosystem.

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• 21.

### Waters off the western coast of a continents are usually colder because of the ________ origin of the ocean currents passing by.

• A.

Polar

• B.

Equatorial

• C.

Temperate

• D.

Warm

A. Polar
Explanation
The correct answer is polar. Waters off the western coast of a continent are usually colder because of the polar origin of the ocean currents passing by. Polar currents originate from the polar regions and carry cold water towards the equator. As these currents flow along the western coast of a continent, they bring cold water, resulting in colder temperatures in those waters compared to the eastern coast.

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• 22.

### Currents off the eastern coasts of continents generally flow from the ___________ regions of Earth.

• A.

Cold

• B.

Temperate

• C.

Equatorial

• D.

Polar

C. Equatorial
Explanation
The correct answer is equatorial because currents off the eastern coasts of continents are influenced by the rotation of the Earth and the Coriolis effect. The Coriolis effect causes moving air or water to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. In the Northern Hemisphere, the trade winds blow from east to west along the equator, and as they approach the eastern coasts of continents, they are deflected towards the poles. This creates equatorial currents that flow from the equatorial regions towards the eastern coasts of continents.

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• 23.

### What causes the water to go back into the sea after a wave breaks onto the shore?

• A.

Gravity

• B.

Density

• C.

Friction

• D.

Coriolis effect

A. Gravity
Explanation
Gravity is the force that causes the water to go back into the sea after a wave breaks onto the shore. Gravity pulls the water downwards, creating a downward flow that returns the water to the sea. This gravitational force is responsible for the ebb and flow of tides as well.

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• 24.

### If you were floating in a life raft in the Gulf Stream, you and the raft would _______________.

• A.

Not move with the water

• B.

Move in a circular motion

• C.

Move back and forth

• D.

Move with the surface current

D. Move with the surface current
Explanation
If you were floating in a life raft in the Gulf Stream, you and the raft would move with the surface current. The Gulf Stream is a strong and swift ocean current that flows along the eastern coast of the United States. It moves northward along the coast, carrying warm water from the tropics towards the North Atlantic. If you were in a life raft in the Gulf Stream, the current would carry you and the raft in the same direction as it flows, causing you to move with the surface current.

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• 25.

### Cold, dense water around Norway, Greenland, and Labrador form _______________.

• A.

The California Current

• B.

The Gulf Stream

• C.

The Mediterranean intermediate water

• D.

North Atlantic Deep Water

D. North Atlantic Deep Water
Explanation
Cold, dense water around Norway, Greenland, and Labrador form North Atlantic Deep Water. This is because these regions experience high rates of evaporation and cooling, causing the surface water to become denser and sink to the depths of the ocean. This process, known as deep convection, leads to the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water, which plays a crucial role in global ocean circulation and the transport of heat and nutrients.

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• 26.

### A ____ is a kind  of wave that forms when a rising tide enters a shallow, narrow river from a wide area of the sea.

• A.

Neap tide

• B.

Tidal bore

• C.

Spring tide

• D.

Tidal range

B. Tidal bore
Explanation
A tidal bore is a kind of wave that forms when a rising tide enters a shallow, narrow river from a wide area of the sea. This wave is typically characterized by a rapid and powerful surge of water that moves upstream against the current. Tidal bores are often observed in locations with a significant tidal range, such as the Bay of Fundy in Canada or the Qiantang River in China.

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• 27.

### Half the distance of the wave height is called the _____________ of a wave.

• A.

Crest

• B.

Trough

• C.

Amplitude

• D.

Tidal range

C. Amplitude
Explanation
The amplitude of a wave is half the distance between the crest and trough of the wave. It represents the maximum displacement of particles in a medium from their resting position when a wave passes through. In other words, it measures the intensity or strength of the wave. The greater the amplitude, the more energy the wave carries.

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• 28.

### An object floating in the ocean near the shore beyond the breakers will ____________.

• A.

Move toward shore as the wave comes in

• B.

Remain in approximately the same place

• C.

Be pulled out toward sea as the waves come in

• D.

None of the above

B. Remain in approximately the same place
Explanation
When an object is floating in the ocean near the shore beyond the breakers, it will experience the up and down motion of the waves but will not move significantly in any particular direction. This is because the movement of the object is primarily determined by the currents and tides, which are generally not strong enough to overcome the buoyancy of the object and cause it to move towards the shore or out towards the sea. Therefore, the object will remain in approximately the same place as the waves come in.

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• 29.

### According to the textbook, ocean energy is similar to ___________________.

• A.

A forest of trees

• B.

Rocking in a rocking chair

• C.

A row of falling dominoes

• D.

Children swinging on swings

C. A row of falling dominoes
Explanation
Ocean energy is similar to a row of falling dominoes because both involve a chain reaction or a sequential process. Just like how the falling of one domino triggers the falling of the next one, ocean energy refers to the process of harnessing the power of waves or tides to generate electricity. The movement of one wave or tide can set off a series of energy transfers, similar to how a falling domino sets off a chain reaction.

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• 30.

### If a wave's amplitude increases, the amount of _______ it carries also increases.

• A.

Energy

• B.

Water

• C.

Oxygen

• D.

Dissolved salts

A. Energy
Explanation
When a wave's amplitude increases, it means that the wave is carrying more energy. Amplitude represents the maximum displacement of particles in a wave from their equilibrium position. As the amplitude increases, the particles move more vigorously, causing an increase in the amount of energy carried by the wave. Therefore, the correct answer is energy.

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• 31.

### The Coriolis effect causes currents north of the equator to move in a __________________ direction.

• A.

Clockwise

• B.

Counterclockwise

A. Clockwise
Explanation
The Coriolis effect is a phenomenon caused by the rotation of the Earth. It deflects moving objects, such as air or water currents, to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Therefore, north of the equator, the Coriolis effect causes currents to move in a clockwise direction.

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• 32.

### The warm water of the ___________ effects  Iceland's climate.

• A.

California Current

• B.

Gulf Stream

• C.

Mediterranean intermediate water

• D.

North Atlantic Deep Water

B. Gulf Stream
Explanation
The warm water of the Gulf Stream affects Iceland's climate. The Gulf Stream is a powerful warm ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and flows along the eastern coast of the United States before crossing the Atlantic Ocean towards Europe. As it passes by Iceland, the Gulf Stream brings warm water and influences the temperature of the surrounding air. This current helps to moderate Iceland's climate, making it milder and less extreme than other regions at similar latitudes.

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• 33.

### Currents that are south of the equator move in a ____________ direction.

• A.

Clockwise

• B.

Counterclockwise

B. Counterclockwise
Explanation
Currents that are south of the equator move in a counterclockwise direction. This is because the Coriolis effect, caused by the rotation of the Earth, deflects moving objects to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. Therefore, in the Southern Hemisphere, the currents are deflected to the left, resulting in a counterclockwise direction.

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• 34.

### The Gulf Stream is a  _______________.

• A.

Surface current

• B.

Deep water current

• C.

Polar current

A. Surface current
Explanation
The Gulf Stream is a surface current. This means that it flows near the surface of the ocean, rather than in deeper waters. Surface currents are driven by wind and are influenced by factors such as temperature and salinity. The Gulf Stream is a powerful and warm current that flows along the eastern coast of the United States, originating in the Gulf of Mexico. It plays a significant role in the climate and weather patterns of the region, as well as in the transportation of heat and nutrients.

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• 35.

### What letter represents wavelength?

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

D. D
Explanation
The letter D represents wavelength. Wavelength is a measure of the distance between two consecutive points in a wave that are in phase, such as two peaks or two troughs. It is typically represented by the Greek letter lambda (λ), which has a similar shape to the letter D.

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• 36.

### What letter represents crest?

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

C. C
Explanation
The letter C represents the crest.

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• 37.

### What letter represents trough?

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

B. B
Explanation
The letter B represents trough.

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• 38.

### What letter represents wave height?

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

A. A
Explanation
The letter A represents wave height.

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