The Verbal Behaviour Approach 1

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The Verbal Behaviour Approach 1 - Quiz

As much as grammar and knowledge is an important ingredient for survival, knowing how to live and deal with people is also an important part. The quiz below tests and gauges your understanding of the verbal behavior approach.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What does ABA Stand for?

    • A.

      Application of Behaviour Analysis

    • B.

      Applied Behavioural Analytics

    • C.

      Applied Behaviour Analysis

    • D.

      Analysis of Behavioural Applications

    Correct Answer
    C. Applied Behaviour Analysis
    Explanation
    ABA stands for Applied Behaviour Analysis. This field of study focuses on understanding and improving human behavior by applying scientific principles and techniques. It involves analyzing behavior, identifying the factors that influence it, and using evidence-based interventions to bring about positive changes. ABA is commonly used in various settings, such as education, healthcare, and therapy, to help individuals with developmental disorders, learning disabilities, and behavioral challenges.

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  • 2. 

    Who did the original ABA study in 1987?

    • A.

      Dr. Sundberg

    • B.

      Dr. Ivor Lovaas

    • C.

      Dr. Partington

    • D.

      Dr. McEachin

    Correct Answer
    B. Dr. Ivor Lovaas
    Explanation
    Dr. Ivor Lovaas conducted the original ABA study in 1987. ABA stands for Applied Behavior Analysis, which is a therapeutic approach that focuses on understanding and modifying behavior through systematic observation and analysis. Dr. Lovaas's study was groundbreaking in demonstrating the effectiveness of ABA in treating children with autism. His research paved the way for the widespread use of ABA as a treatment for autism and other developmental disorders.

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  • 3. 

    The Verbal Behaviour Approach to ABA incorporates .........

    • A.

      Skinner's analysis of sign language

    • B.

      Sundberg's analysis of language

    • C.

      Sundberg's analysis of sign language

    • D.

      Skinner's Analysis of Language

    Correct Answer
    D. Skinner's Analysis of Language
    Explanation
    The Verbal Behaviour Approach to ABA incorporates Skinner's Analysis of Language. Skinner's analysis of language is a fundamental component of the Verbal Behaviour Approach, which focuses on understanding and modifying verbal behavior through the principles of applied behavior analysis. Skinner's analysis of language emphasizes the importance of understanding the functions of language and the use of reinforcement to shape and develop verbal behavior.

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  • 4. 

    What does ABLLS stand for?

    • A.

      Assessment of Basic Levels of Language and Skills

    • B.

      Assessment of Basic Language and Learner Skills

    • C.

      Assessment of Broad Language and Learner Skills

    • D.

      Assessment of Basic Language and Living Skills

    Correct Answer
    B. Assessment of Basic Language and Learner Skills
    Explanation
    ABLLS stands for Assessment of Basic Language and Learner Skills. This assessment is designed to evaluate the language and skill development of individuals with autism or other developmental disabilities. It assesses various areas such as language, social interaction, self-help skills, and motor skills. The purpose of ABLLS is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of individuals in these areas and develop individualized intervention plans to target specific skill deficits.

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  • 5. 

    What is one of the main differences between a VB and a Lovaas approach to ABA with children with autism?

    • A.

      Expressive language is viewed as a behaviour and all functions of language are taught in a VB program

    • B.

      Identification of challenging behaviours occurs early in a VB program but not in a Lovaas program

    • C.

      Reinforcement is used in a VB program but not in a Lovaas program

    • D.

      Lovaas teaches all functions of language, VB teaches language as expressive or receptive

    Correct Answer
    A. Expressive language is viewed as a behaviour and all functions of language are taught in a VB program
    Explanation
    In a VB (Verbal Behavior) approach to ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis) with children with autism, expressive language is considered a behavior and all functions of language are taught. This means that the focus is on teaching the child to use language to communicate their needs and wants. In contrast, a Lovaas program does not necessarily view expressive language as a behavior, and may not specifically target all functions of language in their teaching approach.

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  • 6. 

    What does ABC stand for?

    • A.

      Antecedent Behaviour Compliment

    • B.

      Analysis Behaviour Contingent

    • C.

      Analysis Behaviour Cooperation

    • D.

      Antecedent Behaviour Consequence

    Correct Answer
    D. Antecedent Behaviour Consequence
    Explanation
    The acronym ABC stands for Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence. This is a concept commonly used in behavior analysis and behavior management. It refers to the three components that influence behavior: the antecedent (what happens before the behavior occurs), the behavior itself, and the consequence (what happens after the behavior). By understanding and manipulating these three components, behavior analysts can effectively analyze and modify behavior.

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  • 7. 

    What functions can behaviour serve?

    • A.

      Access to tangibles

    • B.

      Attention

    • C.

      Tiredness

    • D.

      Defiance

    • E.

      Escape

    • F.

      Self stimulation

    • G.

      Annoy people

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Access to tangibles
    B. Attention
    E. Escape
    F. Self stimulation
    Explanation
    Behaviour can serve several functions, including access to tangibles, attention, escape, and self-stimulation. Access to tangibles refers to using behavior to obtain desired objects or resources. Attention-seeking behavior is used to gain the attention and interaction of others. Escape behavior is employed to avoid or remove oneself from aversive or demanding situations. Self-stimulation behavior is used to provide sensory or emotional stimulation. These functions of behavior can help individuals meet their needs and regulate their environment.

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  • 8. 

    What is extinction?

    • A.

      Reinforcing a previously reinforced behaviour

    • B.

      Reinforcing a behaviour that has not previously been reinforced

    • C.

      Not reinforcing a behaviour that has been previously reinforced

    • D.

      Not reinforcing a behaviour that has not been previously reinforced

    Correct Answer
    C. Not reinforcing a behaviour that has been previously reinforced
    Explanation
    Extinction refers to the process of not reinforcing a behavior that has been previously reinforced. This means that when a behavior that was previously rewarded is no longer reinforced, it gradually decreases or disappears over time. Extinction is often used in behavior modification techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors by removing the reinforcement that maintains them.

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  • 9. 

    When you use extinction what should you expect?

    • A.

      Escape extinction

    • B.

      Extinction bubble

    • C.

      Behaviour burst

    • D.

      Extinction burst

    Correct Answer
    D. Extinction burst
    Explanation
    When you use extinction, you should expect an extinction burst. This refers to a temporary increase in the frequency, intensity, or duration of the behavior that is being targeted for extinction. It occurs because the individual is trying harder to obtain the reinforcement that is no longer available. The extinction burst is a common and expected phenomenon during the process of behavior modification.

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  • 10. 

    Tommy says 'Ball' and is given a ball. This is an example of a ......

    Correct Answer
    mand
    Explanation
    This is an example of a mand, which refers to a verbal behavior where the speaker makes a request or demands something. In this scenario, Tommy says "Ball" as a way of requesting or demanding a ball, and he is given one in response.

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  • 11. 

    Fred says 'Spaghetti bolognese' when he smells it cooking in the kitchen. This is an example of a..............

    Correct Answer
    tact
    Explanation
    In this scenario, Fred is using his sense of smell to identify the specific dish, spaghetti bolognese. Tact refers to the ability to recognize and identify objects or events through touch or other physical sensations. Since Fred is not using touch but rather his sense of smell, the correct answer would not be tact.

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  • 12. 

    Jo says 'Dance with me Mark'. Jo's behaviour is an example of a......................

    Correct Answer
    mand
    Explanation
    Jo's behavior of asking Mark to dance with her is an example of a mand. A mand is a verbal behavior that is used to request or ask for something. In this case, Jo is using her words to make a request for Mark to dance with her.

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  • 13. 

    Tom saying 'What time are we going to the park?' is an example of a ...................

    Correct Answer
    mand
    Explanation
    Tom saying 'What time are we going to the park?' is an example of a mand. A mand is a type of verbal behavior where the speaker makes a request or asks for something they want or need. In this case, Tom is asking for information about the time they will be going to the park.

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  • 14. 

    A variable ratio is 

    • A.

      An average time interval that you are reinforced

    • B.

      An variable time schedule

    • C.

      The average number of responses required before reinforcement

    • D.

      An average number of responses required to end the situation

    Correct Answer
    C. The average number of responses required before reinforcement
    Explanation
    A variable ratio refers to the average number of responses required before reinforcement is given. In other words, it is a measure of how many times an individual needs to respond before receiving a reward or reinforcement. This type of schedule is typically used in operant conditioning, where the reinforcement is provided after a varying number of responses. The variability in the number of responses required helps to maintain a high response rate and makes it more resistant to extinction.

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  • 15. 

    Instructor: 'Touch cup'. Student: Touches picture of cup Instructor: 'What is it?' Student: 'Cup' The above is an example of what type of transfer procedure? 

    • A.

      Echoic to tact

    • B.

      Tact to receptive

    • C.

      Tact to intraverbal

    • D.

      Receptive to tact

    Correct Answer
    D. Receptive to tact
    Explanation
    The given scenario demonstrates a receptive to tact transfer procedure. The instructor gives a verbal instruction ("Touch cup") and the student responds by tacting the picture of a cup. The student is able to understand the instruction and tact the correct item, showing a transfer from receptive language skills to tacting.

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  • 16. 

    Instructor: 'Match cat' Student: Matches cat Instructor: 'Give me cat' Student: 'Gives cat The above is an example of what type of transfer procedure?

    • A.

      Match to receptive

    • B.

      Match to tact

    • C.

      Receptive to match

    • D.

      Receptive to tact

    Correct Answer
    A. Match to receptive
    Explanation
    This example demonstrates a match to receptive transfer procedure. The instructor gives a verbal prompt ("Match cat") and the student responds by matching the correct answer ("Matches cat"). The student is demonstrating their ability to receive and understand the instruction given by the instructor.

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  • 17. 

    DTT stands for 

    Correct Answer
    Discrete Trial Teaching
    Explanation
    DTT stands for Discrete Trial Teaching, which is a teaching method used in special education to teach new skills and concepts to individuals with autism or other developmental disabilities. It involves breaking down skills into smaller, manageable steps and using repeated trials to teach and reinforce those steps. DTT is characterized by structured and systematic instruction, clear prompts and cues, and immediate reinforcement for correct responses. It is an evidence-based practice that has been found to be effective in promoting skill acquisition and reducing problem behaviors in individuals with autism.

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  • 18. 

    Reinforcement can best be described as

    • A.

      A consequence which keeps the levels of behaviour the same in future

    • B.

      A consequence which decreases the future frequency of the behaviour it follows

    • C.

      A stimulus which keeps the child happy

    • D.

      A consequence which increases the future frequency of the behaviour it followed

    Correct Answer
    D. A consequence which increases the future frequency of the behaviour it followed
    Explanation
    Reinforcement is a consequence that increases the future frequency of the behavior it followed. In other words, when a behavior is followed by a positive consequence or reward, it is more likely to occur again in the future. This is because the individual associates the behavior with a positive outcome and is motivated to repeat it. Reinforcement is an important concept in behavior analysis and is used to shape and modify behavior in various settings, such as education, parenting, and therapy.

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  • 19. 

    The time between the students last response and the presentation of the instructors next instruction is called the 

    Correct Answer
    inter trial interval
    intertrial interval
    inter-trial interval
    Explanation
    The time between the student's last response and the presentation of the instructor's next instruction is referred to as the intertrial interval. This is the period of time during which there is no interaction or communication between the student and the instructor. It allows for a brief pause or break before the next instruction is given, giving the student time to process the previous information and prepare for the next task or question.

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  • 20. 

    If John is given a token during ITT after every 3rd response, the schedule of reinforcement is ........

    • A.

      FR3

    • B.

      VR3

    • C.

      CRF

    • D.

      NCR 3

    Correct Answer
    A. FR3
    Explanation
    The schedule of reinforcement in this scenario is FR3, which stands for fixed ratio 3. This means that John is given a token after every 3rd response. In other words, he needs to respond 3 times before receiving reinforcement. This type of schedule is effective in maintaining a high response rate and is often used in situations where a consistent level of performance is desired.

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  • 21. 

    Which schedule of reinforcement produces the highest rate of responding?

    • A.

      Fixed Ratio

    • B.

      Variable Ratio

    • C.

      Fixed Interval

    • D.

      Variable Interval

    Correct Answer
    B. Variable Ratio
    Explanation
    Variable ratio schedule of reinforcement produces the highest rate of responding. This schedule involves reinforcing a behavior after an unpredictable number of responses. The unpredictability of the reinforcement leads to a high and steady rate of responding as individuals are motivated to engage in the behavior consistently in the hopes of receiving reinforcement. This schedule is often used in gambling and sales, where the possibility of a reward keeps individuals engaged and motivated to continue their behavior.

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  • 22. 

    The best option for an intertribal interval is:

    • A.

      10 seconds

    • B.

      1 minute

    • C.

      3 seconds

    • D.

      1 second

    Correct Answer
    D. 1 second
    Explanation
    The best option for an intertribal interval is 1 second. An intertribal interval refers to the time duration between two different tribal performances in a cultural event or gathering. A longer interval may cause the audience to lose interest or become impatient, while a shorter interval may not allow enough time for the performers to prepare for the next act. Therefore, a 1-second interval strikes a balance between keeping the audience engaged and giving the performers enough time to transition smoothly.

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  • 23. 

    A stimulus that reliably evokes a behaviour is known as an

    • A.

      SD

    • B.

      S-delta

    • C.

      SP

    • D.

      ST

    Correct Answer
    A. SD
    Explanation
    An SD, or discriminative stimulus, is a stimulus that consistently elicits a specific behavior because it signals the availability of reinforcement. This means that when the SD is present, the behavior is more likely to occur because the individual has learned that they will be rewarded for it. In contrast, an S-delta is a stimulus that signals the absence of reinforcement, meaning that the behavior is unlikely to occur in its presence. SP and ST are not commonly used terms in this context.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following would not be a prompt?

    • A.

      Looking at the item as the instruction is presented

    • B.

      Always placing the correct item on the left hand side

    • C.

      Distractor trials within teaching procedure

    • D.

      Using gestures when giving receptive instructions

    Correct Answer
    C. Distractor trials within teaching procedure
    Explanation
    Distractor trials within teaching procedure would not be a prompt because prompts are cues or hints given to guide someone's behavior or response. Distractor trials, on the other hand, are designed to distract or confuse the learner and are not intended to prompt or guide their behavior. Therefore, it does not fit the definition of a prompt.

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  • 25. 

    Differential reinforcement is:

    • A.

      Reinforcing after every response

    • B.

      Reinforcing transfer trials

    • C.

      Reinforcing with greater magnitude of the preferred stimulus for better approximations

    • D.

      Reinforcing with less of the preferred item for behaviours placed on extinction

    Correct Answer
    C. Reinforcing with greater magnitude of the preferred stimulus for better approximations
    Explanation
    Differential reinforcement is a technique used in behavior analysis to reinforce behaviors that are closer to the desired behavior. In this case, the correct answer states that it involves reinforcing with a greater magnitude of the preferred stimulus for better approximations. This means that when an individual exhibits a behavior that is closer to the desired behavior, they are rewarded with a stronger or more preferred stimulus. This helps to shape and encourage the individual to continue improving their behavior towards the desired outcome.

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  • 26. 

    A reinforcer is 

    • A.

      Sweets that have no effect on behaviour

    • B.

      Slap on the writs that increases the behaviour

    • C.

      Praise that decreases the behaviour

    Correct Answer
    B. Slap on the writs that increases the behaviour
    Explanation
    A reinforcer is a stimulus or event that follows a behavior and increases the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future. In this case, a slap on the wrist is given as a reinforcer because it increases the behavior. This means that when a behavior is followed by a slap on the wrist, the person is more likely to repeat that behavior in the future.

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  • 27. 

    Mark starts crying and stamping his feet when he's taken to a supermarket. In the past his mum has thought the lights may be too bright and has taken him out of the supermarket; he now cries every time he goes. The behaviour is reinforced by:

    • A.

      Attention

    • B.

      Sensory needs

    • C.

      Escape

    • D.

      He is not given anything so it is not reinforced

    Correct Answer
    C. Escape
    Explanation
    The correct answer is escape. Mark's behavior of crying and stamping his feet is reinforced by the fact that his mom has taken him out of the supermarket in the past when he displayed this behavior. This means that when Mark cries, he is able to escape the situation of being in the supermarket, which reinforces his behavior and leads him to cry every time he goes to the supermarket.

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  • 28. 

    A complex task e.g. brushing teeth is broken down into smaller component behaviours. This is known as:

    • A.

      Receptive instructions

    • B.

      Task analysis

    • C.

      Chaining

    • D.

      Sequencing

    Correct Answer
    B. Task analysis
    Explanation
    Task analysis is the process of breaking down a complex task into smaller, more manageable components. This allows for a systematic examination of each step involved in completing the task. By breaking down the task into smaller parts, it becomes easier to understand and teach. Task analysis is commonly used in various fields, such as education, psychology, and occupational therapy, to help individuals learn and perform complex tasks effectively.

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  • 29. 

    Applied Behaviour Analysis is:

    • A.

      The science of behaviour

    • B.

      An intensive intervention

    • C.

      An autism intervention

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. The science of behaviour
    Explanation
    Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the scientific study of behavior, focusing on understanding and modifying behavior using evidence-based techniques. It involves analyzing behavior patterns, identifying the factors that influence them, and implementing interventions to improve behavior. ABA is not limited to autism intervention, although it is commonly used in this context. It is a comprehensive approach that can be applied to various settings and populations, making it a powerful tool for behavior change.

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  • 30. 

    A child cries after being put to bed. Mum goes in to calm her down. Mum's behaviour is reinforced by:

    • A.

      Positive reinforcement through attention

    • B.

      Positive reinforcement through tangibles

    • C.

      Negative reinforcement through escape

    • D.

      Negative reinforcement through automatic reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    C. Negative reinforcement through escape
    Explanation
    In this scenario, the child's crying is an aversive stimulus for the mother, as it causes her distress or discomfort. When the mother goes in to calm the child down, her behavior of attending to the child's needs serves as a negative reinforcement. By attending to the child, the mother is able to escape or avoid the aversive stimulus of the child's crying. Therefore, the mother's behavior is reinforced through negative reinforcement by escaping the unpleasant situation of the child crying.

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  • 31. 

    A child loves listening to music but does not like swinging. What procedure could be run in order to condition swinging as a preferred activity?

    Correct Answer
    Stimulus-stimulus pairing
    Stimulus stimulus pairing
    Explanation
    Stimulus-stimulus pairing involves pairing a preferred stimulus (in this case, music) with a non-preferred stimulus (swinging) in order to make the non-preferred stimulus more desirable. By repeatedly exposing the child to both music and swinging together, the child may start associating swinging with the positive experience of listening to music, ultimately leading to an increased preference for swinging. This conditioning process can help change the child's attitude towards swinging and make it a preferred activity.

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  • 32. 

    A child hears a dog barking in the street and says 'Cat'. This is a ........

    Correct Answer
    tact
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "tact." In this scenario, the child is displaying a lack of understanding or knowledge about the difference between a dog and a cat. The word "tact" refers to the ability to be sensitive and considerate in dealing with others, and it does not seem relevant to the given question. Therefore, it is unclear why "tact" would be the correct answer.

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  • 33. 

    Shaping is.......

    • A.

      The same as prompting

    • B.

      Using transfer trials

    • C.

      Reinforcing successive approximations

    • D.

      Reinforcing all approximations

    Correct Answer
    C. Reinforcing successive approximations
    Explanation
    Shaping is a technique used in operant conditioning where behavior is gradually modified and reinforced by rewarding successive approximations towards the desired behavior. This means that instead of waiting for the exact behavior to occur, small steps or approximations towards the desired behavior are reinforced. By reinforcing these gradual steps, the individual is more likely to eventually exhibit the desired behavior. Prompting, on the other hand, involves providing cues or instructions to elicit a specific behavior, while using transfer trials refers to testing the learned behavior in different contexts. Reinforcing all approximations would involve reinforcing any behavior that is even remotely similar to the desired behavior, which is not the same as reinforcing successive approximations.

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  • 34. 

    NET stands for 

    Correct Answer
    natural environment teaching
    Explanation
    NET stands for natural environment teaching. This approach focuses on teaching skills in the natural environment where the skills will be used, rather than in a contrived or artificial setting. It involves teaching and practicing skills in real-life situations, such as at home, in the community, or at school. This allows individuals to generalize and apply their skills in various contexts and settings, promoting greater independence and success in their daily lives.

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  • 35. 

    Extinction is 

    • A.

      Ignoring appropriate behaviour

    • B.

      Following through with demands

    • C.

      Padding objects/body parts

    • D.

      Dependent on function of behaviour

    Correct Answer
    D. Dependent on function of behaviour
    Explanation
    Extinction refers to the process of eliminating a behavior by withholding reinforcement that previously maintained it. In this context, the correct answer "dependent on function of behavior" means that the effectiveness of extinction depends on understanding the function or purpose of the behavior being targeted for extinction. By identifying the function, one can determine the appropriate reinforcer to withhold, which will result in a decrease or elimination of the behavior over time.

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  • 36. 

    When washing hands, turning on the tap is the antecedent to putting hands under the water which is then the antecedent to reaching for the soap etc. This is known as

    • A.

      A chain

    • B.

      A sequence

    • C.

      A task analysis

    • D.

      A chained imitation

    Correct Answer
    A. A chain
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a chain". In the context of washing hands, the actions of turning on the tap, putting hands under the water, and reaching for the soap are all interconnected and dependent on each other. Each action leads to the next in a sequential manner, forming a chain of actions.

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  • 37. 

    Errorless teaching consists of:

    • A.

      Probing a skill then doing a transfer trial if incorrect

    • B.

      Letting the child start a skill and prompt with a gesture if they start getting it wrong

    • C.

      Presenting the Sd then fully prompting straight away

    • D.

      Using transfer trails across operants

    Correct Answer
    C. Presenting the Sd then fully prompting straight away
    Explanation
    The correct answer is presenting the Sd then fully prompting straight away. This means that in errorless teaching, the teacher presents the instruction or cue (Sd) to the child and immediately provides full prompting or assistance to ensure the correct response. This approach aims to prevent errors and promote successful learning by minimizing the chances of the child making mistakes. By providing immediate prompting, the teacher helps the child understand and perform the skill correctly from the beginning.

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  • 38. 

    A student with autism will not benefit from modelling as a prompting procedure unless they have already learnt to _______ other people's behaviour.

    Correct Answer
    imitate
    Explanation
    A student with autism will not benefit from modeling as a prompting procedure unless they have already learned to imitate other people's behavior. This is because modeling relies on the ability to observe and mimic the actions of others. If the student has not yet acquired the skill of imitation, they will not be able to effectively learn from modeling.

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  • 39. 

    The first verbal operant repertoire to be taught in a verbal behaviour program is the 

    • A.

      Tact

    • B.

      Mand

    • C.

      Receptive

    • D.

      Imitative

    Correct Answer
    B. Mand
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mand. In a verbal behavior program, the mand is typically the first verbal operant repertoire to be taught. A mand is a request or demand for something, such as asking for a desired item or action. Teaching manding skills is important as it allows individuals to communicate their needs and wants effectively. By teaching manding as the initial verbal operant, it helps establish functional communication skills and provides a foundation for further language development.

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  • 40. 

    Providing reinforcement non-contingently means......

    • A.

      Requiring the student to sit nicely

    • B.

      Requiring the student to do any demand

    • C.

      Requiring nothing of the student

    • D.

      Requiring the student to be well behaved

    Correct Answer
    C. Requiring nothing of the student
    Explanation
    Providing reinforcement non-contingently means that no specific requirement or demand is placed on the student in order to receive reinforcement. The student does not have to behave in a certain way or complete any tasks or assignments. The reinforcement is given freely, without any conditions or expectations.

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  • 41. 

    How can you identify the preferred items that may serve as a reinforcer for an individual. Tick all that apply.

    • A.

      Preference assessment at the start of intervention

    • B.

      Preference assessment throughout intervention

    • C.

      Observing the items/activities an individual interacts with

    • D.

      Asking parents

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Preference assessment at the start of intervention
    B. Preference assessment throughout intervention
    C. Observing the items/activities an individual interacts with
    D. Asking parents
    Explanation
    Preference assessment at the start of intervention, preference assessment throughout intervention, observing the items/activities an individual interacts with, and asking parents are all valid ways to identify preferred items that may serve as a reinforcer for an individual. Conducting preference assessments at the beginning and throughout the intervention allows for ongoing evaluation and adjustment of reinforcers based on the individual's preferences. Observing the items or activities the individual interacts with provides valuable insight into their preferences. Asking parents can also provide information about the individual's preferences and help identify potential reinforcers.

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  • 42. 

    A student with autism should have access to their reinforcing items at all times.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    While it is important to provide support and accommodations for students with autism, it is not necessary or practical for them to have access to their reinforcing items at all times. Just like any other student, individuals with autism should have access to their reinforcing items within reasonable limits and as determined by their individualized education plan (IEP) or behavior plan. This ensures that their learning environment remains balanced and focused on their educational goals.

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  • 43. 

    Items and events that function as reinforcers only after being paired with an existing reinforcer are called

    • A.

      Primary/unconditioned reinforcers

    • B.

      Secondary/conditioned reinforcers

    Correct Answer
    B. Secondary/conditioned reinforcers
    Explanation
    Secondary/conditioned reinforcers are items and events that initially do not have any reinforcing value but gain that value through association with a primary/unconditioned reinforcer. This process is known as classical conditioning. For example, if a person receives praise (a primary reinforcer) every time they eat a certain food, they may start to find the food itself reinforcing and enjoyable (a secondary reinforcer). The food has become a conditioned reinforcer through its pairing with the primary reinforcer of praise.

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  • 44. 

    Food, water and warmth are all examples of

    • A.

      Primary Reinforcers

    • B.

      Secondary Reinforcers

    Correct Answer
    A. Primary Reinforcers
    Explanation
    Food, water, and warmth are all examples of primary reinforcers. Primary reinforcers are stimuli that are innately satisfying and do not require any learning or conditioning to be pleasurable. They are essential for survival and meet basic physiological needs. In this case, food provides nourishment, water quenches thirst, and warmth helps maintain body temperature. These primary reinforcers have a direct and immediate impact on an individual's well-being, making them powerful motivators for behavior.

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  • 45. 

    When reinforcement is scheduled to occur after every occurrence of the behaviour, this is called a

    • A.

      Continuous schedule of reinforcement

    • B.

      Intermittent schedule of reinforcement

    Correct Answer
    A. Continuous schedule of reinforcement
    Explanation
    A continuous schedule of reinforcement refers to a reinforcement schedule where the behavior is reinforced every time it occurs. In this case, reinforcement is provided after every occurrence of the behavior. This type of schedule is often used in the initial stages of learning to establish and strengthen the desired behavior. It provides a consistent and immediate reward, which increases the likelihood of the behavior being repeated in the future.

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  • 46. 

    Establishing operation or motivating operation are referring to 

    • A.

      Reinforcement

    • B.

      Motivation

    • C.

      Extinction

    • D.

      Punishment

    Correct Answer
    B. Motivation
    Explanation
    The term "establishing operation" or "motivating operation" refers to factors that increase the effectiveness of a consequence as a reinforcer or punisher. These factors can include things like hunger, thirst, or deprivation, which can make a particular consequence more motivating for an individual. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is "motivation," as establishing operations or motivating operations are referring to the factors that enhance an individual's motivation towards a consequence.

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  • 47. 

    When drawing up a plan to reduce a challenging behaviour, the most important thing to identify is a __________    ______________ behaviour

    Correct Answer
    functional replacement
    Explanation
    When drawing up a plan to reduce a challenging behavior, the most important thing to identify is a functional replacement behavior. A functional replacement behavior is a behavior that serves the same function as the challenging behavior but is more appropriate and acceptable. By identifying a functional replacement behavior, individuals can learn and practice a new behavior that fulfills the same purpose as the challenging behavior, leading to a reduction in the challenging behavior over time.

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  • 48. 

    Most to least __________ is used to prevent learners from making an error.

    Correct Answer
    prompting
    Explanation
    Prompting is used to prevent learners from making an error by providing them with cues or reminders to guide their actions or thinking. It helps to prompt learners towards the correct response or behavior, ensuring that they stay on track and avoid mistakes. Prompting can be done through verbal or visual cues, feedback, or hints, depending on the context and the learner's needs. By using prompting techniques, educators can support learners in acquiring new knowledge and skills, while minimizing the likelihood of errors or misunderstandings.

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  • 49. 

    Before teaching can begin you must _______ yourself with reinforcement so that the learner will want to interact with you.

    Correct Answer
    pair
    Explanation
    Before teaching can begin, you must pair yourself with reinforcement so that the learner will want to interact with you. This means that you need to associate yourself with positive experiences or rewards in order to create a positive association with the learner. By pairing yourself with reinforcement, such as praise or rewards, the learner will be more motivated to engage and interact with you during the teaching process.

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