Junco Exam

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The common garden experiment allowed scientists to decide whether exploratory behavior of Juncos could be inherited because

    • A.

      It included a genetic test of the birds’ DNA

    • B.

      It put city and mountain juncos in the same “neutral” place to see if their behaviors changed or stayed the same

    • C.

      It bred city and mountain juncos together to see whether they could produce offspring

    • D.

      It compared the patterns of inheritance for alleles

    Correct Answer
    B. It put city and mountain juncos in the same “neutral” place to see if their behaviors changed or stayed the same
    Explanation
    The common garden experiment allowed scientists to decide whether exploratory behavior of Juncos could be inherited because it put city and mountain juncos in the same "neutral" place to see if their behaviors changed or stayed the same. By placing both groups of juncos in the same environment, any differences in their behavior could be attributed to their genetic makeup rather than their surroundings. This experiment helped determine whether exploratory behavior was a heritable trait or if it was influenced by external factors.

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  • 2. 

    In the common garden experiment, the juncos from the city showed more exploratory behavior on average as compared to birds from the mountains. Which conclusion is supported about boldness behavior in juncos?

    • A.

      It’s learned, because the males had more exploratory behavior than females.

    • B.

      It’s inherited, because the males had more exploratory behavior than females.

    • C.

      It’s learned, because some of the mountain females’ levels of exploratory behavior were higher than the city females’ levels of behavior.

    • D.

      It’s inherited, because there were significant differences between city and mountain juncos in average exploratory behavior, both for males and for females.

    Correct Answer
    D. It’s inherited, because there were significant differences between city and mountain juncos in average exploratory behavior, both for males and for females.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "It's inherited, because there were significant differences between city and mountain juncos in average exploratory behavior, both for males and for females." This conclusion is supported because the statement mentions that there were significant differences in exploratory behavior between the city and mountain juncos for both males and females. This suggests that the behavior is not influenced by learning, but rather by inherited traits.

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  • 3. 

    If we wanted to compare the VARIATION in wing size between mountain juncos and city juncos, the best statistic to compare for each population would be:

    • A.

      The number of juncos in each population

    • B.

      The range of wing sizes in each population

    • C.

      The median wing size in each population

    • D.

      The mean wing size in each population

    Correct Answer
    B. The range of wing sizes in each population
    Explanation
    To compare the variation in wing size between mountain juncos and city juncos, the best statistic to compare for each population would be the range of wing sizes. The range provides information about the spread of data by measuring the difference between the smallest and largest values. By comparing the range of wing sizes in each population, we can determine which population has a greater variation in wing sizes.

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  • 4. 

     If a scientist brought a male junco to you with 37% white tail feathers but didn’t tell you where they got it, what population would you conclude it MOST likely came from?

    • A.

      The City, because the percent white in tail feather is closer to the average of city males.

    • B.

      The City, because it is within the range of likely values for percent white in tail feathers for city juncos and close to the average for city males.

    • C.

      The Mountains, because it is closer to the average and within the range of likely values for percent of white in tail feathers for mountain juncos.

    • D.

      The Mountains, because 37% is greater than 36%, which is the average in the City.

    Correct Answer
    B. The City, because it is within the range of likely values for percent white in tail feathers for city juncos and close to the average for city males.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is The City, because it is within the range of likely values for percent white in tail feathers for city juncos and close to the average for city males. This suggests that the male junco most likely came from the city population, as the percentage of white tail feathers matches the average for city males and falls within the expected range for city juncos.

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  • 5. 

    Some people say that city squirrels are more aggressive than squirrels in the countryside. In the city, squirrels come right up to people to take food from their hands. In the country, squirrels are more likely to run away from people. How could you evaluate the claim that squirrels’ level of aggressiveness is inherited and not learned.

    • A.

      Conduct a Common Garden Experiment

    • B.

      Measure aggressiveness in ONLY one population.

    • C.

      Compare their physical characteristics

    • D.

      See if the two populations interbreed. 

    Correct Answer
    A. Conduct a Common Garden Experiment
    Explanation
    Conducting a Common Garden Experiment would be a suitable way to evaluate the claim that squirrels' level of aggressiveness is inherited and not learned. This experiment involves measuring the aggressiveness in only one population, which allows for a direct comparison. Additionally, comparing the physical characteristics of the two populations can provide insights into any genetic differences that may contribute to aggressiveness. Finally, observing whether the two populations interbreed or not can indicate if there are any behavioral or genetic barriers that affect their aggressiveness.

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  • 6. 

    How can we use mtDNA and mutation rate to help figure out how closely related 2 individuals are? (check all that apply)

    • A.

      We can count the mutations that occur in the mtDNA and then compare them between individuals.

    • B.

      If there are a lot of differences, then individuals are more closely related.

    • C.

      If there are a lot of similarities, then individuals are more closely related.

    • D.

      We can count the mutations that occur in the Y chromosome and then compare them between individuals.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. We can count the mutations that occur in the mtDNA and then compare them between individuals.
    C. If there are a lot of similarities, then individuals are more closely related.
    Explanation
    By counting the mutations that occur in the mtDNA and comparing them between individuals, we can determine their level of relatedness. If there are a lot of similarities in the mutations, it indicates a closer relationship between the individuals. This is because mutations in mtDNA accumulate over time, so individuals with fewer differences in their mtDNA mutations are likely to share a more recent common ancestor.

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  • 7. 

    Selection pressure in the UCSD environment caused a competitive advantage for juncos that were (check all that apply)

    • A.

      Bolder

    • B.

      Better parents

    • C.

      Produced more CORT

    • D.

      More aggressive

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Bolder
    B. Better parents
    Explanation
    In the UCSD environment, selection pressure refers to the factors that influence the survival and reproductive success of individuals. The juncos that were bolder had a competitive advantage because they were more likely to explore new resources and find food, which increased their chances of survival. Additionally, juncos that were better parents had a competitive advantage because they were able to provide better care for their offspring, increasing the likelihood of their survival and reproductive success. Therefore, both being bolder and better parents provided a competitive advantage for juncos in the UCSD environment.

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  • 8. 

    The juncos that were able to survive and reproduce (check all that apply)

    • A.

      Passed on their traits

    • B.

      Passed on their genes

    • C.

      Passed on their alleles

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Passed on their traits
    B. Passed on their genes
    C. Passed on their alleles
    Explanation
    The juncos that were able to survive and reproduce passed on their traits, genes, and alleles to the next generation. This means that the characteristics and genetic information of these successful juncos were inherited by their offspring. Traits refer to observable characteristics, while genes and alleles are the specific segments of DNA that determine these traits. By passing on their traits, genes, and alleles, the surviving juncos ensured that their favorable traits and genetic variations would continue to be present in future generations.

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  • 9. 

    What is FID?

    • A.

      The distance when the bird sees the person.

    • B.

      The distance when the bird makes an alarm call.

    • C.

      The distance when the bird's heart rate increases.

    • D.

      The distance when the bird flies away.

    Correct Answer
    D. The distance when the bird flies away.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "The distance when the bird flies away." This is because FID stands for "flight initiation distance," which is the distance at which an animal, in this case a bird, will fly away when it perceives a potential threat or danger.

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  • 10. 

    The median is the number that occurs most often.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is incorrect. The median is not the number that occurs most often. The median is the middle value in a set of numbers when they are arranged in order. It divides the set into two equal halves.

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  • 11. 

    The scientist who came up with the scientific theory of natural selection.

    • A.

      Charles Darwin

    • B.

      Jane Goodall

    • C.

      Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

    • D.

      Gregor Mendel

    Correct Answer
    A. Charles Darwin
    Explanation
    Charles Darwin is the correct answer because he is the scientist who developed the scientific theory of natural selection. Darwin's theory, outlined in his book "On the Origin of Species," proposed that species evolve over time through a process of natural selection, where individuals with advantageous traits are more likely to survive and reproduce. This theory revolutionized our understanding of biology and has had a profound impact on the field of evolutionary biology.

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  • 12. 

    Correlation is a connection or relationship between two things.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. Correlation refers to the statistical measure that indicates the extent of the relationship between two variables. It shows how changes in one variable are associated with changes in another variable. A positive correlation means that as one variable increases, the other variable also increases, while a negative correlation means that as one variable increases, the other variable decreases. Therefore, correlation indeed represents a connection or relationship between two things.

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  • 13. 

    In the Common Garden experiment with the juncos, scientists found

    • A.

      Boldness behavior is inherited.

    • B.

      Boldness behavior is learned.

    • C.

      The UCSD juncos produce more CORT

    • D.

      The Mt. Laguna juncos produce less CORT. 

    Correct Answer
    A. Boldness behavior is inherited.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that boldness behavior is inherited. This means that the tendency to exhibit bold behavior is passed down from one generation to the next through genetic factors. The scientists conducting the Common Garden experiment with the juncos observed that boldness behavior was consistently displayed by certain individuals, indicating a genetic basis for this trait.

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  • 14. 

    You can trace maternal lineage using the Y chromosome.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The Y chromosome is passed down from father to son, so it is used to trace paternal lineage, not maternal lineage. To trace maternal lineage, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is typically used, as it is passed down from mother to both sons and daughters. Therefore, the statement that you can trace maternal lineage using the Y chromosome is incorrect.

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  • 15. 

    A genome is

    • A.

      An organism's complete set of genes.

    • B.

      The different forms of a gene.

    • C.

      Used to measure boldness.

    • D.

      Another name for a karyotype.

    Correct Answer
    A. An organism's complete set of genes.
    Explanation
    A genome is an organism's complete set of genes. It contains all the genetic material that an organism inherits from its parents. The genome includes all the genes, as well as non-coding DNA sequences that play a role in regulating gene expression. The genome determines the characteristics and traits of an organism, including its physical appearance, behavior, and susceptibility to diseases.

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  • 16. 

    A mutation is a change that occurs in the DNA

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A mutation is indeed a change that occurs in the DNA. Mutations can happen spontaneously or be caused by external factors such as radiation or chemicals. These changes can alter the genetic information encoded in the DNA, leading to variations in traits and potentially causing genetic disorders or diseases. Therefore, the statement "A mutation is a change that occurs in the DNA" is true.

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  • 17. 

    Different forms of a gene

    • A.

      Genome

    • B.

      Allele

    • C.

      Chromosome

    • D.

      Mitochondria

    Correct Answer
    B. Allele
    Explanation
    Allele refers to the different forms of a gene that exist at a specific locus on a chromosome. Each individual inherits two alleles for each gene, one from each parent. These alleles can be either the same (homozygous) or different (heterozygous). Alleles determine the variations in traits and characteristics among individuals.

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  • 18. 

    This is a DNA resonance image.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "This is a DNA resonance image" is false. The given information does not provide any evidence or context to determine whether the image is a DNA resonance image or not. Therefore, we cannot conclude that the image is a DNA resonance image based on the given statement.

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  • 19. 

    Individuals are considered the same species if they can interbreed.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because the ability to interbreed is one of the key criteria used to determine whether individuals belong to the same species. If two individuals can successfully mate and produce fertile offspring, they are generally considered to be members of the same species. This is because the ability to interbreed reflects a shared genetic compatibility and similarity between individuals, indicating that they belong to the same evolutionary lineage.

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  • 20. 

    Select all correct statements.

    • A.

      A population can evolve.

    • B.

      A species can evolve

    • C.

      An individual can evolve

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. A population can evolve.
    B. A species can evolve
    Explanation
    Evolution is a process that occurs over generations, involving changes in the genetic makeup of a population. This means that individual organisms do not evolve, but populations and species do. A population can evolve as the genetic composition of the group changes over time due to natural selection, genetic drift, and other factors. Similarly, a species can evolve as populations within that species diverge and accumulate enough differences to become distinct species. Therefore, the correct statements are that a population can evolve and a species can evolve.

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  • 21. 

    Any change in the structure or behavior of a species which helps it to become better fitted to survive and reproduce.

    • A.

      Adaptation

    • B.

      Correlation

    • C.

      Heritable

    • D.

      Variation

    Correct Answer
    A. Adaptation
    Explanation
    Adaptation refers to any change in the structure or behavior of a species that helps it become better suited to survive and reproduce. This can include physical adaptations, such as the development of specialized body parts or features, as well as behavioral adaptations, such as changes in mating rituals or foraging strategies. These adaptations are passed on from one generation to the next through genetic inheritance, making them heritable. Variation within a species is necessary for adaptation to occur, as it provides the raw material for natural selection to act upon. Correlation, on the other hand, refers to a statistical relationship between two or more variables and is not directly related to the concept of adaptation.

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  • 22. 

    Evolution is the change in the heritable characteristics of INDIVIDUALS over several generations.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is incorrect because evolution is not the change in the heritable characteristics of individuals, but rather the change in the heritable characteristics of populations over several generations. Evolution occurs through the process of natural selection, where certain traits become more or less common in a population over time. It is not solely based on changes in individuals, but rather the collective changes in a population's gene pool.

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  • 23. 

    Heritable is when something can be passed on from offspring to parent.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given explanation is incorrect. Heritable refers to traits or characteristics that can be passed down from parents to their offspring, not from offspring to parents. Therefore, the correct answer should be False.

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  • 24. 

    Speciation is

    • A.

      The extinction of a species

    • B.

      The characteristics of a species

    • C.

      The interbreeding of two species

    • D.

      The formation of new and distinct species

    Correct Answer
    D. The formation of new and distinct species
    Explanation
    Speciation refers to the process by which new and distinct species are formed. It involves the development of reproductive barriers that prevent gene flow between populations, leading to the accumulation of genetic differences over time. These differences can be the result of various mechanisms such as genetic mutations, natural selection, genetic drift, or geographic isolation. Ultimately, speciation results in the creation of separate species that are unable to interbreed and produce fertile offspring with one another.

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  • 25. 

    Mt. Laguna juncos

    • A.

      Are bolder

    • B.

      Produce less offspring

    • C.

      Produce more CORT

    • D.

      Sing at higher frequencies

    Correct Answer
    C. Produce more CORT
    Explanation
    Juncos from Mt. Laguna produce more CORT. CORT refers to corticosterone, which is a stress hormone. This suggests that the juncos from Mt. Laguna experience higher levels of stress compared to other populations. This could be due to various factors such as environmental conditions or competition for resources. The higher production of CORT may help these juncos cope with the increased stress levels and adapt to their specific habitat.

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  • 26. 

    Scientists quantified boldness in juncos by

    • A.

      Giving them food

    • B.

      Measuring flight initiation distance (FID)

    • C.

      Measuring wing length

    • D.

      Recording how many offspring they produce

    Correct Answer
    B. Measuring flight initiation distance (FID)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is measuring flight initiation distance (FID). This is because flight initiation distance is a measure of an animal's boldness or willingness to take risks. By measuring FID in juncos, scientists can assess their level of boldness and compare it to other individuals or populations. This measurement can provide insights into various aspects of their behavior, such as their response to predators or their ability to adapt to changing environments.

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  • 27. 

    Based on the junco study, we can claim that ALL behavior is inherited

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement cannot be claimed based on the junco study. The junco study may provide evidence that some behaviors are inherited, but it does not support the claim that ALL behavior is inherited. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 28. 

    In a Common Garden experiment, if differences still occur then it is because differences are inherited.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In a Common Garden experiment, if differences still occur, it implies that the differences are not due to environmental factors but rather due to genetic inheritance. This suggests that the variations observed in the experiment are a result of genetic differences among the individuals being studied, rather than being influenced by external factors. Therefore, the statement "differences are inherited" is a valid explanation for why differences still occur in a Common Garden experiment.

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  • 29. 

    UCSD juncos are bolder because

    • A.

      They produce less CORT

    • B.

      They produce more testosterone

    • C.

      They learned this behavior

    • D.

      They are more aggressive

    Correct Answer
    A. They produce less CORT
    Explanation
    UCSD juncos are bolder because they produce less CORT. CORT, or corticosterone, is a stress hormone that is typically released in response to stressful situations. By producing less CORT, the juncos are likely to experience less stress and therefore feel more confident and bold in their behavior. This suggests that their lower CORT production may be a contributing factor to their boldness.

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  • 30. 

    Using patterns of inheritance for alleles you can determine (check all that apply)

    • A.

      Paternity

    • B.

      Maternity

    • C.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Paternity
    B. Maternity
    Explanation
    By using patterns of inheritance for alleles, it is possible to determine both paternity and maternity. This is because certain alleles are passed down from parents to their offspring in a predictable manner. By analyzing the genetic information of the child and potential parents, scientists can identify which alleles are present and determine if they match the expected patterns of inheritance from the biological mother and father. Therefore, the correct answer is paternity and maternity.

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  • 31. 

    DNA is passed from 

    • A.

      Parent to offspring

    • B.

      Offspring to parent

    • C.

      Sibling to sibling

    • D.

      Parent to grandparent

    Correct Answer
    A. Parent to offspring
    Explanation
    DNA is passed from parent to offspring through a process called inheritance. During reproduction, genetic material from both parents combines to form a unique set of DNA in the offspring. This DNA contains the instructions for the development and functioning of the individual. The parent passes on half of their DNA to the offspring, which determines their inherited traits and characteristics. This process ensures the continuation of genetic information from one generation to the next.

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  • 32. 

    You get slightly more DNA from your mom

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because individuals inherit half of their DNA from their mother and half from their father. Therefore, it can be said that you get slightly more DNA from your mom.

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  • 33. 

    Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Humans have a total of 46 chromosomes, which are organized into 23 pairs. Each pair consists of two homologous chromosomes, one inherited from each parent. Therefore, the statement "Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes" is true.

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  • 34. 

    In the junco study, exploratory behavior was correlated with

    • A.

      CORT production

    • B.

      Physical traits

    • C.

      Testosterone production

    • D.

      Interbreeding

    Correct Answer
    A. CORT production
    Explanation
    Exploratory behavior in the junco study was found to be correlated with CORT production. This suggests that the production of CORT, a hormone related to stress response, may influence the tendency of juncos to engage in exploratory behavior. Higher levels of CORT production may indicate higher levels of stress, which in turn may lead to increased exploratory behavior as a means of coping or seeking out new resources. Therefore, the correlation between exploratory behavior and CORT production suggests a potential link between stress response and behavior in juncos.

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  • 35. 

    To determine how closely related 2 males are, we can count the mutations in the Y-chromosome and compare them.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true because the Y-chromosome is passed down from father to son without recombination, making it a reliable indicator of male relatedness. By comparing the number of mutations in the Y-chromosome between two males, we can determine how closely related they are. This is because mutations occur randomly over time, so the more mutations there are, the longer the time since the two males shared a common ancestor. Therefore, counting mutations in the Y-chromosome is a valid method for assessing male relatedness.

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  • 36. 

    Which male is the father?

    • A.

      Male 4

    • B.

      Male 7

    • C.

      Male 13

    • D.

      Male 10

    Correct Answer
    A. Male 4
    Explanation
    There is no provided information or context to determine the father.

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  • 37. 

    What claim can you make based on this data?

    • A.

      Mt. Laguna males have longer wings.

    • B.

      UCSD juncos have longer wings. 

    • C.

      There is no overlap in wing size between the two populations. 

    • D.

      You can not make any claims based off this data. 

    Correct Answer
    A. Mt. Laguna males have longer wings.
    Explanation
    Based on the given data, it can be concluded that Mt. Laguna males have longer wings. This claim can be made because the statement "Mt. Laguna males have longer wings" is the only one that is supported by the data provided. The other statements do not have any evidence or information to support them. Therefore, the correct claim that can be made is that Mt. Laguna males have longer wings.

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  • 38. 

    What changed in the environment that caused some Mt. Laguna juncos to stop migrating back to the mountains.

    • A.

      The campus was built. 

    • B.

      The predators.

    • C.

      The climate.

    • D.

      They didn't want to fly back. 

    Correct Answer
    A. The campus was built. 
    Explanation
    The construction of the campus likely altered the environment in Mt. Laguna, causing some Mt. Laguna juncos to stop migrating back to the mountains. The presence of the campus may have disrupted their natural habitat or food sources, making it less suitable for them to return to the mountains.

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  • 39. 

    MtDNA stands for

    • A.

      Mitochondrial DNA

    • B.

      Mutated DNA

    • C.

      Maternal DNA

    • D.

      Ribosomal DNA

    Correct Answer
    A. Mitochondrial DNA
    Explanation
    mtDNA stands for mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA is a type of genetic material found in the mitochondria, which are small structures within cells that produce energy. It is inherited solely from the mother and is used to trace maternal ancestry. Mutated DNA, maternal DNA, and ribosomal DNA are not the correct terms for mtDNA.

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  • 40. 

    The proportion of individuals in the population with favorable allele variations increases over time while individuals with less favorable variations decreases over time. This is the definition for

    • A.

      Natural Selection

    • B.

      Migration

    • C.

      Mutation

    • D.

      Sexual Reproduction

    Correct Answer
    A. Natural Selection
    Explanation
    Natural selection is the process by which individuals with advantageous traits are more likely to survive and reproduce, leading to an increase in the frequency of those traits in the population over time. This explanation aligns with the given statement, as it describes how the proportion of individuals with favorable allele variations increases, while those with less favorable variations decrease. Migration refers to the movement of individuals between populations, mutation refers to the random changes in DNA, and sexual reproduction involves the combination of genetic material from two parents.

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