Behavioural Ecology

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| By Biology16100
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Biology16100
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 7 | Total Attempts: 5,300
Questions: 20 | Attempts: 720

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Ecology Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    List Tinbergen's four questions regarding the major questions about behaviour and traits

  • 2. 

    Describe two ways to test if behaviour can be inherited. For each test, provide a real-world example

  • 3. 

    Describe the meaning of the "optimality" approach to studying adaptation and provide an example of real-world case which used this approach.

  • 4. 

    Describe two costs of living in groups. For each description, provide an example

  • 5. 

    Describe the term 'selfish geometry' and provide a real-world example of this behaviour

  • 6. 

    Describe two benefits of living in a group which have not been discussed in previous questions. Provide an example for each description.

  • 7. 

    Write Hamilton's Rule and what it signifies 

  • 8. 

    List the three situations in which reciprocity among non-relatives could evolve and provide an example of a species in which all these conditions are met.

  • 9. 

    The best decision often depends on conditions relating to an animal and its environment. Hence, there is no "best decision." If this statement is true, think of a real-world example to prove this statement

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    E.g. Animals assessing rivals before fighting or fleeing, as seen in toads

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  • 10. 

    Behaviour does not fossilize. However, comparison among species can suggest a possible sequence behavioural evolution. If this is true, think of an example which may help to prove this statement. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Example:
    The bizarre courtship behaviour of the balloon fly could have evolved in small steps, like the differences among species within the empidid fly family

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  • 11. 

    Natural Selection has resulted in behaviours that help animals to survive and reproduce

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Natural selection is a fundamental concept in evolutionary biology. It is the process by which certain traits or behaviors become more or less common in a population over time, based on their impact on an organism's survival and reproductive success. Behaviors that enhance an animal's chances of survival and reproduction are more likely to be passed on to future generations, while behaviors that hinder these processes are less likely to be inherited. Therefore, it is true that natural selection has resulted in behaviors that help animals to survive and reproduce.

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  • 12. 

    The process of natural selection means that animals ARE selected to act “for the good of the species”

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The process of natural selection does not mean that animals are selected to act "for the good of the species." Natural selection is a mechanism by which individuals with advantageous traits are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing on their genes to the next generation. It is driven by individual fitness, not the well-being of the species as a whole. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 13. 

    Kin selection favours behaviour that spreads genes through any kin, not just offspring

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Kin selection is a theory in evolutionary biology that suggests that individuals can increase their own genetic success by helping their relatives, even if it means sacrificing their own reproductive success. This behavior can extend beyond just offspring and include other kin, such as siblings or cousins. By assisting these relatives, individuals can indirectly pass on their genes through their relatives' reproduction. Therefore, the statement that kin selection favors behavior that spreads genes through any kin, not just offspring, is true.

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  • 14. 

    According to Hamilton's rule:

    • A.

      Natural selection favors altruistic acts when the resulting benefit to the beneficiary, corrected for relatedness, exceeds the cost to the altruist.

    • B.

      The effects of kin selection are larger than the effects of direct natural selection on individuals.

    • C.

      Altruism is always reciprocal.

    • D.

      Natural selection does not favor altruistic behavior that causes the death of the altruist.

    • E.

      Natural selection is more likely to favor altruistic behavior that benefits an offspring than altruistic behavior that benefits a sibling.

    Correct Answer
    A. Natural selection favors altruistic acts when the resulting benefit to the beneficiary, corrected for relatedness, exceeds the cost to the altruist.
    Explanation
    According to Hamilton's rule, natural selection favors altruistic acts when the resulting benefit to the beneficiary, corrected for relatedness, exceeds the cost to the altruist. This means that individuals are more likely to engage in altruistic behavior if the benefit received by the recipient, taking into account their genetic relatedness, is greater than the cost incurred by the individual performing the altruistic act. In other words, altruism is favored when the genetic benefits outweigh the individual costs, promoting the survival and reproduction of related individuals.

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  • 15. 

    Altruistic behavior __________.

    • A.

      Never occurs in natural populations

    • B.

      Is expected when the species as a whole benefits from it

    • C.

      Occurs only when closely related individuals benefit from it

    • D.

      Is expected when it increases the long-term inclusive fitness of the altruists

    • E.

      Is expected when there are plentiful resources to share

    Correct Answer
    D. Is expected when it increases the long-term inclusive fitness of the altruists
    Explanation
    Altruistic behavior is expected when it increases the long-term inclusive fitness of the altruists. This means that individuals engage in selfless actions that may incur costs to themselves, but ultimately benefit their own reproductive success and survival. This behavior is favored when it enhances the overall genetic fitness of the altruists, ensuring the propagation of their genes in future generations.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following statements best defines an altruistic act?

    • A.

      It immediately benefits both the performer and another individual.

    • B.

      It immediately benefits another individual at some cost to the performer.

    • C.

      It immediately benefits the performer and imposes a cost on another individual.

    • D.

      It imposes a cost on the performer and the other individual.

    • E.

      It imposes a cost on the performer without benefiting another individual.

    Correct Answer
    B. It immediately benefits another individual at some cost to the performer.
    Explanation
    An altruistic act is defined as an action that immediately benefits another individual at some cost to the performer. In this case, the performer willingly incurs a cost, whether it be time, effort, or resources, in order to benefit someone else. The act is selfless and done with the intention of helping another person, even if it comes at a personal cost.

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  • 17. 

    The coefficient of relatedness between two brothers is __________.

    • A.

      0.75

    • B.

      The same as the coefficient of relatedness between mother and daughter

    • C.

      0.25

    • D.

      Less than the coefficient of relatedness between father and son

    • E.

      1.5

    Correct Answer
    B. The same as the coefficient of relatedness between mother and daughter
    Explanation
    The coefficient of relatedness between two individuals measures the proportion of genes they share due to their common ancestry. In the case of two brothers, they share on average 50% of their genes from their mother and 50% from their father. Therefore, the coefficient of relatedness between two brothers is the same as the coefficient of relatedness between mother and daughter, which is also 0.5 or 50%.

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  • 18. 

    Altruistic behaviors can be understood, in part, by considering the coefficient of relatedness (r) between the individuals involved. Assume that an individual mammal has the option to raise its own offspring, other genetic relatives, or a combination of offspring and other genetic relatives. From a genetic point of view, which of the following represents the LEAST successful option?

    • A.

      Two offspring

    • B.

      Two offspring

    • C.

      Four grandchildren

    • D.

      One sibling and three nephews

    • E.

      Seven first cousins

    Correct Answer
    E. Seven first cousins
    Explanation
    The coefficient of relatedness between siblings is 0.5, and the coefficient of relatedness between an individual and a nephew is 0.25. The total coefficient of relatedness would be 0.5 + (3 × 0.25) = 1.25, a total that is not the lowest of the choices.

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  • 19. 

    The enhanced reproduction, through apparently altruistic behavior, of related individuals with common alleles is referred to as __________. 

    • A.

      Hamilton's rule

    • B.

      Kin selection

    • C.

      Competitive exclusion

    • D.

      Adaptive radiation

    • E.

      The coefficient of relatedness

    Correct Answer
    B. Kin selection
    Explanation
    Kin selection refers to the enhanced reproduction of related individuals with common alleles through apparently altruistic behavior. This means that individuals may behave in ways that benefit their relatives, even at a cost to themselves, because it increases the chances of their shared genes being passed on to future generations. This concept was developed by W.D. Hamilton and is an important mechanism in evolutionary biology for understanding the evolution of social behaviors.

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  • 20. 

    Altruism can evolve if it entails helping kin, through the process of            selection, following               Rule.

    • A.

      Natural; Hamilton's

    • B.

      Natural; Borda's

    • C.

      Kin; Hamilton's

    • D.

      Kin; Borda's

    Correct Answer
    C. Kin; Hamilton's
    Explanation
    Altruism can evolve if it entails helping kin, through the process of kin selection, following Hamilton's Rule. Hamilton's Rule states that an organism is more likely to exhibit altruistic behavior towards its kin if the benefits to the recipient multiplied by the degree of relatedness exceeds the cost to the donor. This means that organisms are more likely to help their close relatives because they share a significant amount of genetic material. Therefore, altruistic behavior can be favored by natural selection if it benefits the survival and reproduction of genetically related individuals.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 20, 2016
    Quiz Created by
    Biology16100
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