# B2/B3 - Thursday - Pendulum Reading

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• 1.

• 2.

### What causes a pendulum's oscillating motion?

• A.

The force of friction

• B.

The amount of forces acting on the horizontal axis

• C.

The pendulum can't stop instantaneously, and once it does stop, it is pulled down by gravity, thus keeping it oscillating.

C. The pendulum can't stop instantaneously, and once it does stop, it is pulled down by gravity, thus keeping it oscillating.
Explanation
The correct answer is that the pendulum can't stop instantaneously, and once it does stop, it is pulled down by gravity, thus keeping it oscillating. This explanation highlights the fact that a pendulum's oscillating motion is due to the combination of its inertia and the force of gravity. When the pendulum swings to one side, it has momentum that carries it to the other side, and gravity then pulls it back, causing it to continue oscillating back and forth. The force of friction and the amount of forces acting on the horizontal axis are not directly responsible for the pendulum's oscillating motion.

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• 3.

### What does oscillation mean?

• A.

A wave-like motion

• B.

A motion of moving back and forth at a regular interval

• C.

A motion of moving back and forth

• D.

A motion of moving back and forth at an irregular interval

B. A motion of moving back and forth at a regular interval
Explanation
Oscillation refers to a motion of moving back and forth at a regular interval. It involves repetitive movement between two points, where an object or system continuously alternates between two extreme positions or states. This regular pattern of motion can be observed in various phenomena, such as pendulums swinging, sound waves, or the vibration of particles. The key characteristic of oscillation is the predictable and periodic nature of the back-and-forth motion.

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• 4.

### Which of the following best describes the behavior of a pendulum?

• A.

It moves back and forth with a varying period.

• B.

It moves back and forth, reaching different heights each time.

• C.

An object only moving with a vertical velocity.

• D.

If there is not friction nor air resistance acting on the pendulum, then it could swing forever.

D. If there is not friction nor air resistance acting on the pendulum, then it could swing forever.
Explanation
The correct answer states that if there is no friction or air resistance acting on the pendulum, then it could swing forever. This is because in the absence of external forces, such as friction or air resistance, the pendulum will continue to oscillate back and forth without any loss of energy. This is in accordance with the principle of conservation of mechanical energy, which states that in a closed system, the total mechanical energy remains constant. Therefore, the pendulum will continue to swing indefinitely without slowing down or stopping.

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• 5.

### How could you use the period (time for  a full swing) of a pendulum to gather information?

• A.

You could estimate the gravitational force or acceleration acting on the pendulum.

• B.

You could use it to measure the angular momentum acting on the bob.

• C.

You could measure the variance of mass from initial drop to final resting height.

• D.

You could estimate the distance of the pendulum from the center of Earth.

A. You could estimate the gravitational force or acceleration acting on the pendulum.
Explanation
The period of a pendulum is directly related to the gravitational force or acceleration acting on it. By measuring the time it takes for a full swing (period), you can use the equation T=2π√(L/g) to estimate the gravitational force or acceleration (g) acting on the pendulum. The length of the pendulum (L) can be measured, and by rearranging the equation, you can solve for g. Therefore, by using the period of a pendulum, you can gather information about the gravitational force or acceleration acting on it.

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• 6.

### Here is the formula for Period of oscillation (T). T describes the amount of time it takes to make a full swing. Look back in the text to answer the following question: Which of the following does play a role in the period of a pendulum?

• A.

Length

• B.

Distribution of mass

• C.

Gravitational acceleration

• D.

A & B

• E.

A & C

• F.

A, B & C

F. A, B & C
Explanation
The period of a pendulum is affected by the length of the pendulum, the distribution of mass in the pendulum, and the gravitational acceleration. These factors determine the time it takes for the pendulum to complete one full swing.

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• 7.

### By increasing the number of oscillations we are actually increasing our....

• A.

Precision

• B.

Accuracy

B. Accuracy
Explanation
By increasing the number of oscillations, we are actually increasing the accuracy of our measurements. Accuracy refers to how close the measured value is to the true value. By increasing the number of oscillations, we are reducing the effects of random errors and improving the precision of our measurements. This means that the measured values will cluster closely around the true value, leading to a higher level of accuracy. Therefore, increasing the number of oscillations improves the accuracy of our measurements.

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• 8.

### The image above shows the graph received by physics students after allowing a pendulum to oscillate for some time. Using information gained from the passage, which of the following answers best identifies the likely IV and DV of this graph.

• A.

IV = time, DV = mass

• B.

IV = distance from starting point, DV = time

• C.

IV = distance from starting point, DV = time

• D.

IV = time, DV = distance from starting point