Ch 2 Open Book Quiz AP Psych

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Quizzes Created: 13 | Total Attempts: 2,105
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Ch 2 Open Book Quiz AP Psych - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is TRUE?

    • A.

      Hypnosis is an effective way to help people relive long buried or repressed memories

    • B.

      Electro-convulsive therapy is no longer used

    • C.

      Most people do not suffer from unrealistically low self-esteem

    • D.

      Opposites generally attract

    Correct Answer
    C. Most people do not suffer from unrealistically low self-esteem
    Explanation
    The given answer is true because research has shown that the majority of people do not suffer from unrealistically low self-esteem. While some individuals may experience temporary dips in self-esteem, it is not a widespread issue among the general population. This is supported by studies that indicate that most people have a balanced and realistic view of themselves, neither excessively positive nor excessively negative.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the strongest relationship between variables?

    • A.

      + .05

    • B.

      - .25

    • C.

      + .75

    • D.

      - .95

    Correct Answer
    D. - .95
    Explanation
    A correlation coefficient measures the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables. The closer the correlation coefficient is to -1 or 1, the stronger the relationship. In this case, -0.95 indicates a very strong negative relationship between the variables. This means that as one variable increases, the other variable decreases consistently.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following represents the average score in a distribution?

    • A.

      Mode

    • B.

      Mean

    • C.

      Median

    • D.

      Standard deviation

    Correct Answer
    B. Mean
    Explanation
    The average score in a distribution is represented by the mean. The mean is calculated by summing up all the scores in the distribution and dividing it by the total number of scores. It gives us a measure of the central tendency of the data, indicating the typical or average value. The mode represents the most frequently occurring score, the median represents the middle value when the scores are arranged in ascending order, and the standard deviation measures the spread or dispersion of the scores from the mean.

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  • 4. 

    After watching their favorite team lose a game, Emma and her friends commented to each other about how they had always known the loss was inevitable. Psychologists call this:

    • A.

      Illusory correlation

    • B.

      False consensus effect

    • C.

      Hindsight bias

    • D.

      Overconfidence

    Correct Answer
    C. Hindsight bias
    Explanation
    Hindsight bias refers to the tendency of individuals to believe that they had predicted an event's outcome or that they knew it was going to happen after it has already occurred. In this scenario, Emma and her friends are reflecting on the game they watched and expressing that they had always known their team was going to lose. This aligns with the concept of hindsight bias as they are attributing their knowledge to the past when in reality they may not have had such certainty beforehand.

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  • 5. 

    A significant disadvantage of the correlational approach is that it:

    • A.

      Does not provide evidence of cause & effect

    • B.

      Cannot be used to examine the relationship between variables

    • C.

      Does not aid in prediction

    • D.

      Does not provide info about how variables are related

    Correct Answer
    A. Does not provide evidence of cause & effect
    Explanation
    The correlational approach is limited in providing evidence of cause and effect because it only examines the relationship between variables without establishing a causal relationship. It can show that two variables are related, but it does not determine which variable is causing the change in the other. Therefore, it cannot provide conclusive evidence of cause and effect.

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  • 6. 

    After conducting an experiment Dr Fitzpatrick concluded that there was a statistically significant difference between the scores of the control group and the experimental group. In other words,

    • A.

      The difference is highly meaningful to scientists

    • B.

      The results are replicable

    • C.

      The scores differed by 5 points or more

    • D.

      It is unlikely the difference occurred by chance

    Correct Answer
    D. It is unlikely the difference occurred by chance
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "it is unlikely the difference occurred by chance." When Dr Fitzpatrick concluded that there was a statistically significant difference between the scores of the control group and the experimental group, it means that the observed difference is unlikely to have happened randomly or by chance. This suggests that there is a genuine effect or relationship between the variables being studied, and it is not simply due to random variation.

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  • 7. 

    Which 2 questions exemplify the scientific attitude?

    • A.

      What do you mean, How do you know?

    • B.

      Who believes you, what are their qualifications?

    • C.

      How common is this answer, How many people agree?

    • D.

      Is this an established truth? How long has this been believed?

    Correct Answer
    A. What do you mean, How do you know?
    Explanation
    The questions "What do you mean?" and "How do you know?" exemplify the scientific attitude because they reflect a critical and skeptical mindset. The scientific attitude involves questioning assumptions, seeking evidence, and being open to new information. By asking "What do you mean?", one is seeking clarity and precision in the language used to describe a concept or idea. By asking "How do you know?", one is challenging the basis of knowledge and seeking the evidence or reasoning behind a claim. Both questions demonstrate a scientific approach of inquiry and a desire for a rational and evidence-based understanding.

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  • 8. 

    The biggest danger to a case study is

    • A.

      They last too long

    • B.

      It is based on naturalistic observation

    • C.

      The subject may be atypical

    • D.

      Relies on correlational rather than causational evidence

    Correct Answer
    C. The subject may be atypical
    Explanation
    The biggest danger to a case study is that the subject may be atypical. This means that the individual or situation being studied may not accurately represent the larger population or typical behavior. This can lead to misleading or inaccurate conclusions being drawn from the case study. It is important for researchers to consider the generalizability of their findings and be cautious when applying them to a broader context.

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  • 9. 

    The healing power of positive expectations is best illustrated by

    • A.

      Replication

    • B.

      Hindsight bias

    • C.

      The placebo effect

    • D.

      Overconfidence

    Correct Answer
    C. The placebo effect
    Explanation
    The healing power of positive expectations is best illustrated by the placebo effect. The placebo effect occurs when a person experiences a positive outcome or improvement in their condition after receiving a treatment that has no active ingredients or therapeutic value. This improvement is believed to be a result of the person's positive belief and expectation that the treatment will work. The placebo effect highlights the influence of the mind on physical well-being and demonstrates the potential for positive expectations to have a healing effect on individuals.

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  • 10. 

    When you read a bar graph it is most important you :

    • A.

      Mentally transform the data into a scatterplot

    • B.

      Note the range and size of the scale values

    • C.

      Identify the value of the standard deviation

    • D.

      Understand that correlation does not prove causation

    Correct Answer
    B. Note the range and size of the scale values
    Explanation
    When reading a bar graph, it is crucial to note the range and size of the scale values. This helps in understanding the magnitude and distribution of the data being represented. By examining the scale values, one can determine the highest and lowest values, as well as the intervals between them. This information is essential for interpreting the graph accurately and making meaningful comparisons between different bars or categories.

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