AP Psych Sensation And Perception Quiz

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AP Psych Sensation And Perception Quiz - Quiz

The AP Psych Sensation and Perception Quiz is designed to help you master these essential concepts. This quiz covers all critical aspects of sensory processes and perceptual mechanisms, providing a comprehensive review of how we experience and interpret the world around us.

By taking this quiz, you will test your knowledge on topics such as sensory thresholds, signal detection theory, sensory adaptation, and the various perceptual theories that explain how we organize and interpret sensory information. Each question is carefully crafted to challenge your understanding and ensure you are well-prepared for the AP Psychology exam.

This quiz is an invaluable Read moretool for any AP Psychology student aiming to achieve a high score. It offers detailed feedback on your answers, helping you identify areas that need improvement. This quiz is an effective way to enhance your learning and boost your confidence. Start the quiz now and take a significant step towards acing your exam.


AP Psych Sensation and Perception Questions and Answers

  • 1. 

    Patients' negative expectations about the outcome of a surgical procedure can increase their postoperative experience of pain. This best illustrates the importance of:

    • A.

      Top-down processing

    • B.

      Sensory adaptation

    • C.

      Difference thresholds

    • D.

      Accommodation

    • E.

      Transduction

    Correct Answer
    A. Top-down processing
    Explanation
    Top-down processing involves using our experiences, expectations, and knowledge to interpret sensory information. In this context, patients' negative expectations about surgery outcomes influence their perception of pain. Their preconceived notions and fears heighten their pain experience because their brain interprets the sensory signals based on these expectations. This example shows how psychological factors can affect our sensory experiences and highlights the role of cognition in how we perceive stimuli.

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  • 2. 

    News about the supposed effects of briefly presented messages on moviegoers' consumption of popcorn and coca-cola involved false claims regarding:

    • A.

      Subliminal stimulation

    • B.

      Parallel processing

    • C.

      Sensory interaction

    • D.

      Kinesthesis

    • E.

      Difference threshold

    Correct Answer
    A. Subliminal stimulation
    Explanation
    Subliminal stimulation refers to stimuli that are below the threshold of conscious awareness but are still processed by the brain. The news about the supposed effects of briefly presented messages on moviegoers' behavior claimed that these subliminal messages could influence their consumption of popcorn and Coca-Cola. However, these claims were false and exaggerated. Scientific evidence does not support the idea that subliminal messages can significantly alter consumer behavior. This example highlights how false claims about subliminal stimulation can mislead people about the power of these subtle influences.

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  • 3. 

    Mrs. Acheube is just beginning to experience sensorineural hearing loss. She is likely to have the greatest difficulty hearing sounds of _______ frequency and ___________ amplitude

    • A.

      High; low

    • B.

      High; high

    • C.

      Low; low

    • D.

      Low; high

    Correct Answer
    A. High; low
    Explanation
    Sensorineural hearing loss typically affects the ability to hear high-frequency sounds more than low-frequency sounds, especially in the early stages. Additionally, sounds with low amplitude (quiet sounds) are harder to hear because the damage to the inner ear affects the ear's sensitivity to quieter noises. Therefore, Mrs. Acheube will have the most trouble hearing high-frequency, low-amplitude sounds. This is common in age-related hearing loss, where the hair cells in the cochlea that detect high frequencies are often the first to deteriorate.

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  • 4. 

    Sensation is to _______ as perception is to __________.

    • A.

      Recognizing a stimulus; interpreting a stimulus

    • B.

      Seeing; hearing

    • C.

      Detecting a stimulus; recognizing a stimulus

    • D.

      Interpreting a stimulus; detecting a stimulus

    Correct Answer
    C. Detecting a stimulus; recognizing a stimulus
    Explanation
    Sensation is the process of detecting a stimulus through our sensory organs, such as the eyes, ears, skin, etc. It involves the initial reception of sensory input. Perception, on the other hand, is the process of recognizing and interpreting these sensory stimuli to make sense of the world around us. It involves higher-level brain functions that allow us to understand and give meaning to the sensations we experience. So, sensation is about detecting a stimulus, while perception is about recognizing and interpreting that stimulus.

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  • 5. 

    Cones are to vision as ________ are to audition

    • A.

      Semicircular canals

    • B.

      Oval windows

    • C.

      Hair cells

    • D.

      Cochleas

    • E.

      Eardrums

    Correct Answer
    C. Hair cells
    Explanation
    Cones are photoreceptor cells in the retina that enable us to see color and fine detail in well-lit conditions. In audition, hair cells in the cochlea serve a similar function by converting sound vibrations into neural signals that the brain can interpret. Hair cells are crucial for detecting sound frequency and amplitude, much like cones are essential for detecting light intensity and color. Therefore, hair cells in the auditory system are analogous to cones in the visual system.

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  • 6. 

    Current research on sensory restriction indicates that:

    • A.

      Two days of sensory monotony typically results in a person experiencing dramatic hallucinations

    • B.

      Sensory monotony makes people less sensitive to new and changing sensory inputs

    • C.

      A day or two of sensory monotony makes people highly vulnerable to brainwashing

    • D.

      A day of sensory monotony can reduce stress and facilitate self-control

    Correct Answer
    B. Sensory monotony makes people less sensitive to new and changing sensory inputs
    Explanation
    Current research on sensory restriction suggests that prolonged exposure to sensory monotony, where an individual experiences a lack of varied sensory input, can make people less sensitive to new and changing sensory stimuli. This reduction in sensitivity occurs because the sensory system becomes less responsive when it is not regularly stimulated by a variety of sensory experiences. This research highlights the importance of sensory diversity in maintaining an optimal level of sensory responsiveness and adaptability.

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  • 7. 

    Assuming that the visual systems of humans and other mammals function similarly, you would expect the retina of a nocturnal mammal (one active only at night) would contain:

    • A.

      Mostly rods

    • B.

      An equal number of rods and cones

    • C.

      More bipolar cells than an animal active only during the day

    • D.

      Mostly cones

    Correct Answer
    A. Mostly rods
    Explanation
    Nocturnal mammals are active at night and rely on vision in low-light conditions. Rods are photoreceptor cells in the retina that are highly sensitive to light and are capable of functioning well in dim lighting, but they do not detect color. Cones, on the other hand, are responsible for color vision and function best in bright light. Therefore, the retina of a nocturnal mammal would contain mostly rods, which allow these animals to see better in the dark. This adaptation helps them navigate and hunt effectively at night.

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  • 8. 

    Rod is to transduction as ___________ is to accommodation.

    • A.

      Iris

    • B.

      Cornea

    • C.

      Pupil

    • D.

      Lens

    • E.

      Cone

    Correct Answer
    D. Lens
    Explanation
    Rods are photoreceptor cells in the retina responsible for transduction, which is the process of converting light into neural signals. Similarly, the lens is responsible for accommodation, which is the process of changing its shape to focus light on the retina. The lens adjusts to ensure that objects at different distances are focused properly on the retina, allowing for clear vision. Thus, just as rods are crucial for transduction, the lens is crucial for accommodation.

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  • 9. 

    According to the gate-control theory, a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing the:

    • A.

      Deactivation of the pain receptors on the surface of your skin

    • B.

      Arousal of your autonomic nervous system and the release of adrenaline into your bloodstream

    • C.

      Release of pain-killing endorphins in your brain

    • D.

      Activation of specific neural fibers in your spinal cord

    Correct Answer
    D. Activation of specific neural fibers in your spinal cord
    Explanation
    The gate-control theory of pain suggests that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that either blocks or allows pain signals to pass to the brain. According to this theory, a back massage would likely reduce pain by activating large neural fibers in the spinal cord that close the gate, thereby blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain. This mechanism helps explain why physical therapies like massage can effectively reduce pain by interfering with the pain signaling pathways.

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  • 10. 

    Humans experience the longest visible electromagnetic waves as the color __________ and the shortest visible waves as _________.

    • A.

      Black; white

    • B.

      Red; green

    • C.

      Red; blue-violet

    • D.

      Blue; yellow

    • E.

      Blue-violet; red

    Correct Answer
    C. Red; blue-violet
    Explanation
    In the visible spectrum of light, humans perceive the longest wavelengths as red and the shortest wavelengths as blue-violet. Red light has a wavelength of approximately 620-750 nanometers, while blue-violet light has a wavelength of approximately 380-450 nanometers. This range of wavelengths corresponds to the colors we see, with red at one end of the spectrum and blue-violet at the other. Understanding these wavelength ranges helps explain how different colors of light are perceived based on their physical properties.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following correctly lists the order of structures through which sound travels after entering the ear?

    • A.

      Eardrum, auditory canal, middle ear, cochlea

    • B.

      Auditory canal, middle ear, eardrum, cochlea

    • C.

      Auditory canal, eardrum, middle ear, cochlea

    • D.

      Eardrum, middle ear, cochlea, auditory canal

    • E.

      Cochlea, eardrum, middle ear, auditory canal

    Correct Answer
    C. Auditory canal, eardrum, middle ear, cochlea
    Explanation
    When sound enters the ear, it first travels through the auditory canal, which directs the sound waves to the eardrum. The sound waves cause the eardrum to vibrate. These vibrations are then transmitted to the middle ear, where they are amplified by three small bones known as the ossicles (malleus, incus, and stapes). The ossicles transmit the vibrations to the cochlea in the inner ear. The cochlea, filled with fluid and lined with hair cells, converts the vibrations into neural signals that are sent to the brain for interpretation. This order ensures that sound is efficiently processed from the outer ear to the brain.

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  • 12. 

    The transduction of light energy into nerve impulses takes place in the:

    • A.

      Rods

    • B.

      Iris

    • C.

      Lens

    • D.

      Retina

    • E.

      Optic nerve

    Correct Answer
    D. Retina
    Explanation
    The transduction of light energy into nerve impulses occurs in the retina. The retina is a layer of light-sensitive cells at the back of the eye that includes photoreceptor cells called rods and cones. These cells detect light and convert it into electrical signals. The rods are responsible for vision in low light conditions, while the cones detect color and fine detail. Once the light is converted into electrical signals, these signals are transmitted via the optic nerve to the brain, where they are processed into visual images. The retina is essential for capturing visual information and initiating the process of vision.

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  • 13. 

    Joe, age 55, has been told by experts that a hearing aid would restore his lost sense of hearing. It is likely that Joe's hearing loss involves problems within the:

    • A.

      Middle ear

    • B.

      Basilar membrane

    • C.

      Auditory nerve

    • D.

      Inner ear

    Correct Answer
    A. Middle ear
    Explanation
    Hearing aids are typically used to amplify sound, which suggests that Joe's hearing loss is due to problems in the middle ear. The middle ear contains the ossicles (three small bones: the malleus, incus, and stapes) that transmit sound vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. If these bones are not functioning properly, sound cannot be efficiently transmitted, leading to hearing loss. Problems such as otosclerosis, fluid buildup, or damage to the ossicles can impair hearing, but these issues can often be alleviated with hearing aids. Hearing aids help by amplifying sound so that the remaining functional parts of the auditory system can process it.

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  • 14. 

    Visual information is processed by __________ before it is processed by _________.

    • A.

      Bipolar cells; rods, and cones

    • B.

      Feature detectors; bipolar cells

    • C.

      Feature detectors; rods, and cones

    • D.

      The optic nerve; ganglion cells

    • E.

      Ganglion cells; feature detectors

    Correct Answer
    E. Ganglion cells; feature detectors
    Explanation
    Visual information is first processed by the ganglion cells in the retina after it has been transduced by the rods and cones. Ganglion cells collect and consolidate the visual information from bipolar cells and send it to the brain via the optic nerve. Once the information reaches the brain, it is processed by feature detectors in the visual cortex. Feature detectors are specialized neurons that respond to specific features of the visual stimulus, such as edges, angles, and movement. Therefore, visual information is processed by ganglion cells before it is processed by feature detectors.

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  • 15. 

    Ms. S, a recent stroke victim, cannot consciously perceive the large book on the coffee table in front of her. Yet, when urged to identify the book, she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book cover. Her response best illustrates:

    • A.

      Sensory adaptation

    • B.

      Sensory interaction

    • C.

      Subliminal perception

    • D.

      The illusory truth effect

    • E.

      Blindsight

    Correct Answer
    E. Blindsight
    Explanation
    Blindsight is a condition where individuals with damage to the visual cortex can respond to visual stimuli without consciously perceiving them. In Ms. S's case, despite not being able to consciously perceive the book, she can still read the title correctly. This indicates that some visual processing is occurring outside of her conscious awareness. Blindsight occurs because the visual information is processed by other pathways in the brain that bypass the damaged visual cortex, allowing individuals to react to visual stimuli without conscious perception. This phenomenon demonstrates how certain brain functions can remain intact even when conscious visual awareness is impaired.

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  • 16. 

    Because several rods share a single bipolar cell, rods are less sensitive to _________ than are cones.

    • A.

      Bright light

    • B.

      Dim light

    • C.

      Fine detail

    • D.

      Color

    Correct Answer
    C. Fine detail
    Explanation
    Rods are photoreceptor cells in the retina that are highly sensitive to low light levels and are crucial for night vision. However, because several rods share a single bipolar cell, their individual signals are combined, resulting in lower spatial resolution. This means that rods are less sensitive to fine detail compared to cones, which are another type of photoreceptor cell. Cones are responsible for color vision and visual acuity because each cone typically connects to its own bipolar cell, allowing for more precise and detailed visual information to be transmitted. Therefore, while rods are excellent for detecting light intensity and motion in dim lighting, cones provide the clarity and detail needed for tasks requiring sharp vision.

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  • 17. 

    The fact that people who are colorblind to red and green may still see yellow is most easily explained by:

    • A.

      The gate-control theory

    • B.

      The opponent-process theory

    • C.

      Place theory

    • D.

      Frequency theory

    • E.

      The young-helmholtz theory

    Correct Answer
    B. The opponent-process theory
    Explanation
    The opponent-process theory explains color vision in terms of opposing neural processes. According to this theory, there are three pairs of color receptors: red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white. People who are colorblind to red and green have difficulty distinguishing between these two colors because the red-green receptor pair is not functioning properly. However, they can still see yellow because yellow is perceived through a different mechanism (the blue-yellow pair) that does not rely on the red-green receptors. This theory accounts for the phenomenon where the absence of red and green perception does not affect the ability to see yellow, as yellow perception involves the antagonistic interaction between blue and yellow processes.

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  • 18. 

    The receptor of the eye that functions best in dim light is:

    • A.

      Fovea

    • B.

      Bipolar cell

    • C.

      Ganglion cell

    • D.

      Rod

    • E.

      Cone

    Correct Answer
    D. Rod
    Explanation
    Rods are photoreceptor cells in the retina that are highly sensitive to low light levels, making them essential for vision in dimly lit environments. Unlike cones, which are responsible for color vision and function best in bright light, rods do not detect color but are more numerous and can respond to even a small amount of light. This sensitivity allows rods to provide better vision at night or in dark conditions. The fovea, where cones are concentrated, is not effective in low light, emphasizing the importance of rods for night vision.

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  • 19. 

    The study of perception is primarily concerned with how we:

    • A.

      Detect sights, sounds, and other stimuli

    • B.

      Sense environmental stimuli

    • C.

      Interpret sensory stimuli

    • D.

      Develop sensitivity to illusions

    Correct Answer
    C. Interpret sensory stimuli
    Explanation
    Perception is the process of interpreting sensory stimuli that our sensory organs detect. While sensation involves the detection of environmental stimuli (such as sights, sounds, and other stimuli), perception goes a step further by organizing, interpreting, and making sense of these sensory inputs. This process allows us to understand and interact with our environment in a meaningful way. Perception involves complex brain functions that help us recognize patterns, make judgments, and assign meaning to the information received from our senses. Therefore, the study of perception focuses on how we interpret sensory stimuli to form our understanding of the world around us.

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  • 20. 

    When the moon is near the horizon, it appears larger than when it is high in the sky. This effect is primarily a result of:

    • A.

      Distance cues, which make the horizon moon seem farther away

    • B.

      The scattering of the horizon moon's light waves, which penetrate the atmosphere at an angle

    • C.

      The brighter appearance of the horizon moon

    • D.

      The slightly dimmer appearance of the horizon moon

    Correct Answer
    A. Distance cues, which make the horizon moon seem farther away
    Explanation
    The moon illusion, where the moon appears larger near the horizon than when it is high in the sky, is primarily due to distance cues. When the moon is near the horizon, our brain perceives it as farther away because it is viewed in the context of objects on the ground, such as buildings, trees, and other landmarks. These distance cues cause our brain to interpret the moon as larger because we expect objects that are farther away to appear smaller if they are the same size. In contrast, when the moon is high in the sky, there are no such visual references, and it appears smaller. This perceptual phenomenon illustrates how our brain uses context and depth cues to interpret the size of objects.

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  • 21. 

    Studies of the visual cliff have provided evidence that much of depth perception is:

    • A.

      Innate in humans, learned in lower animals

    • B.

      Innate

    • C.

      Learned

    • D.

      Innate in lower animals, learned in humans

    Correct Answer
    B. Innate
    Explanation
    The visual cliff experiments, conducted by researchers Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk, were designed to investigate depth perception in infants and young animals. In these studies, infants and young animals were placed on a platform with a "cliff" covered by a glass surface. Most of them refused to crawl or walk over the glass, suggesting that they perceived the depth and associated it with a potential fall. These findings indicate that depth perception is largely innate, as even very young infants and animals exhibit the ability to perceive depth and respond to visual cues without prior learning or experience. This innate ability helps in navigating and understanding the environment from a very early age.

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  • 22. 

    The lights along the runway were shrouded in such a thick fog that the pilot of an incoming plane nearly overshot the runway. The pilot was most likely misled by the distance cue known as:

    • A.

      Relative clarity

    • B.

      Convergence

    • C.

      Linear perspective

    • D.

      Interposition

    • E.

      Lightness constancy

    Correct Answer
    A. Relative clarity
    Explanation
    Relative clarity is a depth cue that suggests that objects that appear clearer and more distinct are perceived as being closer, while objects that are hazier or less clear are perceived as being farther away. In thick fog, the runway lights would appear less clear and more diffused, potentially making them seem farther away than they actually are. This misperception of distance can cause the pilot to believe that the runway is farther away, leading to an overshoot. This example demonstrates how environmental conditions like fog can affect visual perception and depth cues, impacting decision-making and actions based on those perceptions.

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  • 23. 

    The term GESTALT means:

    • A.

      Visual capture

    • B.

      Sensation

    • C.

      Grouping

    • D.

      Perception

    • E.

      Whole

    Correct Answer
    E. Whole
    Explanation
    The term "Gestalt" comes from German and means "whole" or "form." Gestalt psychology is a theory that emphasizes our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes. According to Gestalt principles, the whole of anything is perceived as more than just the sum of its parts. This approach to psychology focuses on how we naturally organize and interpret visual elements into unified patterns and structures, such as grouping similar items together or perceiving incomplete shapes as complete. The concept of Gestalt helps us understand how humans perceive complex scenes and patterns in a coherent and holistic manner.

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  • 24. 

    The ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field is called:

    • A.

      Selective attention

    • B.

      Shape constancy

    • C.

      Visual capture

    • D.

      Perceptual set

    • E.

      Perceptual adaptation

    Correct Answer
    E. Perceptual adaptation
    Explanation
    Perceptual adaptation is the process by which the brain adjusts to changes in the visual field, including artificially displaced or inverted images. When the visual environment is altered, such as by wearing inverted goggles, the brain can gradually adapt to the new perspective, allowing the individual to function normally despite the changes. This ability demonstrates the brain's flexibility and plasticity in interpreting sensory information to maintain accurate perception and coordination. Perceptual adaptation is essential for adapting to new visual environments and overcoming visual distortions.

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  • 25. 

    As the airplane descended for a landing, the pilot saw several beautiful islands that appeared to float in a vast expanse of blue ocean water. In this instance, the ocean is a:

    • A.

      Perceptual set

    • B.

      Ground

    • C.

      Figure

    • D.

      Gestalt

    Correct Answer
    B. Ground
    Explanation
    In visual perception, the term "ground" refers to the background against which figures (objects) are perceived. In this scenario, the vast expanse of blue ocean water serves as the ground, while the islands are the figures that stand out against this background. This figure-ground relationship is a fundamental concept in Gestalt psychology, which studies how people visually organize elements into coherent patterns. The ocean as the ground helps define and emphasize the islands as distinct entities, illustrating how our perception differentiates between objects and their backgrounds.

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  • 26. 

    Young children tend to draw human figures in a rather unrealistic way. This reflects their:

    • A.

      Linear perspective

    • B.

      Perceptual adaptations

    • C.

      Perceptual schemas

    • D.

      Selective attention to legs and feet

    • E.

      Selective attention to monocular cues

    Correct Answer
    C. Perceptual schemas
    Explanation
    Perceptual schemas are mental frameworks that help individuals organize and interpret information. In young children, these schemas are still developing, which leads to their tendency to draw human figures in unrealistic ways. Their drawings reflect their current understanding and cognitive development regarding human shapes and proportions. As children grow and their perceptual schemas become more refined, their drawings of human figures become more realistic. This developmental process shows how perceptual schemas influence the way we perceive and represent the world.

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  • 27. 

    The perception of the letter "t" as two interesting lines rather than as four nonintersecting lines illustrates the principle of:

    • A.

      Proximity

    • B.

      Similarity

    • C.

      Continuity

    • D.

      Convergence

    • E.

      Closure

    Correct Answer
    C. Continuity
    Explanation
    The principle of continuity in Gestalt psychology refers to our tendency to perceive objects as part of a continuous pattern, rather than as separate elements. When we see the letter "t," we naturally perceive it as two intersecting lines forming a cohesive shape, rather than as four separate line segments. This principle helps us organize visual elements into smooth, continuous forms, enhancing our ability to make sense of complex visual stimuli. Continuity allows us to see the "t" as a unified character, demonstrating how our perceptual system favors continuous patterns over disjointed ones.

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  • 28. 

    In the absence of perceptual constancy:

    • A.

      Depth perception would be impossible

    • B.

      Depth perception would be based exclusively on binocular cues

    • C.

      Objects would appear to change size as their distance from us changed

    • D.

      Depth perception would be based exclusively on monocular cues

    Correct Answer
    C. Objects would appear to change size as their distance from us changed
    Explanation
    Perceptual constancy is the ability to perceive objects as having consistent properties (such as size, shape, and color) despite changes in the sensory input, like variations in distance, angle, or lighting. Without perceptual constancy, objects would appear to change size as their distance from us changed, making the world seem unstable and confusing. For example, a car driving away from us would seem to shrink in size as it gets further away, rather than us understanding it remains the same size. Perceptual constancy allows us to maintain a stable perception of the world despite changes in the visual information received by our eyes.

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  • 29. 

    Who emphasized that perceptual understanding comes from inborn ways of organizing sensory experience?

    • A.

      Freud

    • B.

      Locke

    • C.

      Kant

    • D.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    C. Kant
    Explanation
    Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, emphasized that perceptual understanding comes from inborn ways of organizing sensory experience. Kant argued that our minds have innate structures and categories that shape how we perceive and understand the world. This contrasts with the empiricist view, notably held by John Locke, which suggests that all knowledge comes from sensory experience and that the mind starts as a blank slate. Kant's perspective highlights the idea that certain cognitive abilities, such as organizing sensory information, are inherent and not solely dependent on learning from the environment.

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  • 30. 

    Although a few keys on the piano were broken, Shana couldn't prevent herself from mentally filling in the missing notes of the familiar melodies. This best illustrates the principle of:

    • A.

      Convergence

    • B.

      Interposition

    • C.

      Closure

    • D.

      Continuity

    • E.

      Proximity

    Correct Answer
    C. Closure
    Explanation
    The principle of closure is one of the Gestalt principles of perceptual organization, which suggests that individuals tend to perceive incomplete figures as complete. When Shana mentally fills in the missing notes of the familiar melodies despite the broken keys, she is using closure. This principle allows us to make sense of incomplete information by mentally completing the gaps, thereby perceiving a whole and coherent pattern. Closure helps us recognize and understand objects and patterns even when parts of them are missing or obscured.

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  • 31. 

    A person claiming to be able to read another's mind is claiming to have the ESP ability of:

    • A.

      Telepathy

    • B.

      Precognition

    • C.

      Clairvoyance

    • D.

      Psychokinesis

    Correct Answer
    A. Telepathy
    Explanation
    Telepathy is the ESP (extrasensory perception) ability that involves the direct transmission of thoughts or information from one person's mind to another without using any known human sensory channels or physical interaction. A person claiming to be able to read another's mind is essentially claiming to have telepathic abilities. This differs from other ESP abilities, such as precognition (predicting future events), clairvoyance (gaining information about an object, person, or event without the use of sensory input), and psychokinesis (the ability to move or manipulate objects with the mind).

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  • 32. 

    If two objects cast retinal images of the same size, the object that appears to be closer is perceived as ________- the object that appears to be more distant.

    • A.

      Overlapping

    • B.

      The same size as

    • C.

      Smaller than

    • D.

      Larger than

    Correct Answer
    C. Smaller than
    Explanation
    If two objects cast retinal images of the same size, the object that appears to be closer is perceived as smaller than the object that appears to be more distant. This is due to our depth perception and the way our brain interprets distance cues. When two objects have the same retinal size but different perceived distances, our brain uses depth cues to infer that the closer object must be smaller in actual size to cast the same retinal image as a larger, more distant object. This perceptual phenomenon helps us make sense of the relative sizes and distances of objects in our visual field.

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  • 33. 

    The illusion that the St. Louis Gateway arch appears taller than it is wide (even though its height and width are equal) is based on our sensitivity to which monocular depth cue?

    • A.

      Retinal disparity

    • B.

      Relative size

    • C.

      Relative height

    • D.

      Interposition

    Correct Answer
    C. Relative height
    Explanation
    The illusion that the St. Louis Gateway Arch appears taller than it is wide, despite its equal height and width, is based on our sensitivity to the monocular depth cue of relative height. Relative height is a depth cue where objects positioned higher in our visual field are perceived as being farther away, and objects positioned lower are perceived as being closer. This cue can also cause vertical dimensions to appear longer than horizontal ones, leading to the perception that tall objects are larger than wide objects. This illusion exploits our brain's interpretation of spatial relationships, causing the arch to seem taller than it actually is.

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  • 34. 

    Research with distorting goggles best supports the view of human perception advanced by:

    • A.

      Locke

    • B.

      Kant

    • C.

      Aristotle

    • D.

      Freud

    Correct Answer
    B. Kant
    Explanation
    Immanuel Kant proposed that human perception involves innate mechanisms for organizing sensory experiences. Research with distorting goggles supports Kant's view because it shows that people can adapt to altered visual input through perceptual adaptation, indicating that our brains have inherent capabilities to adjust and make sense of sensory information. This adaptation to the distorted visual field highlights the presence of built-in processes that help us interpret and understand our environment, aligning with Kant's perspective on the role of innate structures in perception.

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  • 35. 

    When observing buffalo, the African Pygmy Kenge failed to experience size constancy. This best serves to support the view of perception advanced by the philosopher:

    • A.

      Kant

    • B.

      Locke

    • C.

      Plato

    • D.

      Descartes

    • E.

      Liebnitz

    Correct Answer
    B. Locke
    Explanation
    John Locke proposed that the mind starts as a blank slate (tabula rasa) and that all knowledge comes from sensory experience and learning. The case of the African Pygmy Kenge, who failed to experience size constancy when observing buffalo, supports Locke's view. This example illustrates that perception, including the ability to maintain size constancy, can be heavily influenced by experience and learning. Kenge's lack of exposure to large open spaces and distant objects likely led to difficulties in perceiving the buffalo as being a consistent size regardless of their distance. This supports Locke's argument that perceptual abilities are developed through sensory experience and are not entirely innate.

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  • Current Version
  • Jun 04, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 28, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Lillsar95
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