Principles Of Chemistry Instrumentation

By Lola Agbetunsin
Lola Agbetunsin, Teacher & Student Mentor
Lola Agbetunsin, an educator with a mission to guide students on their journey to success and provide them with the tools they need for a bright future.
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Principles of chemistry instrumentation


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In spectrophotometer, the visible light passes through a monochromator with a diffraction grating or prism that disperses the white light into a light spectrum

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that in a spectrophotometer, visible light is indeed passed through a monochromator with a diffraction grating or prism. This component disperses the white light into a spectrum of different wavelengths, allowing for the analysis of specific wavelengths of light. This process is essential for measuring the absorbance or transmittance of a sample, which is used in various applications such as chemical analysis and biological research.

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  • 2. 

    Reflectance photometers use solid phase chemistry technology

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Reflectance photometers do indeed use solid phase chemistry technology. This technology involves the use of solid materials, such as reagents or test strips, to perform chemical reactions and produce a measurable signal. In the case of reflectance photometers, the solid phase chemistry technology is used to analyze the reflectance or absorption of light by the test sample, which provides information about its composition or concentration. This technology is commonly used in various applications, including medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety testing. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 3. 

    Solid phase chemistry can often use whole blood, such that certain features of the cartridges or strips have feature that filter out the red blood cells, leaving only plasma to mix with the test reagents

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Solid phase chemistry refers to a type of chemical reaction that occurs on a solid surface, such as a cartridge or strip. In this case, whole blood can be used in solid phase chemistry by using cartridges or strips that have a feature to filter out the red blood cells. This allows only the plasma, which is the liquid component of blood, to mix with the test reagents. By filtering out the red blood cells, the solid phase chemistry can focus on analyzing the plasma for specific compounds or substances of interest. Therefore, the statement that solid phase chemistry can often use whole blood with red blood cell filtration is true.

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  • 4. 

    In nephelometry, the amount of light scatter measured is proportional to the concentration of the substance being measured

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In nephelometry, the concentration of the substance being measured is directly related to the amount of light scatter. This means that as the concentration of the substance increases, the amount of light scatter also increases. Therefore, the statement that the amount of light scatter measured is proportional to the concentration of the substance being measured is true.

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  • 5. 

    In nephelometry, light scatter occurs when incident light encounters particulate molecules in suspension

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In nephelometry, light scatter occurs when incident light encounters particulate molecules in suspension. This is true because nephelometry is a technique used to measure the amount of light scattered by suspended particles in a liquid sample. The scattered light is then measured at a specific angle and used to determine the concentration or size of the particles in the sample. Therefore, it is correct to say that light scatter occurs in nephelometry when incident light interacts with particulate molecules in suspension.

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  • 6. 

    Turbidity in a liquid is caused by the presence of fine suspended particles, such that light transmitted through the sample is reduced by scattering of light.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Turbidity in a liquid is caused by the presence of fine suspended particles, which scatter light and reduce the amount of light transmitted through the sample. This scattering of light is what causes the liquid to appear cloudy or opaque. Therefore, the statement that turbidity in a liquid is caused by the presence of fine suspended particles, reducing the transmission of light, is true.

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  • 7. 

    Choose all of the chemistry instrumentation principles discussed in the class

    • A.

      Photometry

    • B.

      Spectrophotometry

    • C.

      Reflectance photometry

    • D.

      Nephelometry

    • E.

      Turbidimetry

    • F.

      Ion selective electrode

    • G.

      Electrochemical (amperometry)

    • H.

      Basometry

    • I.

      Cancometry

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Photometry
    B. Spectrophotometry
    C. Reflectance photometry
    D. Nephelometry
    E. Turbidimetry
    F. Ion selective electrode
    G. Electrochemical (amperometry)
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes principles such as photometry, spectrophotometry, reflectance photometry, nephelometry, turbidimetry, ion selective electrode, and electrochemical (amperometry). These principles are all related to the measurement and analysis of chemical substances or properties using various instruments. Photometry involves the measurement of light intensity, while spectrophotometry measures the absorption or emission of light by a substance. Reflectance photometry measures the amount of light reflected by a substance. Nephelometry and turbidimetry are used to measure the scattering of light by particles in a sample. Ion selective electrode measures the concentration of specific ions in a solution, and electrochemical (amperometry) measures the electric current produced by a chemical reaction.

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  • 8. 

    Choose all the processes that take place in electrochemical technology

    • A.

      Patient samples are applied to small disposable biosensor strips

    • B.

      These biosensors contain reagents for the chemical reaction

    • C.

      These biosensor strips contain electrodes

    • D.

      Blood sample interacts with reagents in the biosensor strip to produce electrons

    • E.

      Electrons generated are detected by the meter and converted into glucose units

    • F.

      Analyzer produced electrons that move into patient sample

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Patient samples are applied to small disposable biosensor strips
    B. These biosensors contain reagents for the chemical reaction
    C. These biosensor strips contain electrodes
    D. Blood sample interacts with reagents in the biosensor strip to produce electrons
    E. Electrons generated are detected by the meter and converted into glucose units
    Explanation
    In electrochemical technology, patient samples are applied to small disposable biosensor strips. These biosensors contain reagents for the chemical reaction and electrodes. The blood sample interacts with the reagents in the biosensor strip, resulting in the production of electrons. These electrons are then detected by the meter and converted into glucose units. This process allows for the measurement of glucose levels in the patient's sample.

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  • 9. 

    How many electrodes are needed for ion-selective electrode?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    B. 2
    Explanation
    Ion-selective electrodes typically require two electrodes: a reference electrode and a sensing electrode. The reference electrode provides a stable reference potential, while the sensing electrode selectively responds to the specific ion being measured. These two electrodes work together to measure the concentration of a specific ion in a solution. Therefore, the correct answer is 2.

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  • 10. 

    Electron potential develops when electrodes are exposed to solutions that have different concentrations of the ion being measure

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When electrodes are exposed to solutions with different concentrations of the ion being measured, an electron potential develops. This potential arises due to the movement of ions between the solutions and the electrodes, creating a difference in charge. This potential can be measured and used to determine the concentration of the ion in the solution. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 11. 

    The potential across a membrane in the electrode is proportional to the difference between the two concentrations

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The potential across a membrane in the electrode is proportional to the difference between the two concentrations. This means that as the concentration difference increases, the potential across the membrane also increases. This relationship is known as the Nernst equation, which describes the equilibrium potential for an ion across a membrane. The equation states that the potential is directly proportional to the logarithm of the concentration ratio. Therefore, the given statement is true.

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  • 12. 

    Electrolytes are usually measured using the ion-selective electrode principle

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The ion-selective electrode principle is a commonly used method for measuring electrolytes. This principle involves using a specific electrode that selectively responds to a particular ion in the electrolyte solution. By measuring the potential difference between this electrode and a reference electrode, the concentration of the ion can be determined. This method is widely used in various fields, including medical diagnostics, environmental analysis, and industrial processes. Therefore, it is accurate to say that electrolytes are usually measured using the ion-selective electrode principle.

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  • 13. 

    Each ion-selective electrode is responsive to a specific ion

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Each ion-selective electrode is designed to detect and respond to a specific ion in a solution. This is achieved through the use of a membrane that selectively allows only the desired ion to pass through and interact with the electrode. As a result, when the target ion is present in the solution, it creates an electrical potential that can be measured and used to determine the ion concentration. Therefore, the statement that each ion-selective electrode is responsive to a specific ion is true.

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  • 14. 

    In ion-selective electrode, the voltage (electrical potential) into a number representing the concentration of the ion in the unknown solution

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In an ion-selective electrode, the electrical potential is converted into a numerical value that represents the concentration of the ion in the unknown solution. This means that the voltage measured by the electrode can be used to determine the concentration of the specific ion being measured. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 15. 

    In photometry, the operator selects the filter to isolate light of the correct wavelength of light

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In photometry, selecting the correct filter is crucial to isolate light of the desired wavelength. This is because different filters allow only specific wavelengths of light to pass through, while blocking others. By choosing the appropriate filter, the operator can accurately measure and analyze the intensity of light at a specific wavelength, which is essential for various applications in photometry. Therefore, the statement that the operator selects the filter to isolate light of the correct wavelength is true.

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  • 16. 

    In spectrophotometry, white light is dispersed into a light spectrum. a narrow slit isolates a beam of one wavelength which has been selected by the operator according to the analysis being performed

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In spectrophotometry, white light is indeed dispersed into a light spectrum. This is done by passing the white light through a prism or diffraction grating, which separates the light into its different wavelengths. The operator then selects a specific wavelength by using a narrow slit, which isolates a beam of light at that particular wavelength. This process allows for the analysis of substances based on their absorption or transmission of light at specific wavelengths. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 17. 

    Improved electronic, computer, and chemical technology have made it possible for manufacturers to produce smaller instruments that have the following advantages

    • A.

      Easy to use

    • B.

      Produce rapid results (turnaround time)

    • C.

      Require less operator calibration and standardization

    • D.

      Use prepackage reagents and test unit

    • E.

      It floats in air

    • F.

      It is too small to break

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Easy to use
    B. Produce rapid results (turnaround time)
    C. Require less operator calibration and standardization
    D. Use prepackage reagents and test unit
    Explanation
    The given answer includes the advantages mentioned in the passage. Improved technology has allowed manufacturers to produce smaller instruments that are easy to use, provide rapid results, require less operator calibration and standardization, and use prepackaged reagents and test units. However, the statement "it floats in air" and "it is too small to break" are not mentioned in the passage and therefore cannot be considered as advantages.

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  • 18. 

    Factors to consider when choosing an instrument for the laboratory

    • A.

      Quality of results

    • B.

      Type of test

    • C.

      Volume of tests

    • D.

      Availability of personnel to train to operate

    • E.

      Cost of test

    • F.

      Ease of operation

    • G.

      Maintenance cost

    • H.

      Cuteness of the instrument

    • I.

      Softness of the instrument

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Quality of results
    B. Type of test
    C. Volume of tests
    D. Availability of personnel to train to operate
    E. Cost of test
    F. Ease of operation
    G. Maintenance cost
    Explanation
    The factors to consider when choosing an instrument for the laboratory include the quality of results, type of test, volume of tests, availability of personnel to train to operate, cost of test, ease of operation, and maintenance cost. The quality of results is important as it determines the accuracy and reliability of the instrument. The type of test and volume of tests need to be considered to ensure that the instrument is suitable for the specific laboratory needs. The availability of personnel to train to operate the instrument is crucial for its proper use. The cost of the test, ease of operation, and maintenance cost are important factors to consider for budgeting and efficiency.

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  • 19. 

    The final cost of an instrument purchased is always lower that an instrument leased

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the final cost of an instrument purchased is typically higher than an instrument leased. When an instrument is purchased, the buyer is responsible for the full cost of the instrument upfront or through financing, along with maintenance and repair costs. On the other hand, when an instrument is leased, the lessee only pays a periodic lease payment, which is usually lower than the purchase price. Leasing also allows for flexibility and the ability to upgrade to newer models, which can further reduce costs.

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  • 20. 

    The most important factor in choosing an instrument is the cost

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is "The most important factor in choosing an instrument is the cost." The correct answer is False. This means that the cost is not the most important factor in choosing an instrument. There could be other factors such as quality, durability, features, brand reputation, or personal preference that are considered more important than the cost when choosing an instrument.

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  • 21. 

    Instruments must be installed and grounded as recommended by the manufacturer

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because installing and grounding instruments as recommended by the manufacturer is crucial for their proper functioning and safety. Manufacturers provide specific instructions on how to install and ground their instruments to ensure accurate measurements, prevent electrical hazards, and maintain the warranty. Following these recommendations helps to avoid potential damage to the instruments and ensures their reliable performance.

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  • 22. 

    Dangling metal jewelry is highly recommended since contact with electrical parts give lab personnel the strength to keep working

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is incorrect. Dangling metal jewelry is not recommended in a lab setting as it can pose a safety hazard. Contact with electrical parts can cause electrical shocks or short circuits, which can be dangerous for lab personnel. Therefore, it is important to remove or secure any loose or dangling metal jewelry to ensure a safe working environment.

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  • 23. 

    The MSDS and chemical labels are not that important. just wear your lab coat and you will be fine

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is incorrect because MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) and chemical labels are crucial for ensuring safety in a laboratory. They provide important information about the hazards, handling, storage, and emergency procedures related to chemicals. Simply wearing a lab coat is not sufficient protection against potential dangers posed by chemicals. It is essential to have access to and follow the instructions provided in MSDS and chemical labels to minimize the risk of accidents or harm.

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  • 24. 

    Even though controls are made from biological materials, standard precautions do not need to be observed

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because even though controls are made from biological materials, standard precautions still need to be observed. Standard precautions are necessary to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases, regardless of the source of the materials used in the controls. Therefore, it is important to follow standard precautions when handling biological materials, including controls, to ensure the safety of individuals and prevent the spread of any potential infections.

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  • 25. 

    Never disinfect any part of the analyzer, whether it comes in contact with specimens or not

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because it is necessary to disinfect certain parts of the analyzer that come in contact with specimens. Disinfection is important to prevent the spread of infections and maintain a clean and safe environment.

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  • 26. 

    When available, instruments that incorporate safe technologies like through-the-cap sampling should be used to decrease exposure hazards to personnel

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Instruments that incorporate safe technologies like through-the-cap sampling should be used to decrease exposure hazards to personnel. This means that using such instruments can help minimize the risk of exposure to hazardous substances or materials for the personnel involved. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 27. 

    A log of all maintenance performed on an instrument must be kept

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Keeping a log of all maintenance performed on an instrument is important for several reasons. Firstly, it helps to track the history of the instrument, including any repairs or adjustments that have been made. This can be useful for troubleshooting issues or determining the instrument's overall condition. Additionally, a maintenance log can provide documentation for regulatory compliance or warranty claims. It also helps to establish a maintenance schedule and ensure that regular servicing is performed to keep the instrument in optimal working condition. Overall, maintaining a log of all maintenance activities is essential for effective instrument management.

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  • 28. 

    All personnel who will use the instrument must be trained in its use and the training has to be documented

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because it is important for all personnel who will use the instrument to be trained in its use. Training ensures that individuals understand how to properly operate the instrument, minimizing the risk of accidents or errors. Additionally, documenting the training helps to keep a record of who has been trained and when, ensuring accountability and compliance with any regulatory requirements.

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  • 29. 

    The operating manual provided with each instrument contains the following

    • A.

      Operating procedures

    • B.

      Troubleshooting guides

    • C.

      Instructions for simple repairs

    • D.

      Instructions of how to break the instrument

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Operating procedures
    B. Troubleshooting guides
    C. Instructions for simple repairs
    Explanation
    The operating manual provided with each instrument contains operating procedures, troubleshooting guides, and instructions for simple repairs. These components are essential for users to understand how to operate the instrument correctly, troubleshoot any issues that may arise, and perform basic repairs if needed. The inclusion of instructions on how to break the instrument would be counterintuitive and contradictory to the purpose of the manual, as it is meant to guide users in using and maintaining the instrument effectively.

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  • 30. 

    Controls must be assayed as stated in the manufacturers instructions, and entered into the laboratory's QC program

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because in order to ensure accurate and reliable results, controls must be assayed as per the manufacturer's instructions. This is because different controls may have different requirements for handling, storage, and analysis. By following the manufacturer's instructions, laboratories can ensure that the controls are being used correctly and that any potential issues or errors are identified and addressed. Additionally, entering the results of the controls into the laboratory's quality control program allows for ongoing monitoring and assessment of the laboratory's performance.

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  • 31. 

    The SOP (standard operating procedure) manual should contain the procedures to follow if control values are out of acceptable range

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The SOP manual should contain the procedures to follow if control values are out of acceptable range. This is important because it provides a standardized process for handling such situations, ensuring consistency and minimizing errors. By including these procedures in the SOP manual, organizations can effectively address deviations from normal control values and take appropriate actions to rectify the situation.

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  • 32. 

    Details of the laboratory QA program must be included in the _______________ manual and must comprise all aspects of testing

    • A.

      TAT

    • B.

      OP

    • C.

      SOP

    • D.

      UP

    Correct Answer
    C. SOP
    Explanation
    The correct answer is SOP, which stands for Standard Operating Procedure. In a laboratory QA program, it is important to have a set of standardized procedures that outline the steps to be followed for each test. These SOPs ensure consistency and accuracy in testing processes and help to minimize errors. Including details of the laboratory QA program in the SOP manual ensures that all aspects of testing, such as equipment calibration, sample handling, and result interpretation, are properly documented and followed by laboratory staff.

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Lola Agbetunsin |Teacher & Student Mentor |
Lola Agbetunsin, an educator with a mission to guide students on their journey to success and provide them with the tools they need for a bright future.

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