Spectrophotometry, Glucose And Glycosylated Hemoglobin

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| By Aaron San
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Aaron San
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Quizzes Created: 2 | Total Attempts: 593
Questions: 20 | Attempts: 213

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Hemoglobin Quizzes & Trivia

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Wavelength

    • A.

      Distance between two successive peaks and expressed in terms of nanometers

    • B.

      Distance between two successive troughs and expressed in terms of nanometers

    • C.

      Distance between two successive peaks and expressed in terms of micrometers

    • D.

      Distance between two successive troughs and expressed in terms of micrometers

    Correct Answer
    A. Distance between two successive peaks and expressed in terms of nanometers
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Distance between two successive peaks and expressed in terms of nanometers." Wavelength refers to the distance between two successive peaks in a wave. It is commonly measured in nanometers, especially in the context of electromagnetic waves such as light.

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  • 2. 

    Relationship of wavelength to frequency and energy

    • A.

      The shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency and energy

    • B.

      The shorter the wavelength, the lower the frequency and energy

    • C.

      The longer the wavelength, the higher the frequency and energy

    • D.

      No relationship

    Correct Answer
    A. The shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency and energy
    Explanation
    The answer is correct because wavelength, frequency, and energy are all related to each other. Wavelength is the distance between two consecutive points on a wave, frequency is the number of wave cycles that pass a given point in one second, and energy is directly proportional to the frequency. Therefore, when the wavelength is shorter, the frequency increases, and as a result, the energy also increases.

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  • 3. 

    LASER

    • A.

      Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

    • B.

      Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation

    • C.

      Light Amplification by Simultaneous Emission of Radiation

    • D.

      Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiofrequency

    Correct Answer
    A. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
    Explanation
    LASER stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. This acronym accurately describes the process by which a laser beam is generated. In a laser, light is amplified through stimulated emission, where photons are emitted from excited atoms or molecules, causing a chain reaction of emission. This process produces a coherent, monochromatic, and intense beam of radiation. The other options in the question are incorrect because they do not accurately describe the process of light amplification in a laser.

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  • 4. 

    All are TRUE except:

    • A.

      Hydrogen lamp: Infrared region

    • B.

      Deuterium lamp: UV region

    • C.

      Tungsten lamp: Visible region

    • D.

      Silicone carbide: Infrared region

    Correct Answer
    A. Hydrogen lamp: Infrared region
    Explanation
    The given statement is true for all the options except for the hydrogen lamp. While the other three options (deuterium lamp, tungsten lamp, and silicone carbide) emit light in the UV, visible, and infrared regions respectively, the hydrogen lamp emits light in the UV region, not the infrared region.

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  • 5. 

    Accurate absorbance measurement requires a bandpass ______ the natural bandpass of the spectrophotometer

    • A.

      > 1/5

    • B.

      < 1/5

    • C.

    • D.

      > 1.5

    Correct Answer
    B. < 1/5
    Explanation
    To accurately measure absorbance, the bandpass of the spectrophotometer should be narrower than the natural bandpass. A narrower bandpass allows for more precise measurement of the specific wavelengths being absorbed by the sample. A bandpass that is less than 1/5 of the natural bandpass would be ideal for accurate absorbance measurement.

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  • 6. 

    Other term for Cuvet except

    • A.

      Sample cell

    • B.

      Absorption cell

    • C.

      Analytical cell

    • D.

      Adsorption cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Adsorption cell
    Explanation
    The given options are all different terms used to refer to a cuvet, which is a small transparent container used in spectrophotometry to hold samples for analysis. "Sample cell," "absorption cell," and "analytical cell" are all commonly used terms to describe a cuvet, while "adsorption cell" is not typically used to refer to a cuvet.

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  • 7. 

    Beer's Law except

    • A.

      Concentration of the unknown is proportional to absorbance

    • B.

      Concentration of the unknown is inversely proportional to %transmittance

    • C.

      Mathematically establishes the relationship between concentration

    • D.

      Proportional to the inverse log of transmittance

    Correct Answer
    D. Proportional to the inverse log of transmittance
    Explanation
    Beer's Law states that the concentration of a substance is directly proportional to its absorbance. However, the given answer states that the concentration of the unknown is proportional to the inverse log of transmittance. This is incorrect because Beer's Law does not involve the inverse log of transmittance. Instead, it relates the concentration of a substance to its absorbance.

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  • 8. 

    Holmium oxide filter except

    • A.

      Checks wavelength calibration

    • B.

      Checks wavelength accuracy

    • C.

      Checks wavelength indicated on the device

    • D.

      Checks wavelength of light passed by the monochromator

    Correct Answer
    C. Checks wavelength indicated on the device
    Explanation
    The Holmium oxide filter is used to check the wavelength indicated on the device. This filter is specifically designed to emit light at specific wavelengths, which can be used as a reference to verify the accuracy of the device's wavelength indication. By comparing the device's indicated wavelength with the known wavelength emitted by the Holmium oxide filter, any discrepancies or inaccuracies in the device's wavelength indication can be identified and corrected.

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  • 9. 

    Buffered sodium citrate additive

    • A.

      Black top

    • B.

      Red top

    • C.

      Blue top

    • D.

      Light blue top

    Correct Answer
    A. Black top
    Explanation
    The black top is the correct answer because it is referring to the color of the top of the container or tube. In laboratory settings, different colored tops are often used to indicate the type of additive or anticoagulant present in the container. In this case, the black top is likely indicating the use of buffered sodium citrate as an additive.

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  • 10. 

    Synthesized in the pancreas except

    • A.

      Glucagon

    • B.

      Insulin

    • C.

      Somatostatin

    • D.

      Cortisol

    Correct Answer
    D. Cortisol
    Explanation
    Cortisol is synthesized in the adrenal glands, not in the pancreas. The pancreas is responsible for synthesizing and secreting hormones such as glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin, which are involved in regulating blood sugar levels and digestion. Cortisol, on the other hand, is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands and plays a role in regulating metabolism, immune response, and stress.

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  • 11. 

    Type 1 diabetes except

    • A.

      Autoantibodies (-)

    • B.

      Childhood onset

    • C.

      B-cells destruction

    • D.

      Associated with HLA DR3 and DR4

    Correct Answer
    A. Autoantibodies (-)
    Explanation
    This statement suggests that one of the distinguishing features of type 1 diabetes is the absence of autoantibodies. Autoantibodies are antibodies that mistakenly target and attack the body's own cells and tissues. In type 1 diabetes, these autoantibodies are typically present and contribute to the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Therefore, the presence of autoantibodies is a characteristic feature of type 1 diabetes, making the statement "Autoantibodies (-)" incorrect.

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  • 12. 

    Fasting requirement for random blood sugar testing

    • A.

      8 hours

    • B.

      10 hours

    • C.

      0 hours

    • D.

      6 hours

    Correct Answer
    C. 0 hours
    Explanation
    Random blood sugar testing does not require fasting. This means that a person can have food or drink before the test without affecting the results. Therefore, the correct answer is 0 hours, indicating that no fasting is needed for this type of blood sugar test.

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  • 13. 

    Inverse colorimetry employed by Hagedorn Jensen method

    • A.

      Reduction of a yellow ferricyanide to a colorless ferrocyanide by glucose

    • B.

      Reduction of a yellow ferrocyanide to a colorless ferricyanide by glucose

    • C.

      Oxidation of a yellow ferricyanide to a colorless ferrocyanide by glucose

    • D.

      Oxidation of a yellow ferrocyanide to a colorless ferricyanide by glucose

    Correct Answer
    A. Reduction of a yellow ferricyanide to a colorless ferrocyanide by glucose
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Reduction of a yellow ferricyanide to a colorless ferrocyanide by glucose". In the Hagedorn Jensen method, inverse colorimetry is used to measure the concentration of glucose in a solution. In this method, a yellow ferricyanide is reduced to a colorless ferrocyanide by glucose. The reduction reaction causes a change in color, which can be measured using a colorimeter or spectrophotometer. By measuring the change in color, the concentration of glucose can be determined.

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  • 14. 

    Part of glucose oxidase reagent that converts alpha-D glucose to Beta-D glucose

    • A.

      Peroxidase

    • B.

      Mutarotase

    • C.

      Glacial HAC

    • D.

      Hydrogen Peroxide

    Correct Answer
    B. Mutarotase
    Explanation
    Mutarotase is the correct answer because it is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of alpha-D glucose and beta-D glucose. In this case, it converts alpha-D glucose to beta-D glucose as part of the glucose oxidase reagent. The other options, peroxidase, glacial HAC, and hydrogen peroxide, are not involved in the conversion of glucose and are therefore not the correct answer.

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  • 15. 

    Reference method for glucose method

    • A.

      Glucose oxidase method

    • B.

      Hexokinase method

    • C.

      Glucose dehydrogenase method

    • D.

      Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    Correct Answer
    B. Hexokinase method
    Explanation
    The hexokinase method is a reference method for measuring glucose levels. It is based on the enzyme hexokinase, which catalyzes the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. This method is widely used in clinical laboratories due to its accuracy and precision. It involves the measurement of the NADPH produced during the reaction, which is directly proportional to the glucose concentration. The hexokinase method is considered a reliable and standardized technique for glucose measurement, making it the correct answer in this context.

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  • 16. 

    End result of Neocuproine method

    • A.

      Cuprous-Neocuproine yellow complex

    • B.

      Cupric-Neocuproine yellow complex

    • C.

      Cuprous-Neocuproine orange complex

    • D.

      Cupric-Neocuproine orange complex

    Correct Answer
    A. Cuprous-Neocuproine yellow complex
    Explanation
    The end result of the Neocuproine method is the formation of a Cuprous-Neocuproine yellow complex. This complex is formed when neocuproine, a chelating agent, reacts with cuprous ions. The yellow color of the complex is due to the absorption of light in the visible spectrum. This method is commonly used for the determination of cuprous ions in solution.

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  • 17. 

    Added Plasma glucose after OGTT except

    • A.

      30 mins: 30-60 mg/dL above fasting

    • B.

      1 hour: 20-50 mg/dL above fasting

    • C.

      2 hours: 40-70 mg/dL above fasting

    • D.

      3 hours: fasting level or below

    Correct Answer
    C. 2 hours: 40-70 mg/dL above fasting
    Explanation
    After an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), the plasma glucose levels are expected to rise and then gradually decrease over time. The correct answer states that after 2 hours, the plasma glucose levels should be 40-70 mg/dL above the fasting level. This means that after 2 hours, the glucose levels should still be elevated but not as high as the levels at 30 minutes or 1 hour. This is a normal response to the OGTT, as the body takes time to process and metabolize the glucose.

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  • 18. 

    Standard glucose load recommended by WHO

    • A.

      50 grams

    • B.

      75 grams

    • C.

      100 grams

    • D.

      125 grams

    Correct Answer
    B. 75 grams
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 75 grams because the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a standard glucose load of 75 grams. This is commonly used in various medical tests, such as the oral glucose tolerance test, to assess a person's ability to metabolize glucose and diagnose conditions like diabetes. The 75-gram glucose load is considered to be a standard amount that provides accurate results for diagnosing and monitoring glucose metabolism.

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  • 19. 

    Glycosylated hemoglobin except

    • A.

      Largest subfraction of normal hemoglobin A in diabetic individuals only

    • B.

      Reflects the average blood glucose level over the past 2-3 months

    • C.

      Dietary status on the day of the test has no effect on the results on HbA1c

    • D.

      Old RBCs and IDA reflect high HbA1c levels

    Correct Answer
    A. Largest subfraction of normal hemoglobin A in diabetic individuals only
    Explanation
    Glycosylated hemoglobin, also known as HbA1c, is a form of hemoglobin that has glucose molecules attached to it. It is used as a marker to determine the average blood glucose level over the past 2-3 months. The correct answer states that the largest subfraction of normal hemoglobin A in diabetic individuals only is not glycosylated. This means that in diabetic individuals, the largest subfraction of normal hemoglobin A is not affected by the attachment of glucose molecules. Therefore, this subfraction does not contribute to the measurement of HbA1c levels in diabetic individuals.

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  • 20. 

    Glucose except

    • A.

      Only carbohydrate to be directly used for energy or stored as glycogen

    • B.

      The presence of double bond and a negative charge in the enol anion makes glucose an active reducing substance

    • C.

      Does not contain an active ketone or aldehyde group

    • D.

      Brain is completely dependent on blood glucose for energy production

    Correct Answer
    C. Does not contain an active ketone or aldehyde group
    Explanation
    Glucose does not contain an active ketone or aldehyde group, which is why it is the only carbohydrate that can be directly used for energy or stored as glycogen. The presence of a double bond and a negative charge in the enol anion makes glucose an active reducing substance. Additionally, the brain relies entirely on blood glucose for energy production.

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