Earth And Space Science Semester 2 Final

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Earth And Space Science Semester 2 Final - Quiz


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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    It is estimated that the big bang occurred 14 billion years ago. Most likely, what will the universe will be like 14 billion years from now?

    • A.

      The universe is still expanding, so in 14 billion years it will be even more spread out.

    • B.

      Many stars will become black holes, and the universe will collapse back into itself.

    • C.

      The universe will have expanded to the point of becoming empty and will no longer exist.

    • D.

      Relative distances between galaxies will become shorter as universal expansion slows.

    Correct Answer
    A. The universe is still expanding, so in 14 billion years it will be even more spread out.
    Explanation
    In 14 billion years, the universe will continue to expand, causing it to become even more spread out. This is supported by the concept of cosmic expansion, which suggests that galaxies are moving away from each other at an increasing rate. As time goes on, the relative distances between galaxies will become even greater, leading to a more dispersed universe.

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  • 2. 

    Desalination is one way to increase Earth’s supply of fresh water. Based on what you’ve read, how would you define desalination? Why is it not in wider use around the world?

    • A.

      It introduces chemicals into the water.

    • B.

      It remains too costly.

    • C.

      It doesn't always work.

    • D.

      It disrupts ocean environments.

    Correct Answer
    B. It remains too costly.
    Explanation
    Desalination is the process of removing salt and other impurities from seawater or brackish water to produce fresh water. It is not in wider use around the world because it is still expensive to implement and maintain desalination plants. The high costs include the initial investment in infrastructure, energy consumption, and maintenance. Additionally, the technology used for desalination requires a significant amount of energy, which adds to the overall cost. As a result, many countries and regions opt for alternative sources of fresh water that are more affordable and accessible.

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  • 3. 

    Stars are balls of gas that give off an enormous amount of electromagnetic energy due to the nuclear _____ taking place within them.

    • A.

      Fission

    • B.

      Emissions

    • C.

      Alignment

    • D.

      Fusion

    Correct Answer
    D. Fusion
    Explanation
    Stars are balls of gas that give off an enormous amount of electromagnetic energy due to the nuclear fusion taking place within them. Fusion refers to the process in which two or more atomic nuclei come together to form a heavier nucleus, releasing a large amount of energy in the process. This is the main source of energy production in stars, where hydrogen atoms combine to form helium, releasing a tremendous amount of energy in the form of light and heat.

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  • 4. 

    Because Earth revolves around the sun in a predictable and constant orbit, climate conditions do not change over long periods of time.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The explanation for the answer "False" is that climate conditions do change over long periods of time, despite Earth revolving around the sun in a predictable and constant orbit. Climate change is a natural process that occurs over thousands of years, leading to variations in temperature, precipitation patterns, and other climatic factors. These changes can be influenced by various factors, including volcanic activity, changes in solar radiation, and human activities such as deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, it is incorrect to assume that climate conditions remain constant over long periods of time.

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  • 5. 

    A typical star has a life cycle that is _____ of years long, making it impossible to observe the whole cycle of one star. 

    • A.

      Hundreds

    • B.

      Millions

    • C.

      Billions

    • D.

      Thousands

    Correct Answer
    C. Billions
    Explanation
    A typical star has a life cycle that spans billions of years. This means that it takes billions of years for a star to go through all the stages of its life, from its formation to its death. Due to the vast timescale involved, it is impossible for us to observe the entire life cycle of a single star.

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  • 6. 

    Air pollution is found only in heavily populated urban areas.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Air pollution is not limited to heavily populated urban areas. It can occur in any location, including rural areas, due to various factors such as industrial activities, vehicle emissions, agricultural practices, and natural sources like dust and wildfires. Therefore, the statement that air pollution is found only in heavily populated urban areas is incorrect.

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  • 7. 

    As the channel of the stream erodes, it becomes wider and deeper, eventually carrying more _____ and becoming a river.

    • A.

      Discharge

    • B.

      Sand

    Correct Answer
    A. Discharge
    Explanation
    As the channel of the stream erodes, it becomes wider and deeper. This erosion allows for more water to flow through the channel, increasing its discharge. As the discharge increases, the stream gains more power and velocity, eventually transforming into a river.

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  • 8. 

    Exercising in high humidity can be uncomfortable, so you want to know how humid it is before you play a game of tennis. Which of these readings would be most useful for you to know?

    • A.

      Relative humidity

    • B.

      Absolute humidity

    • C.

      Dew point

    • D.

      Air pressure

    Correct Answer
    A. Relative humidity
    Explanation
    Relative humidity would be the most useful reading to know before playing a game of tennis in high humidity. Relative humidity measures the amount of moisture in the air compared to the maximum amount the air could hold at that temperature. This information is important because high relative humidity can make it feel hotter and more uncomfortable, as the body's ability to cool itself through sweat evaporation is reduced. Therefore, knowing the relative humidity can help you determine if it is safe and comfortable to engage in physical activity in high humidity conditions.

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  • 9. 

    What type of conditions must exist for large waves to form? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Wavelengths need to be short.

    • B.

      The fetch must be long.

    • C.

      Ocean depth must be shallow.

    • D.

      Winds must be strong and steady

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. The fetch must be long.
    D. Winds must be strong and steady
    Explanation
    Large waves form when the fetch, which is the distance over which the wind blows, is long. This allows the wind to transfer more energy to the water, creating larger waves. Additionally, strong and steady winds are necessary to sustain the energy transfer and maintain the formation of large waves. The wavelength or distance between wave crests does not necessarily need to be short for large waves to form. The depth of the ocean also does not play a significant role in the formation of large waves.

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  • 10. 

    How do the major divisions of the global ocean rank in size? A – Arctic Ocean B – Atlantic Ocean C – Indian Ocean D – Pacific Ocean E – Southern Ocean

    • A.

      B-D-E-C-A

    • B.

      D-E-B-A-C

    • C.

      D-B-C-E-A

    • D.

      E-D-B-C-A

    Correct Answer
    C. D-B-C-E-A
    Explanation
    The major divisions of the global ocean are ranked in size from largest to smallest as follows: Pacific Ocean (D), Atlantic Ocean (B), Indian Ocean (C), Southern Ocean (E), and Arctic Ocean (A).

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  • 11. 

    The shorter the wavelength of any type of electromagnetic radiation, the more _____ the radiation emits. 

    Correct Answer
    energy
    Explanation
    As the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation decreases, the energy of the radiation increases. This is because the energy of electromagnetic radiation is directly proportional to its frequency, and frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength. Therefore, shorter wavelengths correspond to higher frequencies and higher energy levels.

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  • 12. 

    In warm, dry areas where the air is very clean, there are few cloudy days because clean air has fewer particles in the atmosphere around which water _____ can condense and form clouds.

    Correct Answer
    vapor
    Explanation
    In warm, dry areas, the air is very clean and has fewer particles. This means that there are fewer particles around which water vapor can condense and form clouds. The clean air does not provide enough particles for the water vapor to condense onto, resulting in few cloudy days in these areas.

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  • 13. 

    Within an ice age, glaciers may retreat during _____ periods. 

    Correct Answer
    warmer
    interglacial
    Explanation
    During warmer periods within an ice age, glaciers may retreat. This is because warmer temperatures cause the ice to melt and recede. Interglacial periods, which are characterized by relatively warm and stable climate conditions, also contribute to glacier retreat. These periods occur between glaciations when the climate becomes milder and glaciers start to shrink. Therefore, both warmer periods and interglacial periods can lead to the retreat of glaciers within an ice age.

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  • 14. 

    A forest fire in a floodplain have a devastating impact because vegetation keeps the soil from being washed away, and fire would destroy it.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A forest fire in a floodplain can have a devastating impact because the vegetation in the forest acts as a natural barrier to prevent soil erosion during floods. The roots of the plants hold the soil in place, preventing it from being washed away by the force of the water. However, if a fire occurs in the forest, it can destroy the vegetation, leaving the soil vulnerable to erosion during floods. Without the protective vegetation, the soil can be easily washed away, leading to increased soil erosion and potential damage to the floodplain ecosystem.

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  • 15. 

    Climatologists study the constantly changing climate and create __________, which can be a great service to humanity because predicting change and potential severe consequences could help people to prepare for a natural disaster.

    • A.

      Weather maps

    • B.

      Climate models

    • C.

      Disaster recovery plans

    • D.

      Contingency campaigns

    Correct Answer
    B. Climate models
    Explanation
    Climatologists study the constantly changing climate and create climate models. These models are a great service to humanity because predicting change and potential severe consequences could help people to prepare for a natural disaster. By analyzing data and patterns, climate models can provide valuable insights into future weather conditions, allowing individuals and communities to take necessary precautions and develop strategies for disaster preparedness and response. They provide a scientific basis for understanding climate dynamics and enable us to make informed decisions to mitigate the impact of natural disasters.

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  • 16. 

    Cloud _____ is a method by which people hope to control one aspect of the weather, helping to produce rain or prevent large storm clouds from forming.

    Correct Answer
    seeding
    Explanation
    Cloud seeding is a method used to control weather conditions by manipulating clouds to produce rain or prevent the formation of large storm clouds. It involves introducing substances, such as silver iodide or dry ice, into the clouds to stimulate the formation of ice crystals or droplets, which can enhance precipitation. This technique is often employed in regions experiencing drought or in areas where rainfall is needed for agricultural purposes. By artificially influencing cloud formation and precipitation, cloud seeding aims to mitigate the impact of weather conditions on human activities.

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  • 17. 

    Because most exoplanets orbit stars that are similar to our sun, we might reasonably conclude that life exists in other solar systems.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement suggests that since most exoplanets orbit stars similar to our sun, it is reasonable to conclude that life exists in other solar systems. This is because our understanding of life on Earth is based on the conditions provided by our sun, so it is likely that similar conditions could support life on other planets orbiting similar stars. Therefore, the answer is true.

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  • 18. 

    Global weather monitoring can foster cooperation between countries that might not otherwise communicate. Why is this the case?

    • A.

      Severe weather affects the northern hemisphere more than the southern hemisphere, and it is one way in which countries south of the equator can help those north of it.

    • B.

      Some nations have had breakthroughs in meteorology that are required to be shared throughout the rest of the world.

    • C.

      Weather monitoring offers a neutral base for discussion and an opportunity for countries to offer information and assistance to each other.

    • D.

      Satellites that track weather are owned by the world’s superpowers, who must provide the information to other countries to retain their trust.

    Correct Answer
    C. Weather monitoring offers a neutral base for discussion and an opportunity for countries to offer information and assistance to each other.
    Explanation
    Global weather monitoring offers a neutral base for discussion and an opportunity for countries to offer information and assistance to each other. This is because severe weather affects the northern hemisphere more than the southern hemisphere, creating a situation where countries south of the equator can help those north of it. Additionally, some nations have had breakthroughs in meteorology that they are required to share with the rest of the world. The ownership of weather-tracking satellites by the world's superpowers also necessitates that they provide information to other countries in order to retain trust.

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  • 19. 

    The accuracy of weather forecasting increases as the amount of collected weather data increases, so that meteorologists no longer need to interpret as much.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that the accuracy of weather forecasting increases as more weather data is collected, reducing the need for meteorologists to interpret the data. However, this is not necessarily true. While collecting more data can improve accuracy, meteorologists still play a crucial role in interpreting the data and making accurate forecasts. They use their expertise and knowledge to analyze the complex patterns and variables involved in weather systems, ensuring accurate predictions. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 20. 

    After a windy summer, a farmer in Washington state notices that his apple harvest is far smaller than in previous years. What is the likely cause for this?

    • A.

      Saltation

    • B.

      Loess layers

    • C.

      Air pollution

    • D.

      Deflation

    Correct Answer
    D. Deflation
    Explanation
    Deflation is the likely cause for the farmer's smaller apple harvest after a windy summer. Deflation refers to the process of wind removing loose soil particles from the surface, which can lead to erosion and loss of fertile soil. In this case, the strong winds likely caused deflation, resulting in the loss of soil nutrients and affecting the apple trees' ability to grow and produce a bountiful harvest.

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  • 21. 

    When the sun, moon, and Earth are aligned, the water on Earth that is closest to the moon and/or the sun experiences ___________.

    • A.

      Neap tides

    • B.

      Low tides

    • C.

      Spring tides

    • D.

      Irregular tides

    Correct Answer
    C. Spring tides
    Explanation
    When the sun, moon, and Earth are aligned, the gravitational pull from both the sun and the moon combines, causing the water on Earth that is closest to them to experience higher high tides and lower low tides. This phenomenon is known as spring tides.

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  • 22. 

    Scientists using submersible technology in recent years have found an abundance of organisms at depths they thought were hostile to life.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement suggests that scientists have discovered a large number of organisms in depths that were previously considered uninhabitable. This indicates that life can thrive in extreme environments, challenging the previous belief that such depths were hostile to life. Therefore, the answer is true.

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  • 23. 

    A major factor in maintaining the balance in the ocean habitat is _____; if it changes on the ocean surface due to increased radiation or the greenhouse effect, sea life at the base of the ocean food web will be affected.

    Correct Answer
    temperature
    Explanation
    Temperature is a major factor in maintaining the balance in the ocean habitat. If the temperature changes on the ocean surface due to increased radiation or the greenhouse effect, it can have a significant impact on sea life. Temperature affects the growth and reproduction of various marine organisms, as well as their metabolism and behavior. Changes in temperature can disrupt the delicate balance of the ocean ecosystem, affecting the availability of food and resources for organisms at the base of the ocean food web. This, in turn, can have cascading effects on the entire marine ecosystem.

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  • 24. 

    The closest Saturn comes to Earth is 1,277,400,000 km. The closest Jupiter comes to Earth is 628,760,000 km. In astronomical units (AU), how much closer does Jupiter come to Earth than Saturn?

    • A.

      43.2 AU

    • B.

      64.8 AU

    • C.

      6.48 AU

    • D.

      4.32 AU

    Correct Answer
    D. 4.32 AU
    Explanation
    Jupiter comes closer to Earth than Saturn by a distance of 4.32 astronomical units (AU). This can be calculated by finding the difference between the distances of Jupiter and Saturn from Earth in AU.

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  • 25. 

    In the late summer of 1859, scientists observing the sun noted an unusually high number of sunspots which generated violent outbursts of energy called solar flares. One was so intense that its charged particles penetrated Earth’s atmosphere, overwhelmed Earth’s magnetic field, and shorted out telegraph wires in the United States and Europe. If solar flares with the intensity of those in 1859 occurred today, the effects would be __________.

    • A.

      Negligible as the world’s space agencies would be able to predict and avert any negative effects

    • B.

      Less disruptive because today’s technology is far more advanced than it was in 1859

    • C.

      Much more disruptive because our technology depends heavily on electricity and radio waves

    • D.

      Catastrophic because the manmade satellites orbiting the Earth would explode and crash to the planet’s surface

    Correct Answer
    C. Much more disruptive because our technology depends heavily on electricity and radio waves
    Explanation
    The passage states that the solar flares in 1859 caused the telegraph wires to short out. This suggests that solar flares can have a disruptive effect on technology that relies on electricity and radio waves. Since our technology today is even more dependent on electricity and radio waves than it was in 1859, it can be inferred that if solar flares with similar intensity occurred today, the effects would be much more disruptive.

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  • 26. 

    Temperatures at the equator are higher than those at the poles because __________.

    • A.

      The equator is closer to the sun than are the poles

    • B.

      Solar energy hits the equator at a 90° angle and is intense

    • C.

      Air circulates more at the poles to keep them cooler

    • D.

      The equator has a smaller landmass that heats up faster

    Correct Answer
    B. Solar energy hits the equator at a 90° angle and is intense
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that solar energy hits the equator at a 90° angle and is intense. This is because the equator is located closer to the sun compared to the poles. As a result, the sunlight that reaches the equator is more direct and concentrated, leading to higher temperatures. In contrast, the sunlight that reaches the poles has to travel through a larger area of the Earth's atmosphere, resulting in a more oblique angle and less intense heat.

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  • 27. 

    The depth of the water table depends on what features? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Number of springs

    • B.

      Rate of use

    • C.

      Rainfall

    • D.

      Topography

    • E.

      Rock permeability

    • F.

      Gradient

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Rate of use
    C. Rainfall
    D. Topography
    E. Rock permeability
    Explanation
    The depth of the water table is influenced by several factors. The rate of use refers to the amount of water being extracted from the ground, which can lower the water table. Rainfall plays a significant role as it replenishes the water table by adding water to the ground. Topography, or the shape and elevation of the land, can affect the movement and accumulation of water, impacting the water table depth. Rock permeability refers to how easily water can pass through rock layers, affecting the water table level. Therefore, the depth of the water table depends on the rate of use, rainfall, topography, and rock permeability.

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  • 28. 

    Suppose you are in charge of installing the world’s largest optical telescope on Earth’s surface. Where would put you the telescope for best performance?

    • A.

      On an iceberg in the Arctic with clean, dry air and constant visibility of Polaris

    • B.

      In a field in the US Midwest where there are few clouds and no city lights

    • C.

      On the top of a mountain where there are few clouds and no city lights

    • D.

      On an island in the Pacific Ocean where there is little pollution of any kind

    Correct Answer
    C. On the top of a mountain where there are few clouds and no city lights
    Explanation
    The best location for installing the world's largest optical telescope would be on the top of a mountain where there are few clouds and no city lights. This is because being at a high altitude reduces the amount of atmospheric turbulence, resulting in clearer and more stable images. Additionally, having few clouds ensures minimal interference with observations, while the absence of city lights reduces light pollution, allowing for better visibility of celestial objects.

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  • 29. 

    The warm Gulf Stream affects __________ because westerly winds blow its warm tropical air toward this area to keep it warmer than it would be otherwise.

    • A.

      Northeastern South America

    • B.

      Northwestern Europe

    • C.

      The US eastern coast

    • D.

      The island of Cuba

    Correct Answer
    B. Northwestern Europe
    Explanation
    The warm Gulf Stream affects northwestern Europe because westerly winds blow its warm tropical air toward this area to keep it warmer than it would be otherwise. This phenomenon is known as the North Atlantic Drift, and it helps to moderate the climate of northwestern Europe, making it milder and less extreme than other areas at similar latitudes.

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  • 30. 

    Why don’t we take advantage of the vast natural power of global winds to generate electricity? 

    • A.

      Countries argue about who would own the rights to harnessed global winds.

    • B.

      Global winds are at heights that make harnessing the energy impractical.

    • C.

      The world has not yet invented the right technology to utilize wind power.

    • D.

      The speed and force of global winds is too powerful for people to harness.

    Correct Answer
    B. Global winds are at heights that make harnessing the energy impractical.
    Explanation
    Global winds are at heights that make harnessing the energy impractical. This means that the wind turbines or other devices used to harness wind energy would need to be placed at such high altitudes that it would be difficult and costly to install and maintain them. Additionally, the infrastructure required to transmit the electricity generated from these high-altitude wind turbines would also be challenging and expensive to build. Therefore, despite the vast natural power of global winds, it is currently impractical to harness this energy source.

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  • 31. 

    Venus is similar to Earth in size, density, and mass, so it would seem to be a good candidate for colonization. What disadvantages make Venus unfriendly to life-forms from Earth? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Venus’s atmosphere is 96% carbon dioxide, which is unbreathable for humans.

    • B.

      The atmosphere could be altered over time by green plants and cyanobacteria.

    • C.

      Similar surface gravity as Earth that might prevent health problems associated with weightlessness.

    • D.

      The runaway greenhouse effect raises temperatures higher than 400 °C.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Venus’s atmosphere is 96% carbon dioxide, which is unbreathable for humans.
    D. The runaway greenhouse effect raises temperatures higher than 400 °C.
    Explanation
    Venus is not a suitable candidate for colonization due to its unbreathable atmosphere, which is composed of 96% carbon dioxide, making it unsuitable for humans. Additionally, the runaway greenhouse effect on Venus causes temperatures to exceed 400 °C, further making it inhospitable for life-forms from Earth.

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  • 32. 

    While oil (petroleum) is a great ocean resource, it is also a major pollutant. Eliminating oil pollutants from the water is important because they _____ the chemical and life balance in the ocean.

    • A.

      Interrupt

    • B.

      Decelerate

    • C.

      Support

    • D.

      Terminate

    Correct Answer
    A. Interrupt
    Explanation
    Oil pollutants interrupt the chemical and life balance in the ocean. When oil is spilled or leaked into the water, it forms a thick layer on the surface, blocking sunlight and reducing oxygen levels. This disrupts the natural processes of photosynthesis and respiration for marine organisms, leading to a decline in their populations. Additionally, oil pollutants can be toxic to marine life, causing long-term damage to ecosystems and food chains. Therefore, removing oil pollutants from the water is crucial to restore and maintain the balance of chemicals and life in the ocean.

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  • 33. 

    A 110-mile-wide crater sits quietly under water off the coast of Yucatan, Mexico. Some scientists think the crater was made by a 10-mile-wide asteroid. The impact of something that size would have had the power to send enough debris into the atmosphere to block the sun for years. Scientists theorize that this was the cause of __________.

    • A.

      A tremendous tidal wave

    • B.

      The extinction of the dinosaurs

    • C.

      The change from sulfur- to oxygen-based organisms

    • D.

      A reduction in numbers of early plants and animals

    Correct Answer
    B. The extinction of the dinosaurs
    Explanation
    The impact of a 10-mile-wide asteroid would have caused significant destruction, including the release of a massive amount of debris into the atmosphere. This debris would have blocked the sun's rays, leading to a decrease in temperature and a disruption in the Earth's climate. This sudden change in climate is believed to be the cause of the extinction of the dinosaurs, as it would have had a severe impact on their food sources and habitats.

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  • 34. 

    Knowing that the asteroid belt separates the inner planets and the outer planets might indicate that this was the point beyond which matter was too far from the _____ to form dense planets.

    Correct Answer
    sun
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "sun." The explanation for this is that the asteroid belt is located between Mars and Jupiter, and it is believed to be the remnants of a failed planet formation due to the gravitational influence of Jupiter. The distance from the sun plays a crucial role in determining the formation of dense planets, as matter needs to be close enough to the sun to accumulate and form planets. Therefore, knowing that the asteroid belt separates the inner and outer planets suggests that this region was too far from the sun for dense planets to form.

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  • 35. 

    You are allergic to pollen. While vacationing at a Lake Superior campground, you want to be outside and most active when the pollen is least likely to affect you. What time of day would that be? 

    • A.

      The evening is the best time, since breezes die down and pollen settles to the ground.

    • B.

      The early morning would be best, while dew holds pollen in place on the vegetation.

    • C.

      The late morning would be best, before the winds begin to blow pollen around the area.

    • D.

      The afternoon is the best time, when the lake breeze brings pollen-free air to the shore.

    Correct Answer
    D. The afternoon is the best time, when the lake breeze brings pollen-free air to the shore.
  • 36. 

    Copernicus developed the heliocentric model of the solar system, replacing __________.

    • A.

      Kepler’s mathematical model

    • B.

      Aristotle’s geocentric model

    • C.

      Galileo’s lunarcentric model

    • D.

      Newton’s astronomy model

    Correct Answer
    B. Aristotle’s geocentric model
    Explanation
    Copernicus developed the heliocentric model of the solar system, which replaced Aristotle's geocentric model. The geocentric model proposed that the Earth was the center of the universe, with all other celestial bodies revolving around it. Copernicus' heliocentric model, on the other hand, suggested that the Sun was at the center of the solar system, with the planets, including Earth, orbiting around it. This new model revolutionized our understanding of the universe and laid the foundation for modern astronomy.

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  • 37. 

    In this photograph, you can see water in how many of its different states?

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      1

    • D.

      3

    Correct Answer
    A. 2
    Explanation
    In this photograph, you can see water in two of its different states. This suggests that the photograph captures water in both its liquid and solid states. The presence of liquid water is indicated by the visible water droplets, while the presence of solid water (ice) is suggested by the frozen or crystallized appearance of some parts of the water.

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  • 38. 

    Which type of clouds are most likely to produce a thunderstorm?

    • A.

      Is a storm likely when you see these clouds?

    • B.

      Is a storm likely when you see these clouds?

    • C.

      Is a storm likely when you see these clouds?

    • D.

      Is a storm likely when you see these clouds?

    Correct Answer
    B. Is a storm likely when you see these clouds?
  • 39. 

    As this glacier moves downhill, what kinds of formations could result at its leading edge? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      Crevasse

    • B.

      Arête

    • C.

      Esker

    • D.

      Moraine

    • E.

      Kettle

    • F.

      Cirque

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Esker
    D. Moraine
    E. Kettle
    Explanation
    As the glacier moves downhill, several formations could result at its leading edge. One of these formations is an esker, which is a long, winding ridge of sediment deposited by a meltwater stream that was flowing within or on top of the glacier. Another formation is a moraine, which is a ridge or mound of glacially deposited sediment. Lastly, a kettle formation could also occur, which is a depression in the ground formed when a block of ice from a glacier becomes buried and eventually melts, leaving behind a hole.

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  • 40. 

    What phase of the moon is shown here?

    • A.

      Waxing crescent

    • B.

      New moon

    • C.

      Waning crescent

    • D.

      First quarter

    Correct Answer
    C. Waning crescent
    Explanation
    The phase of the moon shown in the image is a waning crescent. This can be determined by observing that only a small portion of the moon is illuminated and the illuminated portion is on the left side. In a waning crescent phase, the moon is decreasing in illumination and appears as a thin crescent shape.

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  • 41. 

    These ripples in the sand, formed in the direction in which the sea breeze blows in, are known as __________.

    • A.

      Transverse

    • B.

      Barchans

    • C.

      Parabolic

    • D.

      Longitudinal

    Correct Answer
    D. Longitudinal
    Explanation
    Longitudinal ripples in the sand are formed parallel to the direction of the sea breeze. These ripples are caused by the back and forth motion of the wind, resulting in a series of small ridges and troughs that run parallel to the shore. Unlike transverse ripples, which are formed perpendicular to the wind direction, and parabolic ripples, which have a curved shape, longitudinal ripples align with the wind and are commonly found on sandy beaches. Barchans, on the other hand, are crescent-shaped dunes that are formed by the wind and are not related to the direction of the sea breeze.

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  • 42. 

    The sea _____ in this image was formed by wave erosion.

    Correct Answer
    arch
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "arch" because an arch is a natural rock formation that is created through wave erosion. In this image, the sea is shown to have formed an arch shape by eroding the rock over time.

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  • 43. 

    Look at the image and identify the type of galaxy shown. .

    • A.

      Irregular Galaxy

    • B.

      Elliptical Galaxy

    • C.

      Spiral Galaxy

    • D.

      Barred Spiral Galaxy

    Correct Answer
    A. Irregular Galaxy
    Explanation
    The image shows a galaxy that does not have a defined shape or structure. It appears to be irregular in nature, with no distinct spiral arms or central bar. This suggests that it is an irregular galaxy.

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  • 44. 

    Look at the image and identify the type of galaxy shown.

    • A.

      Irregular Galaxy

    • B.

      Elliptical Galaxy

    • C.

      Spiral Galaxy

    • D.

      Barred Spiral Galaxy

    Correct Answer
    B. Elliptical Galaxy
    Explanation
    The image shows an Elliptical Galaxy. This type of galaxy is characterized by its smooth and featureless appearance, with no distinct spiral arms or bar structure. Elliptical galaxies are composed mainly of older stars and have a more rounded and elongated shape compared to other types of galaxies.

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  • 45. 

    Look at the image and identify the type of galaxy shown.

    • A.

      Irregular Galaxy

    • B.

      Elliptical Galaxy

    • C.

      Spiral Galaxy

    • D.

      Barred Spiral Galaxy

    Correct Answer
    C. Spiral Galaxy
    Explanation
    The image shows a spiral galaxy. Spiral galaxies are characterized by their distinct spiral arms that extend from a central bulge. These arms are composed of young stars, gas, and dust, giving the galaxy a spiral or pinwheel-like appearance. The presence of spiral arms indicates ongoing star formation within the galaxy.

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  • 46. 

    Look at the image and identify the type of galaxy shown.

    • A.

      Irregular Galaxy

    • B.

      Elliptical Galaxy

    • C.

      Spiral Galaxy

    • D.

      Barred Spiral Galaxy

    Correct Answer
    D. Barred Spiral Galaxy
    Explanation
    The given image shows a galaxy with a distinct bar-like structure in the center, extending outwards from the core. This is characteristic of a barred spiral galaxy, which is a type of galaxy that has a central bar-shaped structure surrounded by spiral arms. The presence of the bar and the spiral arms indicates that the galaxy is undergoing active star formation and has a mix of young and old stars. Therefore, the correct answer is Barred Spiral Galaxy.

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  • 47. 

    What findings serve as supporting evidence for the big bang theory? (Select all that apply.)

    • A.

      The universe is now stabilized from its initial outward expansion.

    • B.

      Stars all over the universe seem to be composed of elements that are also found on Earth

    • C.

      Background radiation is present throughout space in a consistent

    • D.

      Stars all seem to form the same way, suggesting a common origin for the entire universe.

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Stars all over the universe seem to be composed of elements that are also found on Earth
    C. Background radiation is present throughout space in a consistent
    Explanation
    The findings that serve as supporting evidence for the big bang theory are that stars all over the universe seem to be composed of elements that are also found on Earth and background radiation is present throughout space in a consistent manner. These observations suggest that the universe originated from a single, extremely hot and dense point, and has been expanding and cooling ever since. The fact that stars have similar compositions and the presence of background radiation provide strong support for the big bang theory.

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