# Can You Pass 7th Grade Earth And Space Science Quiz?

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Explore the mysteries of our planet and the universe with the 7th Grade Earth and Space Science Quiz! Designed for students, this quiz will challenge your understanding of essential concepts in geology, astronomy, and environmental science.

You'll encounter questions that cover a wide range of topics, from the layers of the Earth and types of rocks to the solar system and the cycles of weather. Take on the 7th-grade Earth and Space Science Quiz to test your knowledge, discover new facts, and see how much you really know about the planet we call home and the universe beyond! Perfect Read morefor students looking to study, review, or simply enjoy a challenge.

• 1.

### At the equator, the sun's rays always strike Earth

• A.

At a low angle

• B.

At nearly a 90 degree angle

• C.

18 hours each day

• D.

No more than 8 hours each day.

B. At nearly a 90 degree angle
Explanation
At the equator, the sun's rays always strike Earth at nearly a 90-degree angle. This is because the equator is located at 0 degrees latitude, which is the halfway point between the North Pole and the South Pole. As a result, the sun's rays are more direct and perpendicular to the Earth's surface at the equator, creating a higher angle of incidence. This also leads to more intense sunlight and higher temperatures at the equator compared to other latitudes.

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• 2.

### Which of the following is not used as evidence of past climates?

• A.

Ice cores

• B.

General circulation models

• C.

Tree rings

• D.

Fossils

B. General circulation models
Explanation
General circulation models are not used as evidence of past climates because they are computer simulations that predict future climate conditions based on current data and assumptions. They are not able to directly measure or provide evidence of past climates. Ice cores, tree rings, and fossils, on the other hand, are commonly used as evidence of past climates. Ice cores provide information about atmospheric composition and temperature, tree rings can indicate past climate conditions through their growth patterns, and fossils can provide evidence of past ecosystems and climate conditions.

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• 3.

### Water cools

• A.

More slowly than land does

• B.

More quickly than land does

• C.

Only during evaporation

• D.

During global warming

A. More slowly than land does
Explanation
Water cools more slowly than land does because water has a higher specific heat capacity than land. This means that water requires more energy to change its temperature compared to land. As a result, water takes longer to cool down or heat up compared to land. This is why coastal areas tend to have more moderate temperatures compared to inland areas, as the water acts as a buffer and helps to regulate the temperature.

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• 4.

### Ocean currrents influence temperature by

• A.

Eroding shorelines

• B.

Heating or cooling the air

• C.

Washing warm, dry sediments out to sea

• D.

Dispersing the rays of the sun

B. Heating or cooling the air
Explanation
Ocean currents influence temperature by heating or cooling the air. Ocean currents can carry warm or cold water from one region to another, which in turn affects the temperature of the air above it. Warm ocean currents can warm the air, leading to higher temperatures in coastal areas, while cold ocean currents can cool the air, resulting in lower temperatures. This temperature influence can have significant impacts on local climates and weather patterns.

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• 5.

### Winds that blow in opposite directions in different seasons because of the differential heating of the land and the oceans are called

• A.

Chinooks

• B.

Foehn

• C.

Monsoons

• D.

El Nino

C. Monsoons
Explanation
Monsoons are winds that blow in opposite directions in different seasons due to the differential heating of land and oceans. During summer, the land heats up faster than the ocean, creating a low-pressure system over the land and a high-pressure system over the ocean. This causes moist air from the ocean to move towards the land, bringing heavy rainfall. In winter, the situation reverses, with the land cooling down faster than the ocean, causing a high-pressure system over the land and a low-pressure system over the ocean. This leads to dry winds blowing from the land towards the ocean. Therefore, monsoons are the correct answer.

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• 6.

### When a moving air mass encounters a mountain range, the air mass

• A.

Stops moving

• B.

Slows and sinks

• C.

Rises and cools

• D.

Reverses its direction

C. Rises and cools
Explanation
When a moving air mass encounters a mountain range, it is forced to rise due to the barrier created by the mountains. As the air mass rises, it undergoes adiabatic cooling, which means that it cools down. This is because as the air rises, it expands and the decrease in pressure causes the air to cool. Therefore, the correct answer is that the air mass rises and cools when it encounters a mountain range.

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• 7.

### In regions that have a mediterranean climate, almost all of the yearly precipitation falls

• A.

During monsoons

• B.

In the summer

• C.

In the winter

• D.

During hurricanes

C. In the winter
Explanation
In regions that have a Mediterranean climate, the correct answer is "in the winter." This is because Mediterranean climates typically experience dry summers and wet winters. The winter months are when these regions receive the majority of their annual precipitation, which helps sustain vegetation and replenish water sources.

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• 8.

### The climate that has the largest annual temperature range is the

• A.

Subarctic climate

• B.

Middle-latitude desert climate

• C.

Mediterranean climate

• D.

Humid continental climate

A. Subarctic climate
Explanation
The subarctic climate has the largest annual temperature range because it is characterized by extremely cold winters and relatively warm summers. This climate is found in regions near the Arctic Circle, where the low angle of the sun during winter leads to very cold temperatures, while the longer days and higher sun angle during summer result in warmer temperatures. The temperature difference between these seasons is often significant, leading to a large annual temperature range in subarctic regions.

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• 9.

### The pavement and buildings in cities affect the local climate by

• A.

Decreasing the temperature

• B.

Increasing the temperature

• C.

Increasing the precipitation

• D.

Decreasing the precipitation

B. Increasing the temperature
Explanation
Pavement and buildings in cities increase the temperature because they absorb and retain heat from the sun, creating what is known as the "urban heat island" effect. The materials used in pavements and buildings, such as concrete and asphalt, have high thermal mass, causing them to absorb and release heat slowly. This leads to higher temperatures in urban areas compared to surrounding rural areas. Additionally, the tall buildings in cities can create canyons that trap heat and prevent air circulation, further contributing to increased temperatures.

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• 10.

### Stars organized into a pattern are

• A.

Perihelions

• B.

Satellites

• C.

Constellations

• D.

Telescopes

C. Constellations
Explanation
Stars organized into a pattern are called constellations. Constellations are groups of stars that form recognizable patterns or shapes in the night sky. They have been named and identified by humans for thousands of years, and they serve as a way to navigate and understand the celestial sphere. Constellations often have mythological or cultural significance and are used as a reference point for locating specific stars or celestial objects.

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• 11.

### Days are caused by Earth's

• A.

Perihelion

• B.

Aphelion

• C.

Revolution

• D.

Rotation

D. Rotation
Explanation
The rotation of the Earth is responsible for the occurrence of days. As the Earth spins on its axis, different parts of the planet are exposed to the Sun's light, resulting in daylight. When a specific region is facing away from the Sun, it experiences nighttime. This rotation takes approximately 24 hours to complete, creating a cycle of day and night. The other options, perihelion and aphelion, refer to the closest and farthest points in Earth's orbit around the Sun, while revolution is the Earth's movement around the Sun.

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• 12.

### The seasons are caused by

• A.

Earth's distance from the sun

• B.

The tilt of Earth's axis

• C.

The sun's temperature

• D.

The calendar

B. The tilt of Earth's axis
Explanation
The seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth's axis. As the Earth orbits around the sun, different parts of the planet receive varying amounts of sunlight throughout the year. When the axis is tilted towards the sun, a particular hemisphere experiences summer, while the other hemisphere experiences winter. As the Earth continues its orbit, the tilt changes, leading to different seasons. The distance from the sun and the sun's temperature do not directly cause the seasons, although they can influence the intensity of the seasons to some extent. The calendar is a human construct used to organize time and is not directly responsible for causing the seasons.

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• 13.

### Which of the following is a tool that is used by astronomers to study radiation?

• A.

A computer model

• B.

A ground-based telescope

• C.

A Foucalt pendulum

• D.

A calendar

B. A ground-based telescope
Explanation
Astronomers use ground-based telescopes to study radiation from celestial objects. These telescopes are equipped with various instruments and detectors that allow astronomers to observe and analyze different types of radiation, such as visible light, radio waves, and X-rays. By studying the radiation emitted by stars, galaxies, and other astronomical objects, astronomers can gather information about their composition, temperature, distance, and other important properties. Ground-based telescopes provide a valuable tool for astronomers to explore and understand the universe.

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• 14.

### Which of the following is evidence of Earth's revolution?

• A.

The Foucault pendulum

• B.

The Coriolis effect

• C.

Night and day

• D.

Constellation movement

D. Constellation movement
Explanation
Constellation movement is evidence of Earth's revolution because as the Earth revolves around the Sun, the position of the stars in the night sky appears to change. This is due to the fact that our perspective of the night sky changes as we move around the Sun. Different constellations become visible at different times of the year, and their positions in the sky also shift. This movement of the constellations is a direct result of Earth's revolution.

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• 15.

### Which of the following forms of radiation can be shielded by Earth's atmosphere?

• A.

Gamma rays

• B.

• C.

Visible light

• D.

All of the above

A. Gamma rays
Explanation
Gamma rays can be shielded by Earth's atmosphere. The Earth's atmosphere is composed of several layers, including the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. These layers contain various gases, such as nitrogen and oxygen, which act as a shield against harmful radiation like gamma rays. The atmosphere absorbs and scatters gamma rays, preventing them from reaching the Earth's surface in high quantities. However, some gamma rays can still penetrate the atmosphere and reach the surface, but their intensity is significantly reduced.

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• 16.

### Which of the following is not a space telescope?

• A.

Hubble Space Telescope

• B.

Chandra X-ray Observatory

• C.

Challenger

• D.

Spitzer Space Telescope

C. Challenger
Explanation
The Challenger is not a space telescope because it was a space shuttle, not an observatory. The Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, and Spitzer Space Telescope are all space telescopes that have been used for astronomical observations.

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• 17.

### Which of the following marks the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere?

• A.

Vernal equinox

• B.

Autumnal equinox

• C.

Summer solstice

• D.

Winter solstice

A. Vernal equinox
Explanation
The vernal equinox marks the beginning of spring in the Northern Hemisphere. During this time, the sun is directly overhead at the equator, resulting in equal lengths of day and night. This occurs around March 20th or 21st each year. The vernal equinox signifies the transition from winter to spring, with longer days and warmer temperatures ahead.

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• 18.

### Which of the following is evidence of Earth's rotation?

• A.

The Foucault pendulum

• B.

Day and night

• C.

The Coriolis effect

• D.

All of the above

D. All of the above
Explanation
All of the given options are evidence of Earth's rotation. The Foucault pendulum demonstrates the rotation of the Earth by exhibiting a change in direction over time. Day and night occur due to the rotation of the Earth on its axis, causing one side to face the Sun while the other side faces away. The Coriolis effect, which is the deflection of moving objects caused by the rotation of the Earth, also indicates the Earth's rotation. Therefore, all three options provide evidence of Earth's rotation.

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• 19.

### Copernicus's model of the solar system is

• A.

Geocentric

• B.

Lunocentric

• C.

Ethnocentric

• D.

Heliocentric

D. Heliocentric
Explanation
Copernicus's model of the solar system is heliocentric. This means that it is centered around the Sun, with the planets including Earth orbiting around it. This model challenged the prevailing belief at the time that the Earth was the center of the universe (geocentric model). Copernicus's heliocentric model provided a more accurate explanation of the movements of celestial bodies and laid the foundation for our modern understanding of the solar system.

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• 20.

### Kepler's first law states that each planet orbits the sun in a path called a(n)

• A.

Ellipse

• B.

Circle

• C.

Epicycle

• D.

Period

A. Ellipse
Explanation
Kepler's first law states that each planet orbits the sun in a path called an ellipse. An ellipse is a geometric shape that resembles a stretched-out circle, with two focal points instead of one. This law explains that the path of a planet around the sun is not a perfect circle but rather an elongated shape, where the sun is located at one of the focal points. This understanding of planetary motion revolutionized our understanding of the solar system and laid the foundation for further astronomical discoveries.

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• 21.

### The most distinctive feature of Jupiter is its

• A.

Great Red Spot

• B.

Great Dark Spot

• C.

Ring

• D.

Elongated orbit

A. Great Red Spot
Explanation
The Great Red Spot is the most distinctive feature of Jupiter. It is a massive storm that has been observed for over 300 years and is larger than Earth. The spot is characterized by its reddish color and is believed to be a high-pressure system in Jupiter's atmosphere. It is a prominent feature that sets Jupiter apart from other planets in our solar system.

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• 22.

### The planet that has an axis of rotation that is almost parallel to the plane of its orbit is

• A.

Venus

• B.

Jupiter

• C.

Uranus

• D.

Neptune

C. Uranus
Explanation
Uranus is the correct answer because it is the only planet in the given options that has an axis of rotation that is almost parallel to the plane of its orbit. The axis of Uranus is tilted at an angle of about 98 degrees, causing it to appear to roll on its side as it orbits the Sun. This unique tilt is believed to have been caused by a collision with a large object early in its formation.

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• 23.

### The tilt of the axis of Mars is nearly the same as that of

• A.

Mercury

• B.

Venus

• C.

Earth

• D.

Jupiter

C. Earth
Explanation
The tilt of the axis of Mars is nearly the same as that of Earth. This means that Mars, like Earth, experiences seasons due to the tilt of its axis. The tilt causes different parts of the planet to receive varying amounts of sunlight throughout the year, leading to changes in temperature and weather patterns. This similarity in axial tilt suggests that Mars and Earth may have similar patterns of climate and seasonal variations.

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• 24.

### The planet that rotates faster than any other planet in the solar system is

• A.

Earth

• B.

Jupiter

• C.

Uranus

• D.

Pluto

B. Jupiter
Explanation
Jupiter is the correct answer because it is the planet that rotates faster than any other planet in the solar system. It has a rotational period of about 9.9 hours, making it the fastest spinning planet. Earth, Uranus, and Pluto all have longer rotational periods compared to Jupiter.

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• 25.

### Kepler's law hat describes how fast planets travel at different points in their orbits is called the law of

• A.

Ellipses

• B.

Equal speeds

• C.

Equal areas

• D.

Periods

C. Equal areas
Explanation
Kepler's law that describes how fast planets travel at different points in their orbits is called the law of equal areas. This law states that a planet sweeps out equal areas in equal amounts of time as it orbits around the sun. In other words, the closer a planet is to the sun, the faster it moves, and the farther it is from the sun, the slower it moves. This law helps to explain why planets have varying speeds throughout their orbits.

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• 26.

### All of the outer planets rotate with their axes perpendicular to their orbital planes except

• A.

Saturn

• B.

Jupiter

• C.

Neptune

• D.

Uranus

D. Uranus
Explanation
The correct answer is Uranus. Uranus is the only outer planet that rotates on its side, with its axis tilted at an angle of about 98 degrees to its orbital plane. This unique tilt causes extreme seasons on Uranus, with each pole experiencing 42 years of continuous sunlight followed by 42 years of darkness. The other outer planets, Saturn, Jupiter, and Neptune, have their axes of rotation nearly perpendicular to their orbital planes.

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• 27.

### The first atmosphere of Earth contained a large amount of

• A.

Helium

• B.

Oxygen

• C.

Carbon dioxide

• D.

Methane

A. Helium
Explanation
The first atmosphere of Earth contained a large amount of helium. This is because helium is one of the most abundant elements in the universe and is often found in large quantities in gas clouds. During the early stages of Earth's formation, when the planet was still hot and undergoing volcanic activity, helium was released from the Earth's interior and became part of the atmosphere. Over time, however, much of the helium escaped into space due to its low mass and the Earth's relatively weak gravity, resulting in the depletion of helium in the atmosphere.

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• 28.

### The hypothesis that states that the sun and the planets developed out of the same cloud of gas and dust is called the

• A.

Copernicus hypothesis

• B.

Solar hypothesis

• C.

Nebular hypothesis

• D.

Galileo hypothesis

C. Nebular hypothesis
Explanation
The correct answer is "nebular hypothesis." This hypothesis suggests that the sun and the planets formed from a giant cloud of gas and dust called a nebula. Over time, the nebula collapsed under its own gravity and formed a spinning disk. The central region of the disk eventually became the sun, while the surrounding material coalesced to form the planets. This hypothesis is widely accepted in the scientific community and provides a plausible explanation for the formation of our solar system.

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• 29.

### In the process of photosynthesis, green plants give off

• A.

Hydrogen

• B.

Oxygen

• C.

Carbon dioxide

• D.

Helium

B. Oxygen
Explanation
During the process of photosynthesis, plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to produce glucose and oxygen. The oxygen produced is released into the atmosphere as a byproduct, while glucose is used as a source of energy for the plant. Therefore, the correct answer is oxygen.

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• 30.

### Dark areas on the moon that are smooth and that reflect little light are called

• A.

Rilles

• B.

Rays

• C.

Maria

• D.

Breccia

C. Maria
Explanation
Maria is the correct answer because it refers to dark areas on the moon that are smooth and reflect little light. These areas were once thought to be bodies of water, hence the name "maria," which means "seas" in Latin. However, they are actually large basaltic plains formed by ancient volcanic activity on the moon's surface. The smoothness of the maria is due to the solidified lava flows that filled in large impact basins billions of years ago.

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• 31.

### What happened in the most recent stage in the development of the moon?

• A.

The densest material sank to the core

• B.

The crust began to break

• C.

Earth's gravity captured the moon

• D.

The number of meteorites hitting the moon decreased

D. The number of meteorites hitting the moon decreased
Explanation
The most recent stage in the development of the moon is characterized by a decrease in the number of meteorites hitting it. This suggests that the moon has already formed and reached a stable state where there are fewer impacts from external objects.

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• 32.

### During each orbit around Earth, the moon spins ons its axis

• A.

1 time

• B.

• C.

• D.

365 times

A. 1 time
Explanation
The moon spins on its axis once during each orbit around Earth. This means that it takes the same amount of time for the moon to complete one rotation on its axis as it does for it to complete one orbit around Earth. Therefore, the correct answer is 1 time.

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• 33.

### In a lunar eclipse, the moon

• A.

• B.

• C.

Is between Earth and the sun

• D.

Blocks part of the sun from view

Explanation
During a lunar eclipse, the moon is positioned in Earth's shadow. This occurs when the Earth is directly between the sun and the moon, causing the Earth to cast a shadow on the moon. As a result, the moon appears darkened or reddish in color during a lunar eclipse.

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• 34.

### When the size of the lighted part of the moon's near side is decreasing, the moon is

• A.

Full.

• B.

Waxing.

• C.

Annular.

• D.

Waning.

D. Waning.
Explanation
When the size of the lighted part of the moon's near side is decreasing, it means that the illuminated portion is getting smaller. This phenomenon is known as the waning phase of the moon. During this phase, the moon appears to be shrinking in size from a full moon to a new moon. Therefore, the correct answer is waning.

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• 35.

### Compared with the other moons of Jupiter, the four Galilean moons are

• A.

Larger

• B.

Farther from Jupiter

• C.

Lighter

• D.

Younger

A. Larger
Explanation
The Galilean moons are larger compared to the other moons of Jupiter. This means that they have a greater size or diameter in comparison. The statement does not provide any information about the other characteristics of the Galilean moons, such as their distance from Jupiter, weight, or age. It solely focuses on their larger size in relation to the other moons orbiting Jupiter.

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• 36.

### The main asteroid belt exists in a region between the orbits of

• A.

Mercury and Venus

• B.

Earth and Mars

• C.

Venus and Earth

• D.

Mars and Jupiter

D. Mars and Jupiter
Explanation
The main asteroid belt exists in a region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. This region is known as the asteroid belt because it is primarily composed of numerous small rocky objects called asteroids. These asteroids orbit the Sun in a region that is relatively close to Mars and Jupiter. The gravitational influence of these two planets prevents the asteroids from coalescing into a single planet, resulting in the formation of the asteroid belt.

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• 37.

### Meteorites can provide information about

• A.

The composition of the solar system before the planets formed.

• B.

The size of Earth.

• C.

The destiny of the solar system.

• D.

The size of the universe

A. The composition of the solar system before the planets formed.
Explanation
Meteorites are rocks that have fallen to Earth from space. They can provide valuable information about the early solar system because they are believed to be remnants of the material from which the planets formed. By studying the composition of meteorites, scientists can learn about the elements and compounds that were present in the early solar system. This can help us understand the processes that led to the formation of the planets and provide insights into the conditions that existed billions of years ago. Therefore, meteorites can provide information about the composition of the solar system before the planets formed.

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• 38.

### According to Einstein's theory of relativity, in the formula E = mc2, the c stands for

• A.

Corona

• B.

Core

• C.

The speed of light

• D.

The length of time

C. The speed of light
Explanation
In Einstein's theory of relativity, the equation E = mc2 represents the relationship between energy (E), mass (m), and the speed of light (c). The speed of light (c) is a fundamental constant in physics and plays a crucial role in the theory. It represents the maximum speed at which information or energy can travel in the universe. Therefore, in the given equation, c stands for the speed of light.

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• 39.

### A nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei combine is called

• A.

Fission

• B.

Fusion

• C.

Magnetism

• D.

Granulation

B. Fusion
Explanation
Fusion is the correct answer because it refers to a nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier nucleus, releasing a large amount of energy. This process is the opposite of fission, where atomic nuclei split apart. Fusion is the process that powers the sun and other stars, and it is being researched as a potential source of clean and abundant energy on Earth. Magnetism and granulation are not related to nuclear reactions.

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• 40.

### The part of the sun in which energy moves from atom to atom in the form of electromagnetic waves is called the

• A.

• B.

Convective zone

• C.

Solar wind

• D.

Chromosphere

Explanation
The radiative zone is the part of the sun where energy is transferred from atom to atom through the form of electromagnetic waves. In this zone, photons are constantly being absorbed and re-emitted by atoms, creating a process known as radiative transfer. This transfer of energy is crucial for the sun to maintain its temperature and for the production of light and heat. The radiative zone is located between the sun's core and the convective zone, where energy is transferred through the movement of plasma. The solar wind refers to the stream of charged particles emitted by the sun, and the chromosphere is the layer of the sun's atmosphere above the photosphere.

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• 41.

### The number of hydrogen atoms that fuse to form a helium atom is

• A.

Two

• B.

Four

• C.

Six

• D.

Eight

A. Two
Explanation
When hydrogen atoms undergo fusion, two hydrogen atoms combine to form a helium atom. This process is known as nuclear fusion and is the main source of energy in stars.

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• 42.

### The part of the sun that is normally visible from Earth is the

• A.

Core

• B.

Photosphere

• C.

Corona

• D.

Solar nebula

B. pHotospHere
Explanation
The photosphere is the part of the sun that is normally visible from Earth. It is the outermost layer of the sun's atmosphere and emits visible light. This is the layer where most of the sun's energy is released as light and heat. The core is the innermost part of the sun where nuclear fusion occurs, but it is not visible from Earth. The corona is the outermost layer of the sun's atmosphere, but it is only visible during a total solar eclipse. The solar nebula is the cloud of gas and dust from which the sun and the solar system formed, but it is not visible from Earth.

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• 43.

### Sunspots are regions of

• A.

Intense magnetism

• B.

The core

• C.

High temperature

• D.

Lighter color

A. Intense magnetism
Explanation
Sunspots are regions on the surface of the Sun that appear darker and cooler compared to the surrounding areas. They are caused by intense magnetic activity in the Sun's atmosphere. The strong magnetic fields in these regions inhibit the convective transfer of heat, leading to a lower temperature and darker appearance. This intense magnetism is responsible for various phenomena associated with sunspots, such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections.

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• 44.

### The sunspot cycle repeats about every

• A.

Month

• B.

5 years

• C.

11 years

• D.

19 years

C. 11 years
Explanation
The sunspot cycle refers to the periodic variation in the number of sunspots on the Sun's surface. These sunspots are dark spots that are cooler than the surrounding areas. The cycle lasts for approximately 11 years, during which the number of sunspots increases and then decreases. This cycle is believed to be caused by the Sun's magnetic field, which undergoes a complete reversal every 22 years. Therefore, the correct answer is 11 years.

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• 45.

### Sudden outward eruptions of electrically charged particles from the sun are called

• A.

Prominences

• B.

Coronas

• C.

Sunspots

• D.

Solar flares

D. Solar flares
Explanation
Solar flares are sudden outward eruptions of electrically charged particles from the sun. They are intense bursts of radiation that occur when magnetic energy that has built up in the solar atmosphere is suddenly released. These eruptions can release huge amounts of energy and can cause disturbances in the Earth's magnetic field, leading to geomagnetic storms and potentially affecting satellite communications and power grids on Earth. Prominences, coronas, and sunspots are all related to the sun's activity, but they are not specifically associated with sudden outward eruptions of charged particles like solar flares.

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• 46.

### Gusts of solar wind can cause

• A.

Rotation

• B.

Magnetic storms

• C.

Nuclear fission

• D.

Nuclear fusion

B. Magnetic storms
Explanation
Gusts of solar wind, which are streams of charged particles released from the Sun, can interact with the Earth's magnetic field. This interaction can lead to disturbances in the magnetic field, causing what is known as magnetic storms. These storms can result in various effects, such as fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field, auroras, and disruptions in radio communications and satellite operations. Therefore, it is plausible to suggest that gusts of solar wind can cause magnetic storms.

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• 47.

### Northern lights and southern lights are other names for

• A.

Prominences

• B.

Auroras

• C.

Granulations

• D.

B. Auroras
Explanation
Northern lights and southern lights, also known as auroras, are natural light displays that occur in the polar regions. They are caused by the interaction of charged particles from the sun with the Earth's magnetic field. When these charged particles collide with atoms and molecules in the Earth's atmosphere, they emit colorful lights. Prominences are large, bright features that are seen on the sun's surface during a solar eclipse. Granulations refer to the grainy appearance of the sun's surface. Total solar irradiance refers to the amount of solar energy received per unit area at the outer atmosphere of the Earth.

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• 48.

### The most common element in most stars is

• A.

Oxygen

• B.

Hydrogen

• C.

Helium

• D.

Sodium

B. Hydrogen
Explanation
Hydrogen is the most common element in most stars because it is the lightest and simplest element, making up about 75% of the elemental mass in the universe. It is also the primary fuel for nuclear fusion in stars, where hydrogen atoms combine to form helium, releasing energy in the process. This fusion reaction powers the star and allows it to emit light and heat. Therefore, hydrogen is the dominant element in stars, while other elements like oxygen, helium, and sodium are present in smaller quantities.

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• 49.

• A.

Is very hot

• B.

Is blue-green

• C.

Comes from supernovas

• D.

Comes equally from all directions

D. Comes equally from all directions
Explanation
Cosmic background radiation refers to the faint radiation that is uniformly distributed throughout the universe. It is a remnant of the Big Bang and is considered one of the strongest pieces of evidence supporting the theory. The fact that it comes equally from all directions suggests that it is evenly spread out in space, indicating that it originated from a single event that affected the entire universe. This uniform distribution aligns with the predictions made by the Big Bang theory and is consistent with the idea that the universe began with a hot, dense state.

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• 50.

### Stars appear to move in circular paths through the sky because

• A.

Earth rotates on its axis

• B.

Earth orbits the sun

• C.

The stars orbit Polaris

• D.

The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy

A. Earth rotates on its axis
Explanation
Stars appear to move in circular paths through the sky because Earth rotates on its axis. As the Earth spins, it creates the illusion that the stars are moving across the sky in circular paths. This rotation causes the stars to rise in the east and set in the west, just like the sun and moon. The rotation of the Earth on its axis is what gives us the perception of the stars' movement in the night sky.

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• Oct 31, 2016
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