# Finance Quiz: Ultimate Exam Questions!

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Finance quiz: ultimate exam questions! True and false quizzes give someone time to think deeply about a question. There are different ways that one can choose which investments to put their money in and one of them is using the net present value method in which one choose a project with the highest NPV. This quiz tests your in-depth knowledge on finance. Give it a try and see what to read more on!

Questions and Answers
• 1.

### The company cost of capital is the appropriate discount rate for a firm's ______

• A.

Value

• B.

Average-risk projects

• C.

High-risk projects

• D.

Estimated-risk projects

Correct Answer
B. Average-risk projects
Explanation
The company cost of capital is the appropriate discount rate for a firm's average-risk projects because it represents the minimum rate of return that the company needs to earn in order to cover its costs and satisfy its investors. Average-risk projects are neither too risky nor too safe, and therefore, the cost of capital is used to evaluate the feasibility of these projects and determine if they can generate returns that are higher than the cost of capital. By using the cost of capital as the discount rate, the company can ensure that it is making investment decisions that will create value for its shareholders.

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• 2.

### The appropriate hurdle rate for capital budgeting decisions is ______

• A.

Degree of operating leverage

• B.

Real Options

• C.

Relative rate

• D.

The opportunity cost of capital

Correct Answer
D. The opportunity cost of capital
Explanation
The appropriate hurdle rate for capital budgeting decisions is the opportunity cost of capital. This refers to the return that could be earned on an alternative investment of similar risk. It represents the minimum rate of return that a project must generate in order to be considered worthwhile. By using the opportunity cost of capital as the hurdle rate, companies can ensure that they are making investment decisions that are in line with their cost of capital and maximizing shareholder value.

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• 3.

### Each project should be evaluated at its own opportunity cost of capital. The true cost of capital depends on the use to which the capital is put.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The explanation for the given correct answer is that each project should be evaluated at its own opportunity cost of capital because the cost of capital is dependent on the specific use of the capital. Different projects may have different risks and return expectations, which would affect the cost of capital. Therefore, it is important to consider the unique characteristics of each project when determining its cost of capital, rather than applying a blanket cost of capital for all projects.

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• 4.

### The company's cost of capital is the cost of debt of the firm.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The given statement is false. The company's cost of capital is not solely determined by the cost of debt. It is a weighted average of the cost of debt and the cost of equity. The cost of equity represents the return required by the company's shareholders, while the cost of debt represents the interest rate paid on borrowed funds. Both these components are taken into consideration when calculating the overall cost of capital for a company.

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• 5.

### It is generally more accurate to estimate an "industry beta" for a portfolio of companies in the same industry than to estimate beta for a single company in that industry.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Estimating an "industry beta" for a portfolio of companies in the same industry is generally more accurate than estimating beta for a single company in that industry. This is because an industry beta takes into account the systematic risk factors that affect all companies in that industry, such as economic conditions, market trends, and industry-specific risks. By considering the collective performance of multiple companies in the industry, an industry beta provides a more comprehensive and reliable measure of the overall risk associated with investing in that industry.

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• 6.

### The company cost of capital is defined as the expected return on a portfolio of all the company's existing securities.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The company's cost of capital is the expected return on a portfolio of all the company's existing securities. This means that the cost of capital represents the minimum return that a company needs to earn on its investments to satisfy its investors. By considering the expected return on all the company's existing securities, the cost of capital provides a comprehensive measure of the company's overall investment performance. Therefore, the statement is true.

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• 7.

### The company cost of capital is not the correct discount rate if the new projects are more or less risky than the firm's existing business.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The company's cost of capital is not the correct discount rate if the new projects are more or less risky than the firm's existing business. This is because the cost of capital is determined based on the risk associated with the firm's existing business operations. If the new projects have a higher or lower level of risk than the existing business, using the same cost of capital would not accurately reflect the risk-return tradeoff of the new projects. Therefore, a different discount rate should be used to account for the varying levels of risk.

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• 8.

### The cost of capital is estimated as a blend of the cost of debt (the interest rate) and the cost of equity (the expected rate of return demanded by investors in the firm's common stock).

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The cost of capital is indeed estimated as a blend of the cost of debt and the cost of equity. This is because a firm's capital structure typically includes both debt and equity financing. The cost of debt is represented by the interest rate the firm pays on its debt obligations, while the cost of equity is the expected rate of return demanded by investors who hold the firm's common stock. By combining these two costs, a firm can determine its overall cost of capital, which is an important factor in making investment and financing decisions.

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• 9.

### The blended measure of the company cost of capital is called the weighted-average cost of capital or WAACC.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The explanation for the given correct answer is that the weighted-average cost of capital (WACC) is indeed a blended measure of the company's cost of capital. It takes into account the proportion of each source of capital (debt and equity) in the company's capital structure and calculates a weighted average of the cost of each source. This measure is used to determine the minimum return that a company should earn on its investments to satisfy its investors and maintain the value of the business. Therefore, the statement that the blended measure of the company cost of capital is called WACC is true.

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• 10.

### The noise in returns can obscure the true beta.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because noise in returns refers to the random fluctuations or volatility in the returns of an investment. This noise can make it difficult to accurately determine the true beta, which is a measure of an asset's sensitivity to market movements. The presence of noise can distort the relationship between an asset's returns and the overall market returns, making it harder to estimate the true beta value. Therefore, the statement is correct in stating that the noise in returns can obscure the true beta.

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• 11.

### Cash Flow = revenue - fixed costs - variable costs.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The given statement is true. Cash flow is calculated by subtracting fixed costs and variable costs from revenue. This formula helps determine the amount of money generated by a business after deducting all expenses. By analyzing cash flow, a company can assess its financial health and make informed decisions regarding investments, budgeting, and future planning.

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• 12.

### PV(asset) = PV(revenue) - PV(fixed costs) - PV(variable costs)

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The given equation represents the calculation of the present value of an asset. It is obtained by subtracting the present value of fixed costs and variable costs from the present value of revenue generated by the asset. This equation is used to determine the profitability and value of an asset by taking into account the cash flows associated with it. Hence, the statement is true.

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• 13.

### Empirical tests confirm that companies with high operating leverage actually do have high betas.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement suggests that there is a positive correlation between operating leverage and betas in companies. Operating leverage refers to the extent to which a company relies on fixed costs in its operations, while beta measures the sensitivity of a stock's returns to changes in the overall market. The explanation implies that companies with high operating leverage tend to have high betas, indicating that they are more volatile and sensitive to market fluctuations. This relationship is supported by empirical tests, which provide evidence for the statement being true.

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• 14.

### Fudge factors in discount rates are dangerous because they displace clear thinking about future cash flows.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Fudge factors in discount rates refer to the practice of arbitrarily adjusting the discount rate used to calculate the present value of future cash flows. This can be dangerous because it undermines the accuracy and reliability of financial analysis. By manipulating the discount rate, individuals may distort the true value of an investment or project, leading to poor decision-making. It is important to use a consistent and unbiased discount rate to ensure clear and rational thinking about future cash flows.

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• 15.

### Portfolio betas are more precise than individual asset betas.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Portfolio betas are more precise than individual asset betas because they take into account the diversification effect of combining multiple assets in a portfolio. By considering the correlation between different assets, portfolio betas provide a more accurate measure of the systematic risk or volatility of a portfolio compared to individual asset betas. This is important for investors to assess and manage the risk and return of their overall investment portfolio.

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• 16.

### You should compare your company to an industry portfolio rather than a competitor.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Comparing your company to an industry portfolio allows you to assess its performance and position in the market more effectively. By looking at the industry as a whole, you can identify trends, benchmarks, and opportunities for growth. This broader perspective helps in understanding the overall market dynamics and enables you to make informed decisions about your company's strategies and goals. On the other hand, comparing only to a single competitor may limit your understanding of the industry and may not provide a comprehensive view of your company's performance.

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• 17.

### Only non-diversifiable risks affect the cost of capital.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Non-diversifiable risks, also known as systematic risks, are risks that affect the entire market or a particular industry. These risks cannot be eliminated through diversification because they are inherent to the market or industry as a whole. Since non-diversifiable risks affect the overall market, they also impact the cost of capital. This is because investors demand a higher return to compensate for the additional risk. Therefore, only non-diversifiable risks affect the cost of capital, making the statement true.

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• 18.

### Cyclicality: Firms that vary positively with the business cycle tend to have higher betas.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Firms that vary positively with the business cycle tend to have higher betas because their performance is closely tied to the overall state of the economy. When the economy is booming, these firms experience increased demand and higher profits, leading to a higher stock price. Conversely, during economic downturns, these firms may struggle with decreased demand and lower profits, causing their stock price to decline. As a result, their beta, which measures the sensitivity of a stock's returns to market movements, tends to be higher compared to firms that are less affected by the business cycle.

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• 19.

### Projects with higher operating leverage (higher ratio of fixed costs to project value) tend to have higher betas.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Projects with higher operating leverage have a higher proportion of fixed costs compared to variable costs. This means that a small change in revenue can result in a larger change in profits. This higher sensitivity to changes in revenue makes these projects riskier, leading to higher betas. A higher beta indicates a higher level of systematic risk, which means that the project's returns are more sensitive to overall market movements. Therefore, it is true that projects with higher operating leverage tend to have higher betas.

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• 20.

### A diversifiable risk has no effect on the risk of a well-diversified portfolio and therefore no effect on the project’s beta.  If a risk is diversifiable it does not change the cost of capital for the project.  However, any possibility of bad outcomes does need to be factored in when calculating expected cash flows.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
A diversifiable risk is a risk that can be reduced or eliminated through diversification, which is the process of investing in a variety of assets to spread out risk. This type of risk does not have an effect on the risk of a well-diversified portfolio because it can be mitigated through diversification. As a result, it also does not have an effect on the project's beta, which measures the sensitivity of the project's returns to the market returns. However, it is important to consider the possibility of bad outcomes when calculating expected cash flows, as these risks can still impact the project's profitability. Therefore, the statement that a diversifiable risk has no effect on the risk of a well-diversified portfolio and the project's beta is true.

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• 21.

### The company cost of capital is the correct discount rate for all projects because the high risks of some projects are offset by the low risk of other projects.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The company cost of capital is not the correct discount rate for all projects because the risk level of each project varies. Some projects may have high risks that cannot be offset by the low risk of other projects. The discount rate should be adjusted based on the specific risk profile of each project to accurately reflect the project's risk and potential returns. Therefore, the statement is false.

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• 22.

### Distant cash flows are riskier than near term cash flows. Therefore long term projects require higher risk-adjusted discount rates.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because distant cash flows are not necessarily riskier than near term cash flows. The risk associated with cash flows depends on various factors such as market conditions, industry trends, and project-specific risks. While it is true that long-term projects may have more uncertainty and higher risk, it is not a universal rule that all distant cash flows are riskier. The discount rate used to evaluate projects should be based on the specific risks and uncertainties associated with each project, rather than solely on the time horizon of the cash flows.

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• 23.

### Adding fudge factors to discount rates undervalues long-lived projects compared with quick payoff projects.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Adding fudge factors to discount rates means adjusting the discount rate to account for uncertainties or risks associated with a project. When fudge factors are added, the discount rate for long-lived projects will be higher compared to quick payoff projects. This is because long-lived projects are more exposed to uncertainties and risks over a longer time period. As a result, their future cash flows are more heavily discounted, leading to a lower present value and undervaluing these projects compared to quick payoff projects. Therefore, the statement that adding fudge factors to discount rates undervalues long-lived projects compared with quick payoff projects is true.

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• 24.

### NPV should represent your best guess, so do not add fudge factors to cash flows or the cost of capital.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The explanation for the given correct answer is that NPV, which stands for Net Present Value, is a financial metric used to evaluate the profitability of an investment or project. It calculates the difference between the present value of cash inflows and the present value of cash outflows over a specified period of time. To ensure accuracy, NPV should be based on the best estimates of cash flows and the cost of capital without any adjustments or manipulations. Adding fudge factors to cash flows or the cost of capital would distort the true value of the investment and lead to inaccurate NPV calculations. Therefore, it is recommended to avoid adding any fudge factors and present the NPV as the best estimate.

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• 25.

### Although scenarios allow you to strategically think about how you might structure operations and adapt to changing circumstances, they cannot depict the true range of possible outcomes.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Scenarios are helpful for strategic thinking and planning, as they allow for considering different ways to structure operations and adapt to changing circumstances. However, it is important to note that scenarios are not capable of capturing the full extent of all possible outcomes. There are always unforeseen variables and factors that can affect the actual outcome, making it impossible for scenarios to accurately depict the entire range of possibilities. Therefore, the statement that scenarios cannot depict the true range of possible outcomes is true.

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• 26.

### Operating leverage refers to the proportion of fixed and variable operating costs in a project’s operation. Operating leverage increases the variability of outcomes.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Operating leverage refers to the mix of fixed and variable costs in a project's operations. When a project has high operating leverage, it means that it has a higher proportion of fixed costs compared to variable costs. This means that a larger portion of the project's costs are fixed and do not change with the level of production or sales. As a result, small changes in sales or production can have a significant impact on the project's profitability. Therefore, operating leverage increases the variability of outcomes, making the statement "True".

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• 27.

### The model's results are only as good as the model. Focus on the model's assumptions.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
This statement emphasizes the importance of the model in determining the quality of the results. It suggests that the accuracy and reliability of the model's predictions are directly influenced by the assumptions made during its development. Therefore, it is crucial to thoroughly examine and understand the model's assumptions in order to assess the validity of its results.

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• 28.

### Real options are options on real assets. Real options benefit from managerial flexibility in anticipating and responding to uncertainty. Opportunities to modify projects as the future unfolds are known as real options.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Real options are indeed options on real assets. These options allow managers to have flexibility in making decisions and responding to uncertainty in the future. They provide opportunities to modify projects as the future unfolds, which can be highly beneficial in terms of maximizing value and minimizing risk. Therefore, the statement "Real options benefit from managerial flexibility in anticipating and responding to uncertainty" is true.

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• 29.

### A decision tree is a diagram of sequential decisions and their possible outcomes, including competitors’ possible responses to those decisions.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
A decision tree is indeed a diagram that represents a sequence of decisions and their potential outcomes. It is used to analyze and visualize possible paths and consequences in decision-making processes. Additionally, decision trees can also incorporate competitors' potential responses to those decisions, making them a valuable tool for strategic planning and competitive analysis. Therefore, the given answer, "True," accurately describes the nature and purpose of a decision tree.

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• 30.

### The capital budget is a list of investment projects planned for the coming year.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because a capital budget is indeed a list of investment projects that an organization plans to undertake in the upcoming year. It includes the allocation of funds for long-term assets, such as purchasing new equipment, expanding facilities, or investing in research and development. The capital budgeting process involves evaluating these investment opportunities based on their potential return and risk, and then selecting the projects that align with the organization's strategic goals and financial capabilities.

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• 31.

### Most companies require appropriation requests for each proposal, including detailed forecasts, discounted-cash-flow analyses, and back-up information.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement suggests that most companies require appropriation requests for each proposal, which includes detailed forecasts, discounted-cash-flow analyses, and back-up information. This implies that it is necessary for companies to provide these documents and information when submitting proposals. Therefore, the answer "True" indicates that the statement is correct.

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• 32.

### Brealey, Myers, and Allen's second law state that the proportion of proposed projects having positive NPVs at the corporate hurdle rate is independent of the hurdle rate.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
According to Brealey, Myers, and Allen's second law, the proportion of proposed projects that have positive NPVs at the corporate hurdle rate remains constant and is not influenced by the hurdle rate itself. In other words, the likelihood of a project having a positive NPV is not dependent on the specific hurdle rate set by the company. This suggests that the profitability of projects is not affected by the hurdle rate, indicating that the two variables are independent of each other. Therefore, the statement is true.

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• 33.

### Postaudits identify problems that need fixing, check the accuracy of forecasts, and suggest questions that should have been asked before the project was undertaken.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Postaudits are used to evaluate the success of a project after it has been completed. They help identify any problems or issues that need to be addressed and fixed. Additionally, postaudits also assess the accuracy of the forecasts made before the project started. They can highlight any discrepancies between the projected outcomes and the actual results. Furthermore, postaudits can provide valuable insights by suggesting questions that should have been asked and considered before the project was undertaken. Overall, postaudits play a crucial role in improving future projects and decision-making processes.

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• 34.

### Managers sometimes prefer to ask how bad sales can get before the project begins to lose money. This exercise is known as a break-even analysis.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
A break-even analysis is a common tool used by managers to determine the point at which a project or business will begin to generate a profit. By identifying the level of sales needed to cover all costs and expenses, managers can make more informed decisions about pricing, production, and overall profitability. Therefore, it is true that managers sometimes prefer to ask how bad sales can get before the project begins to lose money, as this information is crucial for conducting a break-even analysis.

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• 35.

### A business with high fixed costs is said to have high operating leverage. Operating leverage is usually defined in terms of accounting profits rather than cash flows and is measured by the percentage change in profit for each 1% change in sales. The Degree of Operating Leverage (DOL) = % change in profits / % change in sales.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
A business with high fixed costs is said to have high operating leverage because fixed costs do not change regardless of the level of sales. This means that as sales increase, the percentage change in profits will be greater than the percentage change in sales, resulting in a higher degree of operating leverage. Operating leverage is a measure of how sensitive a company's profits are to changes in sales, and a high degree of operating leverage indicates that a small change in sales can have a significant impact on profits.

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• 36.

### The Monte Carlo simulation is a tool for considering all possible combinations, thus inspecting the entire distribution of project outcomes.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The explanation for the given correct answer is that the Monte Carlo simulation is a powerful technique that allows for the consideration of all possible combinations and scenarios in a project. By running multiple simulations, it provides a comprehensive view of the distribution of project outcomes, taking into account the various uncertainties and risks involved. This helps in making informed decisions and managing uncertainties effectively.

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• 37.

### In negative abandonment, you have to pay to get rid of the project.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
In negative abandonment, the term implies that you have to make a payment in order to abandon or terminate the project. This means that you are incurring a cost to get rid of the project, which is contrary to the usual expectation that abandoning a project would save money. Therefore, the statement is true.

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• 38.

### The main categories of real options include expansion options, abandonment options, timing options, and options providing flexibility in production.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because the main categories of real options do include expansion options, abandonment options, timing options, and options providing flexibility in production. Real options refer to the opportunities available to a company to make decisions regarding investments and projects based on future uncertainties and market conditions. Expansion options allow for the possibility of expanding operations or investments in the future, abandonment options provide the choice to discontinue a project or investment if it becomes unprofitable, timing options involve the flexibility to delay or accelerate investment decisions, and options providing flexibility in production allow for adjustments in production levels based on market demand.

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• 39.

### The approval of a capital budget allows managers to go ahead with any project included in the budget.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The approval of a capital budget does not automatically allow managers to proceed with any project included in the budget. It only grants permission to allocate funds for specific projects, but further approvals and evaluations may be required before the projects can actually be implemented. Therefore, the statement is false.

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• 40.

### Capital budgets and project authorizations are mostly developed "bottom-up." Strategic planning is a "top-down" process.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The explanation for the given correct answer is that capital budgets and project authorizations are typically developed "bottom-up," meaning that they are created based on specific project proposals and their associated costs. On the other hand, strategic planning is a "top-down" process, where high-level goals and objectives are established and then broken down into specific action plans. Therefore, it is true that capital budgets and project authorizations are developed "bottom-up" while strategic planning is a "top-down" process.

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• 41.

### Project sponsors are likely to be overoptimistic.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Project sponsors are likely to be overoptimistic because they are typically the ones who initiate and champion the project. They have a vested interest in its success and may therefore have a biased perspective. They may underestimate the challenges and risks involved, leading to an overly optimistic view of the project's feasibility and potential outcomes. This overoptimism can result in unrealistic expectations and inadequate planning, which can ultimately lead to project failure.

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• 42.

### Sensitivity analysis is unnecessary for projects with asset betas that are equal to zero.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Sensitivity analysis is a technique used to assess the impact of changes in variables on the outcome of a project. It helps in understanding the level of risk associated with the project. Even if a project has asset betas equal to zero, sensitivity analysis can still be useful in assessing other factors that may affect the project's outcome, such as changes in costs, revenues, or market conditions. Therefore, sensitivity analysis is not unnecessary for projects with asset betas equal to zero.

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• 43.

### Sensitivity analysis can be used to identify the variables most crucial to a project's success.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Sensitivity analysis is a technique used to determine the impact of changes in variables on the outcome of a project. By conducting sensitivity analysis, one can identify the variables that have the most significant influence on the project's success. This allows project managers to focus their attention and resources on managing and controlling these critical variables, ultimately increasing the chances of project success. Therefore, the statement that sensitivity analysis can be used to identify the variables most crucial to a project's success is true.

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• 44.

### If only one variable is uncertain, sensitivity analysis gives "optimistic" and "pessimistic" values for a project cash flow and NPV.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Sensitivity analysis is a technique used to assess the impact of changes in one variable on the overall outcome of a project. In this case, if only one variable is uncertain, sensitivity analysis can provide both "optimistic" and "pessimistic" values for the project's cash flow and net present value (NPV). This means that by analyzing the best-case and worst-case scenarios, sensitivity analysis helps to identify the range of potential outcomes for the project's financial performance. Therefore, the statement "If only one variable is uncertain, sensitivity analysis gives 'optimistic' and 'pessimistic' values for a project cash flow and NPV" is true.

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• 45.

### The break-even sales level of a project is higher when breakeven is defined in terms of NPV rather than accounting income.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
When break-even is defined in terms of NPV (Net Present Value), it takes into account the time value of money. This means that future cash flows are discounted to their present value, reflecting the fact that money received in the future is worth less than money received today. On the other hand, when break-even is defined in terms of accounting income, it does not consider the time value of money. Therefore, the break-even sales level of a project is higher when break-even is defined in terms of NPV, as it requires higher sales to generate enough cash flows to cover the present value of the initial investment and achieve a positive NPV.

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• 46.

### Risk is reduced when a proportion of costs are fixed.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
When a proportion of costs are fixed, it means that these costs do not change regardless of the level of activity or production. This can actually increase the risk because if the business or project does not generate enough revenue to cover these fixed costs, it can lead to financial difficulties and potentially even failure. On the other hand, when costs are variable, they fluctuate with the level of activity, allowing for more flexibility and potentially reducing risk. Therefore, the statement that risk is reduced when a proportion of costs are fixed is false.

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• 47.

### Monte Carlo simulation can be used to help forecast cash flows.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Monte Carlo simulation is a statistical technique that uses random sampling to model and analyze the impact of uncertainty and variability in a system. By running multiple simulations, it can help forecast cash flows by generating a range of possible outcomes and their probabilities. This allows decision-makers to understand the potential risks and uncertainties associated with cash flow projections and make more informed decisions. Therefore, the statement that Monte Carlo simulation can be used to help forecast cash flows is true.

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• 48.

### Decisions trees can help identify and describe real options.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Decision trees are a graphical representation of possible choices and outcomes, which can help in identifying and describing real options. By mapping out different decision paths, decision trees provide a visual representation of the available choices, their potential outcomes, and the associated probabilities. This can be useful in analyzing and evaluating different options in various fields such as business, finance, and project management. Therefore, the statement "Decisions trees can help identify and describe real options" is true.

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• 49.

### The option to expand increases PV.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Expanding a system increases the volume (V) while keeping the pressure (P) constant. According to the ideal gas law (PV = nRT), if the pressure remains constant and the volume increases, the product of pressure and volume (PV) will also increase. Therefore, the statement that "The option to expand increases PV" is true.

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• 50.

### High abandonment value decreases PV.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
High abandonment value does not decrease present value (PV). In fact, abandonment value refers to the residual value of an asset or investment at the end of its useful life. This value is typically considered in the calculation of PV, as it represents potential future cash flows. Therefore, a higher abandonment value would actually increase the PV, as it adds to the overall value of the investment. Hence, the correct answer is False.

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