# Nature Of Matter Unit Test

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Nature of Matter

• 1.

### Which of the following is a characteristic property of an element?

• A.

Boiling point

• B.

Volume

• C.

Shape

• D.

Weight

A. Boiling point
Explanation
Boiling point is a characteristic property of an element because it is a specific temperature at which the element changes from a liquid to a gas. Each element has a unique boiling point that remains constant regardless of the amount or shape of the substance. Therefore, boiling point can be used to identify and distinguish different elements. In contrast, volume, shape, and weight can vary depending on the amount and physical conditions of the substance, making them not characteristic properties of an element.

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• 2.

### A cubic centimeter is a unit for measuring

• A.

Length

• B.

Mass

• C.

Volume

• D.

Density

C. Volume
Explanation
A cubic centimeter is a unit for measuring volume. Volume is the amount of space occupied by an object or substance. In this case, a cubic centimeter refers to a cube with sides that are each one centimeter long. The volume of this cube would be one cubic centimeter. Therefore, the correct answer is volume.

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• 3.

### Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a compound?

• A.

Has different properties from the elements that formed it

• B.

Is a pure substance

• C.

Different samples have different properties

• D.

Can be represented by a formula

C. Different samples have different properties
Explanation
A compound is a pure substance that is made up of two or more different elements chemically combined in a fixed ratio. It has different properties from the elements that formed it, can be represented by a formula, and is a pure substance. However, different samples of a compound will have the same properties, as the composition and arrangement of atoms are consistent throughout. Therefore, the statement "Different samples have different properties" is not a characteristic of a compound.

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• 4.

### An unchanging measurement of the amount of matter an object contains is its

• A.

Mass

• B.

Volume

• C.

Density

• D.

Length

A. Mass
Explanation
Mass is the correct answer because it refers to the measurement of the amount of matter an object contains. Mass is a fundamental property of matter and is typically measured in units such as kilograms or grams. It is different from weight, which is the force exerted on an object due to gravity. Mass remains constant regardless of the object's location, while weight can vary depending on the strength of gravity.

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• 5.

### Characteristic properties for a substance

• A.

Depends on volume

• B.

Never change

• C.

Depends on temperature

• D.

Differ on different planets

B. Never change
Explanation
The characteristic properties of a substance never change. This means that regardless of the volume or temperature, these properties remain constant. Additionally, these properties are not affected by the conditions on different planets.

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• 6.

### A (n) _____ is a well-blended mixture that appears to be a single substance.

• A.

Compound

• B.

Pure Substance

• C.

Element

• D.

Solution

D. Solution
Explanation
A solution is a well-blended mixture that appears to be a single substance. In a solution, the solute is evenly distributed and dissolved in the solvent, resulting in a homogeneous mixture. This means that the components of the solution are thoroughly mixed and cannot be easily separated. Therefore, a solution can be considered a single substance, despite being composed of different components.

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• 7.

### A chemical bond is

• A.

A group of atoms that are joined together

• B.

The basic particle of matter

• C.

The force that holds two atoms together

• D.

A substance formed from the chemical combination of two or more atoms

C. The force that holds two atoms together
Explanation
The correct answer is "The force that holds two atoms together." This is because a chemical bond is a strong attraction between two atoms that allows them to be held together in a molecule. This force can be due to the sharing or transfer of electrons between the atoms, resulting in the formation of a stable compound.

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• 8.

### Which of the following is an example of a chemical change?

• A.

Melting butter

• B.

Breaking Glass

• C.

Mixing milk and chocolate syrup

• D.

Burning Leaves

D. Burning Leaves
Explanation
Burning leaves is an example of a chemical change because it involves a chemical reaction where the leaves undergo combustion, resulting in the production of new substances such as ash, smoke, and gases. This process involves the breaking and forming of chemical bonds, leading to a change in the composition and properties of the leaves. In contrast, melting butter, breaking glass, and mixing milk and chocolate syrup are examples of physical changes where the substances involved may change their state or position, but their chemical composition remains the same.

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• 9.

### Which of the following is NOT true of atoms?

• A.

They are a compound of molecules

• B.

They make up elements

• C.

They combine to form compounds

• D.

They are extremely small

A. They are a compound of molecules
Explanation
Atoms are not a compound of molecules. Atoms are the basic building blocks of matter and are the smallest unit of an element that retains its chemical properties. Molecules, on the other hand, are made up of two or more atoms bonded together. Therefore, atoms are not a compound of molecules.

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• 10.

### The measure of the average energy of motion of the particles in a substance is

• A.

Temperature

• B.

Pressure

• C.

Chemical Energy

• D.

Viscosity

A. Temperature
Explanation
Temperature is the measure of the average energy of motion of the particles in a substance. It indicates the level of heat or coldness of a substance and is directly related to the kinetic energy of the particles. When the temperature increases, the particles gain more energy and move faster, while a decrease in temperature results in slower particle movement. Therefore, temperature is the correct answer as it represents the average energy of motion of particles in a substance.

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• 11.

### A liquid has a

• A.

Constant temperature

• B.

Crystal structure

• C.

Definite shape

• D.

Definite volume

D. Definite volume
Explanation
The given answer, "definite volume," is correct because a liquid is a state of matter that has a fixed volume. Unlike gases, which can expand or contract to fill the container they are in, liquids maintain their volume and take on the shape of the container they are in. This is due to the intermolecular forces between the particles in a liquid, which are strong enough to keep the particles close together but not rigidly arranged like in a solid. Therefore, regardless of the temperature or pressure, a liquid will always have a specific and constant volume.

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• 12.

### The change from a gas to a liquid is called

• A.

Evaporation

• B.

Melting

• C.

Condensation

• D.

Sublimation

C. Condensation
Explanation
When a gas changes into a liquid, it is called condensation. This process occurs when the gas loses heat energy and transforms into a liquid state. Condensation is commonly observed when warm air comes into contact with a cooler surface, causing water vapor in the air to turn into liquid droplets. This change is opposite to evaporation, where a liquid turns into a gas, and different from melting, which refers to the change from a solid to a liquid. Sublimation, on the other hand, is the direct transition from a solid to a gas without passing through the liquid phase.

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• 13.

### Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of crystalline solids?

• A.

Particles arranged in repeating patterns

• B.

Becomes softer and softer as temperature rises

• C.

• D.

Has a distinct melting point

B. Becomes softer and softer as temperature rises
Explanation
Crystalline solids are known for their particles being arranged in repeating patterns, being made up of crystals, and having a distinct melting point. However, they do not become softer and softer as temperature rises. In fact, crystalline solids tend to maintain their rigidity and structure even at higher temperatures, as the arrangement of particles remains relatively stable.

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• 14.

### Boyle’s Law state that as the pressure of gas increases, its

• A.

Volume increases

• B.

Volume decreases

• C.

Temperature increases

• D.

Temperature decreases

B. Volume decreases
Explanation
According to Boyle's Law, as the pressure of a gas increases, its volume decreases. This is because when the pressure on a gas is increased, the gas molecules are forced closer together, resulting in a decrease in volume. Conversely, when the pressure on a gas is decreased, the gas molecules have more space to move around, causing an increase in volume. Therefore, the correct answer is that as the pressure of gas increases, its volume decreases.

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• 15.

### Which of the following is NOT an example of vaporization?

• A.

Dry air gains water as it moves over the ocean

• B.

A bubble forms as water boils

• C.

Wet pavement dries after a rain shower

• D.

Water droplets form on a mirror

D. Water droplets form on a mirror
Explanation
Water droplets forming on a mirror is not an example of vaporization because it involves the process of condensation. Vaporization refers to the phase change from a liquid to a gas, while condensation is the opposite process, where water vapor changes back into a liquid state. In this case, the water droplets on the mirror are formed when water vapor in the air comes into contact with the cool surface of the mirror and condenses into liquid water.

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• 16.

### A substance which takes the shape of volume of its container is a

• A.

Solid

• B.

Gas

• C.

Liquid

• D.

Crystal

C. Liquid
Explanation
A substance that takes the shape of the volume of its container is a liquid. Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow and conform to the shape of their container. Unlike solids, which have a fixed shape and volume, liquids can change shape and fill the container they are placed in. Gases also take the shape of their container, but they do not have a definite volume, unlike liquids. Crystals, on the other hand, have a fixed shape and are not able to take the shape of their container.

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• 17.

### Which of the following is an example of a chemical change?

• A.

Twisting a wire

• B.

Water freezing

• C.

A pond drying up

• D.

Burning gasoline producing carbon dioxide

D. Burning gasoline producing carbon dioxide
Explanation
Burning gasoline producing carbon dioxide is an example of a chemical change because it involves a reaction where the gasoline molecules are broken down and rearranged to form new molecules of carbon dioxide. This process is irreversible and results in the formation of different substances with different properties, indicating a chemical change.

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• 18.

### As the gas in a rigid container is heated, its

• A.

Pressure increases

• B.

Volume increases

• C.

Pressure decreases

• D.

Volume decreases

A. Pressure increases
Explanation
When the gas in a rigid container is heated, the temperature of the gas molecules increases. This increase in temperature causes the gas molecules to move faster and collide with the walls of the container more frequently and with greater force. As a result, the gas exerts a higher pressure on the walls of the container, leading to an increase in pressure.

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• 19.

### A liquid with a low viscosity

• A.

Has a definite shape

• B.

Flows quickly

• C.

Flows slowly

• D.

Fills it's container

B. Flows quickly
Explanation
A liquid with a low viscosity flows quickly because viscosity refers to a liquid's resistance to flow. Therefore, a liquid with low viscosity will have less resistance and flow more easily and quickly.

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• 20.

### An element’s properties can be predicted from its

• A.

Number of protons

• B.

Number of neutrons

• C.

Atomic mass

• D.

Location in the periodic table

D. Location in the periodic table
Explanation
The properties of an element can be predicted from its location in the periodic table. The periodic table is organized based on the element's atomic number, which is determined by the number of protons in its nucleus. Elements in the same group or period of the periodic table tend to have similar properties due to their similar electron configurations. Therefore, by knowing the element's location in the periodic table, we can make predictions about its properties.

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• 21.

### In the ___ state of matter, electrons are stripped away from the nuclei.

• A.

Gas

• B.

Plasma

• C.

Liquid

• D.

Solid

B. Plasma
Explanation
Plasma is the state of matter where electrons are stripped away from the nuclei. In this state, the atoms are ionized, meaning they have an imbalance of positive and negative charges. This allows the particles to move freely and conduct electricity. Plasma is commonly found in stars, lightning, and fluorescent lights.

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• 22.

### If a substance is ____, it can be pulled or drawn into a wire.

• A.

Ductile

• B.

Malleable

• C.

Liquid

• D.

Solid

A. Ductile
Explanation
A substance that is ductile can be pulled or drawn into a wire. This means that it has the ability to be stretched or deformed without breaking. Materials like metals, such as copper or gold, are known for their ductility and can be easily formed into wires. This property is important in various industries, including electrical and jewelry manufacturing, where the ability to create thin wires is necessary.

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• 23.

### The sun and many other stars are made mostly of the element

• A.

Carbon

• B.

Iron

• C.

Hydrogen

• D.

Oxygen

C. Hydrogen
Explanation
The correct answer is hydrogen because it is the most abundant element in the universe and makes up about 75% of the sun's mass. Hydrogen is also the primary fuel source for stars, undergoing nuclear fusion to release energy. Carbon, iron, and oxygen are also present in stars, but they are not as abundant as hydrogen.

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• 24.

### A (n) _____ is a positively charged particle in an atom’s nucleus.

• A.

Electron

• B.

Neutron

• C.

Plasma

• D.

Proton

D. Proton
Explanation
A proton is a positively charged particle in an atom's nucleus. It is one of the fundamental particles that make up an atom, along with neutrons and electrons. Protons have a positive charge, which balances out the negative charge of electrons, resulting in a neutral atom.

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• 25.

### Which o f the following is NOT a characteristic of most metals?

• A.

Brittle

• B.

Good conductor

• C.

Ductile

• D.

Malleable

A. Brittle
Explanation
Most metals are not brittle, meaning they can withstand deformation without breaking easily. This is because metals have a crystalline structure that allows atoms to slide past each other, making them malleable and ductile. Additionally, metals are known for their good conductivity of heat and electricity. Therefore, the characteristic that does not apply to most metals is being brittle.

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• 26.

### An element’s ____ shows the number of protons in its nucleus.

• A.

Atomic mass

• B.

Chemical symbol

• C.

Atomic number

• D.

Period

C. Atomic number
Explanation
The atomic number of an element represents the number of protons in its nucleus. It is a unique identifier for each element and determines its position on the periodic table. The atomic number is crucial in determining an element's properties and its interactions with other elements. Therefore, the correct answer is atomic number.

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• 27.

### Dmitri Mendeleev created the first

• A.

Chemical reaction

• B.

Periodic table

• C.

Metal alloy

• D.

Semiconductor

B. Periodic table
Explanation
Dmitri Mendeleev is well-known for creating the first periodic table. He organized the elements based on their properties and atomic weights, leaving gaps for undiscovered elements. This arrangement allowed him to predict the properties of these missing elements, leading to the discovery of new elements in the future. Mendeleev's periodic table became the foundation for our modern understanding of the elements and their relationships, making "periodic table" the correct answer.

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• 28.

### The particles that are involved in the transfer or sharing between atoms are

• A.

Plasma

• B.

Neutrons

• C.

Protons

• D.

Valence electrons

D. Valence electrons
Explanation
Valence electrons are the electrons located in the outermost energy level of an atom. They are involved in the transfer or sharing of electrons between atoms, leading to the formation of chemical bonds. This process allows atoms to achieve a stable electron configuration, usually by filling or emptying their outermost energy level. Valence electrons play a crucial role in determining the chemical properties and reactivity of elements, as they are responsible for the formation of compounds and the behavior of atoms in chemical reactions.

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• 29.

### A (n) ___ has some of the properties of both metal and nonmetals.

• A.

Alloy

• B.

Metalloid

• C.

Alkaline earth metal

• D.

Noble gas

B. Metalloid
Explanation
A metalloid is the correct answer because it is a type of element that exhibits some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals. Metalloids have characteristics such as being semi-conductors of electricity, having varying degrees of metallic luster, and being able to form alloys with metals. These elements are found in the periodic table along the staircase line, separating the metals from the nonmetals.

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• 30.

### One characteristic property of a substance is

• A.

Size

• B.

Shape

• C.

Melting point

• D.

Temperature

C. Melting point
Explanation
The melting point of a substance is a characteristic property because it is unique to that substance and does not depend on the amount or shape of the sample. It is the temperature at which a solid substance changes into a liquid state. Different substances have different melting points due to variations in their molecular structure and intermolecular forces. Therefore, the melting point can be used to identify and distinguish between different substances. Size, shape, and temperature are not characteristic properties as they can vary depending on the conditions and are not specific to a particular substance.

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• 31.

### A block of metal has a length of 3 centimeters, a width of 5 centimeters, a height of 10 centimeters, and a mass of 3,000 grams. Find the density of the metal in g/cm3.  (Remember: density=mass/volume)

• A.

20 g/cm3

• B.

0.5 g/cm3

• C.

50 g/cm3

• D.

0.02 g/cm3

A. 20 g/cm3
Explanation
The density of a substance is calculated by dividing its mass by its volume. In this case, the mass of the metal is given as 3,000 grams. To find the volume, we multiply the length, width, and height of the metal, which gives us a volume of 150 cubic centimeters. Dividing the mass by the volume, we get a density of 20 grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3).

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• 32.

### When water freezes, it undergoes

• A.

A physical change

• B.

Vaporization

• C.

A chemical change

• D.

Sublimation

A. A physical change
Explanation
When water freezes, it undergoes a physical change. Freezing is the process in which a substance changes from a liquid state to a solid state due to the removal of heat energy. In this case, water molecules slow down and come closer together, forming a rigid and organized structure. This change does not involve any chemical reactions or the formation of new substances, but rather a rearrangement of the existing water molecules. Therefore, the correct answer is a physical change.

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• 33.

### The elements in one group of the periodic table

• A.

Have the same number of electrons

• B.

Have the same number of valence electrons

• C.

Decreases in atomic mass from left to right

• D.

Increases in atomic number from left to right

B. Have the same number of valence electrons
Explanation
Elements in one group of the periodic table have the same number of valence electrons. Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom, and they are responsible for the chemical behavior of the element. Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties because they have the same number of valence electrons, which determines their ability to form bonds and react with other elements. Therefore, this statement accurately describes the relationship between elements in a group on the periodic table.

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• 34.

### Where are nonmetals located in the periodic table?

• A.

In group 2

• B.

In the bottom row

• C.

On the left half of the table

• D.

To the right of the zigzag line

D. To the right of the zigzag line
Explanation
Nonmetals are located to the right of the zigzag line in the periodic table. This line separates the metals from the nonmetals and metalloids. Nonmetals are typically found in the upper right corner of the periodic table and include elements such as hydrogen, helium, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. They have properties such as low conductivity, brittle solids or gases, and tend to gain electrons in chemical reactions.

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• 35.

### Dalton’s atomic theory contains all of the following ideas EXCEPT

• A.

Atoms of two or more elements can combine to form compounds

• B.

In any element, all the atoms are exactly alike

• C.

Atoms of each element have a unique mass

• D.

Atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons

D. Atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons
Explanation
Dalton's atomic theory contains the ideas that atoms of two or more elements can combine to form compounds, that in any element all the atoms are exactly alike, and that atoms of each element have a unique mass. However, it does not include the idea that atoms are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons. This concept was discovered later through the development of the atomic model.

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• 36.

### How is a standard hydrogen atom different from a hydrogen ion?

• A.

A hydrogen ion has an extra electron

• B.

A hydrogen ion is missing a proton

• C.

A hydrogen ion has an extra proton

• D.

A hydrogen ion has an extra neutron

A. A hydrogen ion has an extra electron
Explanation
A standard hydrogen atom consists of one proton and one electron, while a hydrogen ion is formed when the atom loses its electron. Therefore, a hydrogen ion is different from a standard hydrogen atom because it is missing an electron.

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• 37.

### What might happen if you mixed a strong acid with an equally strong base?

• A.

You will see an explosive chemical reaction

• B.

The acid would destroy the base

• C.

The base would destroy the acid

• D.

The substance will be pH neutral

D. The substance will be pH neutral
Explanation
When a strong acid is mixed with an equally strong base, they neutralize each other. This is because the acid donates a proton (H+) to the base, forming water and a salt. The resulting substance will have a pH of 7, which is considered neutral. There would not be an explosive chemical reaction, and neither the acid nor the base would destroy each other.

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• 38.

### An extremely strong base would have a pH of____

• A.

1

• B.

7

• C.

9

• D.

14

D. 14
Explanation
An extremely strong base would have a pH of 14 because the pH scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 0 being extremely acidic and 14 being extremely basic. A base with a pH of 14 would have a high concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) and a low concentration of hydrogen ions (H+), indicating a strong alkaline nature.

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• 39.

### What might happen if buffers did not exist within the human body?

• A.

Our blood and other bodily fluids might become too acidic or too basic

• B.

Our stomach acid would not be able to break down food

• C.

We would not be able to process glucose within our cells

• D.

We would bot be able to inhale oxygen into our lungs

A. Our blood and other bodily fluids might become too acidic or too basic
Explanation
If buffers did not exist within the human body, our blood and other bodily fluids might become too acidic or too basic. Buffers are substances that help maintain the pH balance in our body by resisting changes in acidity or alkalinity. Without buffers, any slight change in pH could lead to a significant imbalance, which can have detrimental effects on various bodily functions. This imbalance can disrupt enzyme activity, affect cell function, and potentially lead to serious health issues. Therefore, the presence of buffers is crucial for maintaining the proper pH balance in our body.

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• 40.

### Healthy environments for life have a pH closest to:

• A.

1

• B.

3

• C.

7

• D.

10

C. 7
Explanation
Healthy environments for life have a pH closest to 7. pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance, and a pH of 7 is considered neutral. In the context of living organisms, a pH of 7 is ideal because it allows for the proper functioning of biological processes. A pH that is too acidic or too alkaline can disrupt the balance within living systems and lead to negative health effects. Therefore, a pH closest to 7 is the most favorable for maintaining a healthy environment for life.

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