Fundamentals Of Nursing NCLEX Quiz 10

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Fundamentals Of Nursing NCLEX Quiz 10 - Quiz

All questions are shown, but the results will only be given after you’ve finished the quiz. You are given 1 minute per question, a total of 10 minutes in this quiz.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The nurse wishes to identify nursing diagnoses for a patient. She can best do this by using a data collection form organized according to: Select all that apply.

    • A.

      A body systems model

    • B.

      A head-to-toe framework

    • C.

      Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

    • D.

      Gordon’s functional health patterns

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
    D. Gordon’s functional health patterns
    Explanation
    Nursing models produce a holistic database that is useful in identifying nursing rather than medical diagnoses. Body systems and head-to-toe are not nursing models. and they are not holistic; they focus on identifying physiological needs or disease. Maslow’s hierarchy is not a nursing model. but it is holistic. so it is acceptable for identifying nursing diagnoses. Gordon’s functional health patterns are a nursing model.

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  • 2. 

    The nurse is recording assessment data. She writes. “The patient seems worried about his surgery. Other than that. he had a good night.” Which errors did the nurse make? Select all that apply.

    • A.

      Used a vague generality

    • B.

      Did not use the patient’s exact words

    • C.

      Used a “waffle” word (e.g.. appears)

    • D.

      Recorded an inference rather than a cue

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Used a vague generality
    C. Used a “waffle” word (e.g.. appears)
    D. Recorded an inference rather than a cue
    Explanation
    The nurse recorded a vague generality: “he has had a good night.” The nurse did not use the patient’s exact words. but she did not quote the patient at all. so that is not one of her errors. The nurse used the “waffle” word. “seems” worried instead of documenting what the patient said or did to lead her to that conclusion. The nurse recorded these inferences: worried and had a good night.

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  • 3. 

    A patient is admitted with shortness of breath. so the nurse immediately listens to his breath sounds. Which type of assessment is the nurse performing?

    • A.

      Ongoing assessment

    • B.

      Comprehensive physical assessment

    • C.

      Focused physical assessment

    • D.

      Psychosocial assessment

    Correct Answer
    C. Focused physical assessment
    Explanation
    The nurse is performing a focused physical assessment. which is done to obtain data about an identified problem. in this case shortness of breath. An ongoing assessment is performed as needed. after the initial data are collected. preferably with each patient contact. A comprehensive physical assessment includes an interview and a complete examination of each body system. A psychosocial assessment examines both psychological and social factors affecting the patient. The nurse conducting a psychosocial assessment would gather information about stressors. lifestyle. emotional health. social influences. coping patterns. communication. and personal responses to health and illness. to name a few aspects.

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  • 4. 

    The nurse is assessing vital signs for a patient just admitted to the hospital. Ideally. and if there are no contraindications. how should the nurse position the patient for this portion of the admission assessment?

    • A.

      Sitting upright

    • B.

      Lying flat on the back with knees flexed

    • C.

      Lying flat on the back with arms and legs fully extended

    • D.

      Side-lying with the knees flexed

    Correct Answer
    A. Sitting upright
    Explanation
    If the patient is able. the nurse should have the patient sit upright to obtain vital signs in order to allow the nurse to easily access the anterior and posterior chest for auscultation of heart and breath sounds. It allows for full lung expansion and is the preferred position for measuring blood pressure. Additionally. patients might be more comfortable and feel less vulnerable when sitting upright (rather than lying down on the back) and can have direct eye contact with the examiner. However. other positions can be suitable when the patient’s physical condition restricts the comfort or ability of the patient to sit upright.

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  • 5. 

    For all body systems except the abdomen. what is the preferred order for the nurse to perform the following examination techniques?(A. Palpation|B. Auscultation|C. Inspection|D. Percussion)

    • A.

      D. B. A. C

    • B.

      C. A. D. B

    • C.

      B. C. D. A

    • D.

      A. B. C. D

    Correct Answer
    B. C. A. D. B
    Explanation
    Inspection begins immediately as the nurse meets the patient. as she observes the patient’s appearance and behavior. Observational data are not intrusive to the patient. When performing assessment techniques involving physical touch. the behavior. posture. demeanor. and responses might be altered. Palpation. percussion. and auscultation should be performed in that order. except when performing an abdominal assessment. During abdominal assessment. auscultation should be performed before palpation and percussion to prevent altering bowel sounds.

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  • 6. 

    The nurse is assessing a patient admitted to the hospital with rectal bleeding. The patient had a hip replacement 2 weeks ago. Which position should the nurse avoid when examining this patient’s rectal area?

    • A.

      Sims’

    • B.

      Supine

    • C.

      Dorsal recumbent

    • D.

      Semi-Fowler’s

    Correct Answer
    A. Sims’
    Explanation
    Sims’ position is typically used to examine the rectal area. However. the position should be avoided if the patient has undergone hip replacement surgery The patient with a hip replacement can assume the supine. dorsal recumbent. or semi-Fowler’s positions without causing harm to the joint. Supine position is lying on the back facing upward. The patient in dorsal recumbent is on his back with knees flexed and soles of feet flat on the bed. In semi-Fowler’s position. the patient is supine with the head of the bed elevated and legs slightly elevated.

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  • 7. 

    How should the nurse modify the examination for a 7-year-old child?

    • A.

      Ask the parents to leave the room before the examination.

    • B.

      Demonstrate equipment before using it.

    • C.

      Allow the child to help with the examination.

    • D.

      Perform invasive procedures (e.g.. otoscopic) last.

    Correct Answer
    B. Demonstrate equipment before using it.
    Explanation
    The nurse should modify his examination by demonstrating equipment before using it to examine a school-age child. The nurse should make sure parents are not present during the physical examination of an adolescent. but they usually help younger children feel more secure. The nurse should allow a preschooler to help with the examination when possible. but not usually a school-age child. Toddlers are often fearful of invasive procedures. so those should be performed last in this age group. It is best to perform invasive procedures last for all age groups; therefore. this does not represent a modification.

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  • 8. 

    The nurse must examine a patient who is weak and unable to sit unaided or to get out of bed. How should she position the patient to begin and perform most of the physical examination?

    • A.

      Dorsal recumbent

    • B.

      Semi-Fowler’s

    • C.

      Lithotomy

    • D.

      Sims’

    Correct Answer
    B. Semi-Fowler’s
    Explanation
    If a patient is unable to sit up. the nurse should place him lying flat on his back. with the head of the bed elevated. Dorsal recumbent position is used for abdominal assessment if the patient has abdominal or pelvic pain. The patient in dorsal recumbent is on his back with knees flexed and soles of feet flat on the bed. Lithotomy position is used for female pelvic examination. It is similar to dorsal recumbent position. except that the patient’s legs are well separated and thighs are acutely flexed. Feet are usually placed in stirrups. Fold sheet or bath blanket crosswise over thighs and legs so that genital area is easily exposed. Keep patient covered as much as possible. The patient in Sim’s position is on left side with right knee flexed against abdomen and left knee slightly flexed. Left arm is behind body; right arm is placed comfortably. Sims’ position is used to examine the rectal area. In semi-Fowler’s position. the patient is supine with the head of the bed elevated and legs slightly elevated.

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  • 9. 

    The nurse should use the diaphragm of the stethoscope to auscultate which of the following?

    • A.

      Heart murmurs

    • B.

      Jugular venous hums

    • C.

      Bowel sounds

    • D.

      Carotid bruits

    Correct Answer
    C. Bowel sounds
    Explanation
    The bell of the stethoscope should be used to hear low-pitched sounds. such as murmurs. bruits. and jugular hums. The diaphragm should be used to hear high-pitched sounds that normally occur in the heart. lungs. and abdomen.

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  • 10. 

    The nurse calculates a body mass index (BMI) of 18 for a young adult woman who comes to the physician’s office for a college physical. This patient is considered:

    • A.

      Obese

    • B.

      Overweight

    • C.

      Average

    • D.

      Underweight

    Correct Answer
    D. Underweight
    Explanation
    For adults. BMI should range between 20 and 25; BMI less than 20 is considered underweight; BMI 25 to 29.9 is overweight; and BMI greater than 30 is considered obese.

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