It has been banned by United States Supreme Court decisions beginning with Baker v. Carr.
It was used traditionally to maintain urban control of the House of Representatives.
It can be used by a political party to draw boundary lines to control as many districts as possible.
It guarantees greater constituency control over elected representatives.
It ensures liberal control of the House of Representatives.
Parties have no organization except at the national level.
Parties are centrally organized to provide a smooth transition from one national campaign to the next.
Parties are organized much like a large corporation, in that decisions flow from national to state and local levels.
Local and state parties have virtually no power in the party system.
Separate and largely independent party organizations exist at national, state, and local levels.
It has increased the importance of state party organizations.
It has loosened the hold of party leaders over the nomination process.
It has reduced the role of citizens in the candidate selection process.
It has lowered the cost of running for office.
It has led to a decline in the importance of party voter-registration drives.
Primary elections tend to elicit a higher voter turnout than do general elections.
The majority of the electorate does not vote in most elections.
Voter turnout plays an insignificant role in election outcomes.
Adult citizens under the age of 30 tend to have the highest rate of voter turnout.
Voters with strong party identification vote less regularly than do independents.
Political parties are prohibited from sponsoring campaign advertisements, and interest groups are not.
Political parties represent broad arrays of issues, whereas interest groups are more likely to focus on narrow sets of issues.
Political parties are more likely to focus on national politics, whereas interest groups focus on local politics.
Political parties tend to have strength in particular regions, whereas the power of interest groups is more consistent across states.
Political parties are required to disclose their campaign finance activities, whereas interest groups are not.
Is narrow in scope and low in public visibility.
Is part of the president's legislative package.
Has been dramatized by the media.
Engages legislators' deeply held convictions.
Divides legislators along party lines.
The use of private property is regulated by the government.
Governments communicate with each other.
Public attitudes toward government are measured and reported.
Political values are passed to the next generation.
Children are trained for successful occupations.
Party platform adopted at the national convention
Vice-presidential running mate
Endorsement by political incumbents
Appeal of the candidates' spouses
Parties increasingly identify themselves with coherent ideologies to attract large blocks of voters.
The percentage of voters identifying themselves as either Democrats or Republicans has been declining since the 1970s.
National party organizations are generally the strongest party organizations.
It is increasingly difficult for third parties to gain more than two percent of the popular vote.
Most candidates prefer to run as independents rather than as Democrats or Republicans.
Low political efficacy among many voters
Laws protecting minority voting rights
Frequent elections at the state and local level
A 25-year-old white male with some high school education who is employed as a laborer in Florida
A 55-year-old African American saleswoman from Georgia who has a master's degree
A 65-year-old Hispanic male from California who is retired and lives on social security
A 35-year-old female secretary from New York with an associate's degree who is a devout Catholic
A 45-year-old white businessman from South Carolina who attends church weekly
They make campaign contributions in hopes of gaining access to legislators.
They are a part of political party organizations.
They are allowed to contribute to only one candidate in any election.
They nominate candidates for president at national party conventions.
They operate at the state level but not at the national level.
Endorse specific candidates for political office
Favor the position of one interest group over another
Counter the censorship activities of media watch groups
Mobilize economic interests in favor of a particular candidate
Decide which issues are important enough to bring to public attention
Writing letters to public officials
Voting in local elections
Voting in presidential elections
Contributing money to political candidates
Attending local party meetings
African American voters
Limits cannot be placed upon candidates' contributions to their own campaigns
Independent campaign expenditures by corporations and unions are protected by the First Amendment
Limits on issue advertisements 90 days before an election are unconstitutional
Limits on campaign contributions by minors are constitutional under the First Amendment
Requiring endorsement statements in campaign advertisements is unconsitutional
Pressing for changes in high-profile public policies
Lobbying members of Congress to make small changes in existing policy
Using the judiciary to invalidate federal legislation
Encouraging states to use their Tenth Amendment rights and ignore federal law
Running candidates for office
Labor union members
An increase in the number of organized interest groups
A increase in the influence of political action committee (PAC) money in congressional elections
State adoption of direct primary elections
The loss of party patronage power
The splitting of the two major parties into a multiparty system
Assess recognition of the candidate's name
Measure voters' support for the candidate's issues
Bring the opposition's opinions into alignment with those of the candidate
Fine-tune policy stands
Identify key issues among the voters
Lack of effective third parties
The need for the Electoral College
The way in which members are assigned to Congressional committees
The way in which the Speaker of the House is selected
Develop issues that are later adopted by the major political parties.
Draw enough votes from the major parties to throw the election into the House of Representatives.
Recruit leaders from the Democrats and Republicans to run for president.
Encourage a larger voter turnout.
Generate increased party identification among the electorate.
The president's party often wins a majority of seats in Congress by riding the president's coattails.
The allocation of electoral votes in the winner-take-all system exaggerates the margin of victory.
Presidents are allowed to implement their legislative agendas without interference during their first term.
The new president is allowed to replace a significant number of justices on the Supreme Court.
The incoming president automatically gains control of Congress.
Men are more likely to vote than are women.
Blue-collar workers are more likely to vote than are professionals.
Those with less than a high school education are more likely to vote than are college graduates.
Democrats are more likely to vote than are Republicans.
Senior citizens are more likely to vote than are college students.