Prior to 1800.
In the early 19th century.
Until shortly before the Civil War.
Until the Reform Era of the 20th century.
Until the Great Depression.
Fewer people vote in presidential elections.
Presidential incumbents can better serve their constituents.
Presidential incumbents can more easily avoid responsibility.
Presidential races are generally more competitive.
Congressional incumbents are more likely to be defeated.
Fundraisers, accountants, and lawyers.
Advertising, direct mail, and polling specialists.
Volunteers and advisers
All of these
None of these
Two time roundup.
Second wind surprise.
Follow their constituent's wishes closely.
Do what they perceive as best.
Influence committees to vote the delegate's positions.
Gather support from interest group representatives.
Follow the lead of the party caucuses.
Test of candidate's appeal.
Cost very little.
Can be directed at specific subgroups of the population.
Can blanket the entire electorate.
Reach only the literate.
Can convince strong partisans to change their perspectives.
Their larger share of federal campaign monies.
The political advantage of riding the president's coattails.
Their use of free mailings, known as the franking privilege.
Their freedom from FEC regulations.
B & D
Taking a chance on a new candidate.
Picking the incumbent over the challenger.
Picking the challenger over the incumbent.
Voting according to future expectations
Voting for incumbents regardless of party identification.
Texas, New York, Connecticut
New York, Connecticut, California
Connecticut, California, Texas
Illinois, Florida, Arizona
New York, Texas, California
1896 to 1932
1916 to 1948
1932 to 1960
1948 to 1968
1972 to 1996