AP Review Quiz Chapter 8

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AP Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Presidential nominees were chosen by caucuses of their party's members in Congress

    • A.

      Prior to 1800.

    • B.

      In the early 19th century.

    • C.

      Until shortly before the Civil War.

    • D.

      Until the Reform Era of the 20th century.

    • E.

      Until the Great Depression.

    Correct Answer
    B. In the early 19th century.
    Explanation
    Presidential nominees were chosen by caucuses of their party's members in Congress in the early 19th century. This means that during this time period, the selection of presidential nominees was primarily done through caucuses, where members of the party in Congress would gather and decide on the nominee. This method of nomination selection was prevalent until the early 19th century, after which it underwent changes due to various factors such as the Reform Era and the Great Depression.

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  • 2. 

    A major difference between presidential campaigns and congressional campaigns is that

    • A.

      Fewer people vote in presidential elections.

    • B.

      Presidential incumbents can better serve their constituents.

    • C.

      Presidential incumbents can more easily avoid responsibility.

    • D.

      Presidential races are generally more competitive.

    • E.

      Congressional incumbents are more likely to be defeated.

    Correct Answer
    D. Presidential races are generally more competitive.
    Explanation
    Presidential races are generally more competitive compared to congressional campaigns. This is because the presidency is a highly coveted position with significant power and influence, leading to intense competition among candidates. In contrast, congressional campaigns often face incumbents who have established a strong base of support and are more likely to be reelected. The competitive nature of presidential races can be attributed to the national spotlight, media attention, and the higher stakes involved in determining the leader of the country.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following groups are truly essential to a presidential campaign organization?

    • A.

      Fundraisers, accountants, and lawyers.

    • B.

      Advertising, direct mail, and polling specialists.

    • C.

      Volunteers and advisers

    • D.

      All of these

    • E.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    All of the groups mentioned (fundraisers, accountants, lawyers, advertising specialists, direct mail specialists, polling specialists, volunteers, and advisers) are truly essential to a presidential campaign organization. Fundraisers are needed to gather financial support, accountants ensure proper financial management, lawyers handle legal matters, advertising specialists create effective campaign ads, direct mail specialists handle mass mailings, polling specialists conduct surveys to gauge public opinion, volunteers assist with various campaign tasks, and advisers provide strategic guidance. Therefore, all these groups play crucial roles in running a successful presidential campaign.

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  • 4. 

    Parties tend to betray their platforms once they are in office.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Parties tend to betray their platforms once they are in office. This suggests that political parties often fail to fulfill their promises and commitments once they gain power. They may deviate from their stated principles and policies, compromising on their original platform to accommodate various factors such as public opinion, political pressure, or personal interests. This phenomenon is not uncommon in politics, where compromises and strategic decisions are often made, leading to a departure from the party's initial platform.

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  • 5. 

    In 1911, Congress decided that the House should have become large enough and voted to fix its size at

    • A.

      100

    • B.

      435

    • C.

      535

    • D.

      537

    • E.

      600

    Correct Answer
    B. 435
    Explanation
    In 1911, Congress made the decision to fix the size of the House at 435 members. This was done because they believed that this number would provide a balance between representation and efficiency. By limiting the size of the House, they aimed to prevent it from becoming too large and unwieldy, while still ensuring that each state had a fair number of representatives based on their population. This decision has remained in place since then, with each state being allocated a certain number of representatives based on the population data from the decennial census.

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  • 6. 

    The increase in voter support that a member of the House receives in his/her first bid for reelection is referred to as the

    • A.

      No-brainer march.

    • B.

      Post-office bounce.

    • C.

      Two time roundup.

    • D.

      Second wind surprise.

    • E.

      Sophomore surge.

    Correct Answer
    E. Sophomore surge.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "sophomore surge." This term refers to the increase in voter support that a member of the House receives in their first bid for reelection. It is called a "sophomore surge" because it typically occurs during their second term, or sophomore term, in office. This surge in support can be attributed to factors such as increased name recognition, incumbency advantage, and the ability to build on previous accomplishments and relationships with constituents.

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  • 7. 

    Primary voters and voters in the general election are usually similar.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because primary voters and voters in the general election are not always similar. Primary voters tend to be more politically engaged and ideologically extreme compared to general election voters. Primary voters are typically more committed to a specific party or candidate and have stronger partisan preferences. On the other hand, general election voters are a broader and more diverse group that includes independent voters and those who may not be as politically active or informed. Therefore, the characteristics and preferences of primary voters and general election voters can vary significantly.

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  • 8. 

    Who said "all politics is local?"

    • A.

      Will Rodgers.

    • B.

      Groucho Marx.

    • C.

      Karl Marx.

    • D.

      Huey Long.

    • E.

      "Tip" O'Neill.

    Correct Answer
    E. "Tip" O'Neill.
    Explanation
    "Tip" O'Neill is the correct answer because he is widely credited with popularizing the phrase "all politics is local." This phrase emphasizes the idea that politicians must pay attention to the concerns and needs of their constituents in order to be successful. O'Neill, a former Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, was known for his ability to connect with people on a local level and understand the importance of addressing their issues. His statement reflects the belief that local issues and interests have a significant impact on politics at all levels.

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  • 9. 

    Legislators who think of themselves as delegates are most likely to

    • A.

      Follow their constituent's wishes closely.

    • B.

      Do what they perceive as best.

    • C.

      Influence committees to vote the delegate's positions.

    • D.

      Gather support from interest group representatives.

    • E.

      Follow the lead of the party caucuses.

    Correct Answer
    A. Follow their constituent's wishes closely.
    Explanation
    Legislators who think of themselves as delegates are most likely to follow their constituent's wishes closely because they believe their role is to represent the interests and opinions of the people who elected them. These legislators prioritize the desires and concerns of their constituents over their own personal beliefs or party affiliations. They view themselves as a direct voice for the people and strive to make decisions that align with the wishes of those they represent.

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  • 10. 

    Iowa holds the distinctive position in presidential races of having the first

    • A.

      Test of candidate's appeal.

    • B.

      Open primary.

    • C.

      Closed primary.

    • D.

      Regional primary.

    • E.

      Blanket primary.

    Correct Answer
    A. Test of candidate's appeal.
    Explanation
    Iowa holds the first test of candidate's appeal in presidential races. This means that it is the first state to hold caucuses or primaries during the election season, allowing candidates to gauge their popularity and appeal among voters. This test is significant because it sets the tone for the rest of the campaign and can greatly influence a candidate's chances of securing the nomination.

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  • 11. 

    Congressional elections are funded in part by public funds.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Congressional elections are not funded in part by public funds. Instead, they are primarily funded by private donations from individuals, political action committees (PACs), and political parties. Public funds are typically used for financing presidential elections through the Presidential Election Campaign Fund, but not for congressional elections. Therefore, the statement that congressional elections are funded in part by public funds is false.

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  • 12. 

    A ____________________ issue is one in which a candidate fully supports the pubic's view on a matter about which nearly everybody is in agreement.

    • A.

      Valence

    • B.

      Primary

    • C.

      Secondary

    • D.

      Position

    • E.

      Residual

    Correct Answer
    A. Valence
    Explanation
    A valence issue is one in which a candidate fully supports the public's view on a matter about which nearly everybody is in agreement. This means that the candidate aligns with the general consensus and does not deviate from popular opinion on the issue.

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  • 13. 

    An advantage of direct-mail appeals is that they

    • A.

      Cost very little.

    • B.

      Can be directed at specific subgroups of the population.

    • C.

      Can blanket the entire electorate.

    • D.

      Reach only the literate.

    • E.

      Can convince strong partisans to change their perspectives.

    Correct Answer
    B. Can be directed at specific subgroups of the population.
    Explanation
    Direct-mail appeals have the advantage of being able to be directed at specific subgroups of the population. This means that organizations or individuals can tailor their messages and target specific demographics or interest groups that are more likely to be receptive to their appeals. By doing so, they can increase the effectiveness of their communication and potentially achieve higher response rates. This targeted approach allows for a more efficient use of resources and can help ensure that the message reaches the intended audience.

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  • 14. 

    The Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002 raised the individual limit on contributions to ____________ per candidate per election.

    • A.

      $1,000

    • B.

      $2,000

    • C.

      $5,000

    • D.

      $10,000

    • E.

      $17,500

    Correct Answer
    B. $2,000
    Explanation
    The correct answer is $2,000. The Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002 increased the individual limit on contributions to $2,000 per candidate per election. This act aimed to regulate the influence of money in politics by placing restrictions on campaign financing and contributions. By raising the limit to $2,000, the act aimed to strike a balance between allowing individuals to support candidates they believe in while also preventing excessive influence from wealthy donors.

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  • 15. 

    Debates are usually advantageous to the challenger only.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Debates are usually advantageous to the challenger only because they provide an opportunity for the challenger to present their arguments, challenge the opponent's viewpoint, and potentially persuade the audience. The challenger can use the debate platform to showcase their knowledge, rhetorical skills, and ability to counter arguments effectively. On the other hand, the opponent may face the challenge of defending their position against the challenger's attacks. Therefore, debates often offer a greater advantage to the challenger in terms of presenting their case and influencing the audience.

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  • 16. 

    One advantage that incumbents always have over challengers is

    • A.

      Their larger share of federal campaign monies.

    • B.

      The political advantage of riding the president's coattails.

    • C.

      Their use of free mailings, known as the franking privilege.

    • D.

      Their freedom from FEC regulations.

    • E.

      B & D

    Correct Answer
    C. Their use of free mailings, known as the franking privilege.
    Explanation
    Incumbents have an advantage over challengers because they can use free mailings, known as the franking privilege. This allows them to communicate with their constituents at no cost, which helps them to maintain visibility and stay connected with voters. Challengers, on the other hand, do not have access to this privilege and often have to rely on other, more costly methods to reach potential voters. Therefore, the use of free mailings gives incumbents an edge in their campaigns.

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  • 17. 

    Prospective voting involves

    • A.

      Taking a chance on a new candidate.

    • B.

      Picking the incumbent over the challenger.

    • C.

      Picking the challenger over the incumbent.

    • D.

      Voting according to future expectations

    • E.

      Voting for incumbents regardless of party identification.

    Correct Answer
    D. Voting according to future expectations
    Explanation
    Prospective voting involves voting according to future expectations. This means that voters consider the promises, policies, and plans of the candidates and make their decision based on which candidate they believe will best serve their interests and bring about positive change in the future. Instead of focusing on past performance or party identification, prospective voting looks forward and evaluates the potential outcomes of each candidate's actions and decisions.

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  • 18. 

    A voter has a strong interest in local politics and knows how each candidate stands on key issues. This voter is known as a(n)

    • A.

      Analytic voter.

    • B.

      Prospective voter.

    • C.

      Retrospective voter.

    • D.

      Activist voter.

    • E.

      Sociotropic voter

    Correct Answer
    B. Prospective voter.
    Explanation
    A prospective voter is someone who has a strong interest in local politics and is knowledgeable about each candidate's stance on key issues. This type of voter is actively engaged in gathering information about the candidates and is likely to make an informed decision when voting.

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  • 19. 

    Contrary to what many people think, most of the money in congressional races comes from individual donors.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Most of the money in congressional races comes from individual donors, which goes against the common belief that it primarily comes from other sources such as corporations or special interest groups. This suggests that individual citizens play a significant role in funding political campaigns and have a direct impact on the outcome of elections.

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  • 20. 

    Retrospective voting usually helps the challenger in an election.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Retrospective voting refers to the practice of voters basing their decisions on the performance of incumbents. In an election, this means that voters assess the track record of the current officeholder and make a judgment based on their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with their performance. Typically, incumbents benefit from retrospective voting as they can highlight their accomplishments and experience. Therefore, the correct answer is false because retrospective voting usually favors the incumbent rather than the challenger.

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  • 21. 

    The Hispanic vote is concentrated in which three states?

    • A.

      Texas, New York, Connecticut

    • B.

      New York, Connecticut, California

    • C.

      Connecticut, California, Texas

    • D.

      Illinois, Florida, Arizona

    • E.

      New York, Texas, California

    Correct Answer
    E. New York, Texas, California
    Explanation
    The correct answer is New York, Texas, California. These three states have a large concentration of Hispanic voters. New York has a significant Hispanic population, particularly in cities like New York City. Texas has a large Hispanic population due to its proximity to Mexico and its history of Spanish colonization. California also has a large number of Hispanic voters, with cities like Los Angeles having a substantial Hispanic population. These three states are therefore important battlegrounds for politicians seeking to secure the Hispanic vote.

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  • 22. 

    The Republican party was clearly the dominant party from

    • A.

      1896 to 1932

    • B.

      1916 to 1948

    • C.

      1932 to 1960

    • D.

      1948 to 1968

    • E.

      1972 to 1996

    Correct Answer
    A. 1896 to 1932
    Explanation
    The Republican party was clearly the dominant party from 1896 to 1932 because during this period, the party won seven out of nine presidential elections. Republican presidents such as William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, and Herbert Hoover implemented policies that favored business interests and promoted economic growth. Additionally, the Republican party benefited from a strong base in the industrialized North and had support from conservative rural voters. The Great Depression in the early 1930s, which occurred under Republican President Hoover, marked a turning point in public opinion and led to a shift in dominance towards the Democratic party.

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  • 23. 

    An election that brought about wide-scale adoption of social assistance programs was that in

    • A.

      1956

    • B.

      1964

    • C.

      1972

    • D.

      1980

    • E.

      1992

    Correct Answer
    B. 1964
    Explanation
    In 1964, the election brought about wide-scale adoption of social assistance programs. This can be attributed to the fact that Lyndon B. Johnson, who was elected as the President of the United States in that year, implemented his "Great Society" agenda which aimed to eliminate poverty and racial injustice. As part of this agenda, several social assistance programs such as Medicare, Medicaid, and the Food Stamp Act were introduced, leading to significant changes in the social welfare system. Therefore, the election of 1964 had a significant impact on the adoption of social assistance programs.

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  • 24. 

    An election that brought about a significant reduction in taxes, spending, and regulatory practices was that in

    • A.

      1956

    • B.

      1964

    • C.

      1976

    • D.

      1980

    • E.

      1992

    Correct Answer
    D. 1980
    Explanation
    In 1980, there was an election that resulted in significant changes in taxes, spending, and regulatory practices. This suggests that the candidate or party elected in 1980 implemented policies aimed at reducing taxes, decreasing government spending, and deregulating certain practices. This election marked a shift towards a more conservative economic approach, with a focus on limited government intervention in the economy.

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  • 25. 

    In most campaigns today, political consultants, not party leaders, assume responsibility for getting a candidate elected.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Political campaigns have become increasingly complex and sophisticated, requiring specialized expertise. Political consultants are professionals who provide strategic advice, manage campaign operations, and handle various aspects of the campaign, such as messaging, media relations, and voter outreach. Party leaders may still play a role in the campaign, but the day-to-day responsibilities and decision-making are often delegated to political consultants who have the necessary skills and experience to navigate the modern campaign landscape. Therefore, it is true that political consultants, not party leaders, assume responsibility for getting a candidate elected in most campaigns today.

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