AP Government ChAPters 14-16

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AP Government Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Policies for which Congress has obligated itself to pay a certain level of benefits based on a certain number of recipients are known as

    • A.

      Entitlements.

    • B.

      Welfare.

    • C.

      Earmarks.

    • D.

      Pork.

    • E.

      Incremental expenditures.

    Correct Answer
    A. Entitlements.
    Explanation
    Policies for which Congress has obligated itself to pay a certain level of benefits based on a certain number of recipients are known as entitlements. This means that Congress has committed to providing specific benefits to individuals or groups who meet certain criteria, regardless of the overall budget or funding availability. These entitlement programs are typically designed to provide social welfare or assistance to those in need, such as Social Security or Medicare.

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  • 2. 

    Which federal agency was created in order to collect the federal income tax?

    • A.

      The Internal Revenue Service

    • B.

      The Auditors General

    • C.

      The Treasury Department

    • D.

      The Congressional Budget Office

    • E.

      The General Accounting Office

    Correct Answer
    A. The Internal Revenue Service
    Explanation
    The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) was created as a federal agency specifically to collect the federal income tax. It is responsible for enforcing tax laws, processing tax returns, and collecting taxes from individuals and businesses. The IRS plays a crucial role in the administration of the federal tax system and ensures that taxpayers comply with their tax obligations.

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  • 3. 

    Spending bills in Congress originate in

    • A.

      The House Ways and Means Committee and its subcommittees.

    • B.

      The Commerce Committees and their subcommittees.

    • C.

      The Appropriations Committees and their subcommittees.

    • D.

      The Expenditures Committees and their subcommittees.

    • E.

      The Senate Finance Committee and its subcommittees.

    Correct Answer
    C. The Appropriations Committees and their subcommittees.
    Explanation
    Spending bills in Congress originate in the Appropriations Committees and their subcommittees. These committees are responsible for determining how the government's funds are allocated and spent. They review and make decisions on the budget proposals put forward by various government agencies and departments. Once the spending bills are approved by these committees, they are then sent to the full House of Representatives and the Senate for further consideration and voting.

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  • 4. 

    Once a policy decision has been made, such as by passing a legislative act or issuing an executive order, the bureaucracy is responsible for

    • A.

      Judging its merits.

    • B.

      Its deregulation.

    • C.

      Its implementation.

    • D.

      Funding it.

    • E.

      Its ratification.

    Correct Answer
    C. Its implementation.
    Explanation
    Once a policy decision has been made, the bureaucracy is responsible for its implementation. This means that the bureaucracy is in charge of putting the policy into action, ensuring that it is carried out effectively and efficiently. This involves developing specific plans and strategies, coordinating with different departments and agencies, allocating resources, and monitoring progress. The bureaucracy plays a crucial role in translating policy decisions into practical actions that can achieve the intended goals and objectives.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is not one of the major sources of federal revenues?

    • A.

      Social insurance taxes

    • B.

      Personal income taxes

    • C.

      Sales taxes

    • D.

      Corporate income taxes

    • E.

      Borrowing

    Correct Answer
    C. Sales taxes
    Explanation
    Sales taxes are not one of the major sources of federal revenues. The major sources of federal revenues include social insurance taxes, personal income taxes, corporate income taxes, and borrowing. Sales taxes are typically collected by state and local governments, not the federal government. These taxes are imposed on the sale of goods and services and are used to fund state and local government programs and services.

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  • 6. 

    The Voting Rights Act of 1965

    • A.

      Failed to achieve its policy goals because of the outright hostility of street-level bureaucrats.

    • B.

      Was impossible to implement because of a lack of clarity in the legislation.

    • C.

      Was successfully implemented thanks to its clear goal, its clear methods to achieve the goal, and its lack of bureaucratic fragmentation.

    • D.

      Was very difficult to implement because of the fragmentation of responsibility for implementing it.

    • E.

      All but D are true.

    Correct Answer
    C. Was successfully implemented thanks to its clear goal, its clear methods to achieve the goal, and its lack of bureaucratic fragmentation.
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was successfully implemented due to its clear goal, clear methods to achieve the goal, and lack of bureaucratic fragmentation. This implies that the legislation had a defined objective, a well-defined plan to achieve that objective, and a lack of complications or obstacles caused by bureaucratic divisions. These factors contributed to the successful implementation of the act.

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  • 7. 

    The government borrows money principally by

    • A.

      Obtaining loans from the Federal Reserve.

    • B.

      Maintaining numerous credit card accounts.

    • C.

      Selling bonds.

    • D.

      Obtaining loans from foreign governments.

    • E.

      Printing more currency.

    Correct Answer
    C. Selling bonds.
    Explanation
    The government borrows money principally by selling bonds. Bonds are debt instruments issued by the government to raise funds. When individuals or institutions purchase these bonds, they are essentially lending money to the government. The government promises to repay the borrowed amount with interest at a specified future date. This method of borrowing allows the government to finance its operations and projects without solely relying on taxes or printing more currency, which could lead to inflation. Obtaining loans from the Federal Reserve or foreign governments are also methods of borrowing, but selling bonds is the principal way the government raises funds.

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  • 8. 

    Once the Office of Management and Budget has prepared the federal budget,

    • A.

      It becomes law.

    • B.

      Congress must vote it up or down as a package within ten days.

    • C.

      The president makes revisions and submits it to Congress.

    • D.

      It is sent to the Treasury Department for implementation.

    • E.

      It is either signed into law or vetoed by the president.

    Correct Answer
    C. The president makes revisions and submits it to Congress.
  • 9. 

    Studies have found that most Americans

    • A.

      Are indifferent about bureaucracies and bureaucrats.

    • B.

      Dislike bureaucrats.

    • C.

      Actually like bureaucracies.

    • D.

      Are satisfied with help received from bureaucrats.

    • E.

      Want the government bureaucracy dismantled.

    Correct Answer
    D. Are satisfied with help received from bureaucrats.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "are satisfied with help received from bureaucrats." This can be inferred from the statement that most Americans are indifferent about bureaucracies and bureaucrats. If they were dissatisfied or disliked bureaucrats, they would not likely be satisfied with the help received from them.

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  • 10. 

    An "iron triangle" consists of

    • A.

      Those favoring regulation X, those opposing regulation X, and the regulatory agency in charge of overseeing X.

    • B.

      The president, the head of a relevant congressional committee, and the head of any regulatory agency.

    • C.

      A bureaucratic agency, an interest group, and a congressional committee or subcommittee.

    • D.

      The metal stamp used to certify that the president has approved a new regulation and it now takes legal effect.

    • E.

      Representatives of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.

    Correct Answer
    C. A bureaucratic agency, an interest group, and a congressional committee or subcommittee.
    Explanation
    An "iron triangle" refers to a close and mutually beneficial relationship between a bureaucratic agency, an interest group, and a congressional committee or subcommittee. These three entities work together to shape and influence the creation and implementation of regulations. The bureaucratic agency is responsible for overseeing and enforcing the regulations, the interest group represents the specific industry or stakeholders affected by the regulations, and the congressional committee or subcommittee has the authority to create and amend the regulations. This collaboration often leads to policies that favor the interest group while still maintaining the appearance of government oversight and regulation.

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  • 11. 

    According to Government in America, which of the following is a legitimate criticism of the federal civil service?

    • A.

      It does not operate on the merit principle.

    • B.

      Firing incompetents is extremely difficult.

    • C.

      Workers are not protected against political firings.

    • D.

      Too many federal civil servants are actively involved in partisan politics.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Firing incompetents is extremely difficult.
    Explanation
    The federal civil service is criticized for making it extremely difficult to fire incompetents. This implies that there may be a lack of accountability and efficiency within the system.

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  • 12. 

    Forty years ago, the most expensive part of the federal budget was

    • A.

      Military spending.

    • B.

      Education.

    • C.

      Roads and bridges.

    • D.

      Social services.

    • E.

      Health care.

    Correct Answer
    A. Military spending.
    Explanation
    Forty years ago, the most expensive part of the federal budget was military spending. This suggests that a significant portion of the government's funds were allocated towards defense and armed forces. It implies that the government prioritized national security and defense initiatives during that time, potentially due to geopolitical factors or conflicts happening globally. The other options, such as education, roads and bridges, social services, and health care, were not as costly as military spending at that time.

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  • 13. 

    The General Services Administration and the National Aeronautical and Space administration are examples of

    • A.

      Government corporations.

    • B.

      Presidential administrative agencies.

    • C.

      Cabinet departments.

    • D.

      Independent executive agencies.

    • E.

      Independent regulatory agencies.

    Correct Answer
    D. Independent executive agencies.
    Explanation
    The General Services Administration and the National Aeronautical and Space Administration are examples of independent executive agencies. These agencies are created by Congress and are responsible for carrying out specific government functions. They have more independence and flexibility compared to cabinet departments, as they are not part of the executive branch's cabinet. They are also distinct from independent regulatory agencies, which have a specific regulatory function. Therefore, the correct answer is independent executive agencies.

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  • 14. 

    The Office of Management and Budget parcels out money to government agencies and is accountable to

    • A.

      The Secretary of the Treasury.

    • B.

      Congress.

    • C.

      The Internal Revenue Services.

    • D.

      The Congressional Budget Office.

    • E.

      The president.

    Correct Answer
    E. The president.
    Explanation
    The Office of Management and Budget is responsible for allocating funds to government agencies and is accountable to the president. The president has the authority to oversee and direct the budgetary decisions made by the Office of Management and Budget. This ensures that the president has control over the allocation of financial resources within the government and can align the budget with their policy priorities.

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  • 15. 

    The ________ Act was passed partly as a memorial to the memory of President James Garfield, who was assassinated in 1881.

    • A.

      Interstate Commerce

    • B.

      Hatch

    • C.

      Treason

    • D.

      Pendleton Civil Service

    • E.

      Voting Rights

    Correct Answer
    D. Pendleton Civil Service
    Explanation
    The Pendleton Civil Service Act was passed partly as a memorial to the memory of President James Garfield, who was assassinated in 1881. This act aimed to reform the civil service system by implementing a merit-based system for hiring and promoting government employees. It established the Civil Service Commission to oversee the recruitment and selection process, reducing the influence of political patronage in government appointments. The act was a response to the public outcry over the assassination of Garfield, who was shot by a disgruntled office-seeker.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following statements about President Reagan's 1981 tax cut is TRUE?

    • A.

      It led to a major reduction in federal deficits.

    • B.

      It spread the tax burden more fairly among taxpayers.

    • C.

      It reduced the federal government's tax expenditures.

    • D.

      It led to a major reduction in government spending.

    • E.

      It provided new tax incentives for personal savings and investment.

    Correct Answer
    E. It provided new tax incentives for personal savings and investment.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "It provided new tax incentives for personal savings and investment." This means that President Reagan's 1981 tax cut included provisions that encouraged individuals to save and invest their money by offering them tax incentives. This would have been done in order to stimulate economic growth and encourage individuals to contribute to the economy through savings and investment.

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  • 17. 

    The Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act was adopted in order to

    • A.

      Permit the president to cut any spending that exceeded deficit limits.

    • B.

      Change the way Congress enacted budgets.

    • C.

      Control deficit spending with the goal of balancing the federal budget.

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act was adopted to achieve multiple goals. It allowed the president to cut any spending that exceeded deficit limits, giving the executive branch more control over the budget. It also aimed to change the way Congress enacted budgets, potentially altering the budgetary process. Additionally, the act aimed to control deficit spending and ultimately balance the federal budget. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above."

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  • 18. 

    What government agency has been established to assist Congress in making budgeting decisions?

    • A.

      The Congressional Budget Office

    • B.

      The Internal Revenue Service

    • C.

      The Commerce Department

    • D.

      The Office of Management and Budget

    • E.

      The Treasury Department

    Correct Answer
    A. The Congressional Budget Office
    Explanation
    The Congressional Budget Office has been established to assist Congress in making budgeting decisions. It provides objective and nonpartisan analysis of economic and budgetary issues, prepares cost estimates for proposed legislation, and projects the costs and economic effects of policy alternatives. This agency plays a crucial role in helping Congress make informed decisions about the federal budget and fiscal policies.

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  • 19. 

    The Weberian model views bureaucracies as

    • A.

      Promoting good monopolies.

    • B.

      Efficient and necessary.

    • C.

      Largely self-serving.

    • D.

      Loosely organized and loosely run.

    • E.

      Hindering democracy.

    Correct Answer
    B. Efficient and necessary.
    Explanation
    The Weberian model views bureaucracies as efficient and necessary because it argues that a bureaucratic system with clear rules, hierarchical authority, and specialization of tasks can lead to efficient and effective administration. According to Max Weber, bureaucracies are necessary for the smooth functioning of complex organizations and societies, as they provide stability, predictability, and expertise in decision-making processes. This perspective emphasizes the importance of bureaucracy in achieving organizational goals and maintaining order and efficiency.

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  • 20. 

    According to Hugh Heclo, the plum book system of recruiting federal employees tends to result in the appointment of

    • A.

      Talented experts with proven party loyalty.

    • B.

      Administrators who do not stay long enough in their appointed position to be effective.

    • C.

      People with access to the Internet, but not necessarily the most qualified people.

    • D.

      Large numbers of women and minorities, just as it was intended to.

    • E.

      Senior civil servants to sensitive posts.

    Correct Answer
    B. Administrators who do not stay long enough in their appointed position to be effective.
    Explanation
    According to Hugh Heclo, the plum book system of recruiting federal employees tends to result in administrators who do not stay long enough in their appointed position to be effective. This means that the system often leads to a high turnover rate among administrators, which can hinder their ability to make a significant impact or carry out long-term initiatives.

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  • 21. 

    A major problem for presidents and Congress in controlling bureaucracies is the existence of

    • A.

      Standard operating procedures.

    • B.

      Supreme Court rulings curbing the scope of their oversight.

    • C.

      "iron triangles."

    • D.

      The plum book.

    • E.

      The incentive system.

    Correct Answer
    C. "iron triangles."
    Explanation
    Iron triangles refer to the close and mutually beneficial relationships that often develop between interest groups, congressional committees, and bureaucratic agencies. These relationships can hinder the ability of presidents and Congress to effectively control bureaucracies. Interest groups provide support and resources to congressional committees, who in turn provide favorable legislation and oversight to bureaucratic agencies. This creates a system where agencies can resist control and influence policy outcomes in their favor. Thus, iron triangles pose a significant challenge to the control and oversight of bureaucracies by presidents and Congress.

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  • 22. 

    The use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector is called

    • A.

      Policy implementation.

    • B.

      Regulation.

    • C.

      Administrative discretion.

    • D.

      Public administration.

    • E.

      Patronage.

    Correct Answer
    B. Regulation.
    Explanation
    Regulation refers to the use of governmental authority to control or change practices in the private sector. It involves the creation and enforcement of rules and standards to ensure compliance and maintain order. Policy implementation, on the other hand, refers to the process of putting policies into action. Administrative discretion refers to the authority given to public administrators to make decisions within their scope of authority. Public administration is a broader term that encompasses the management and implementation of government policies and programs. Patronage refers to the practice of granting favors or rewards in exchange for support or loyalty.

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  • 23. 

    As a whole, the permanent federal bureaucracy is

    • A.

      Composed of an American elite.

    • B.

      More broadly representative of the American people than the rest of the federal government.

    • C.

      Now employing 15 percent of the American workforce.

    • D.

      Less diverse in terms of the types of jobs than the private sector.

    • E.

      Dominated by white males.

    Correct Answer
    B. More broadly representative of the American people than the rest of the federal government.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "more broadly representative of the American people than the rest of the federal government." This means that the permanent federal bureaucracy includes a wider range of individuals from different backgrounds and demographics, making it more reflective of the diversity within the American population compared to other branches of the federal government.

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  • 24. 

    A budget deficit occurs when expenditures exceed

    • A.

      Appropriations.

    • B.

      Revenues.

    • C.

      Borrowing.

    • D.

      Inflation.

    • E.

      Authorizations.

    Correct Answer
    B. Revenues.
    Explanation
    A budget deficit occurs when expenditures exceed revenues. This means that the amount of money spent by the government is greater than the amount of money it receives through various sources such as taxes, fees, and other income. When this happens, the government may need to borrow money to cover the shortfall, which can lead to increased debt. Inflation and authorizations are not directly related to budget deficits.

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  • 25. 

    The schedule for federal employees ranging from GS 1 to GS 18, by which salaries are keyed to rating and experience is called the

    • A.

      Spoils System.

    • B.

      General Schedule.

    • C.

      Merit Schedule.

    • D.

      Federal Register.

    • E.

      Hatch Register.

    Correct Answer
    B. General Schedule.
    Explanation
    The General Schedule is the correct answer because it refers to the schedule for federal employees ranging from GS 1 to GS 18, where salaries are determined based on rating and experience. The General Schedule is a pay system used by the U.S. government to determine the salaries of most white-collar federal employees. It establishes pay grades and steps, with higher grades indicating higher levels of responsibility and experience. This system ensures that federal employees are compensated fairly and consistently based on their qualifications and experience.

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  • 26. 

    Patronage is a hiring and promotion system based on

    • A.

      The merit principle.

    • B.

      Knowing the right people.

    • C.

      Civil service exams.

    • D.

      The Pendleton Act.

    • E.

      Talent and skill.

    Correct Answer
    B. Knowing the right people.
    Explanation
    Patronage is a hiring and promotion system that is based on knowing the right people. This means that individuals are selected for positions or advancements based on their personal connections and relationships rather than their qualifications or abilities. This practice often leads to nepotism and favoritism, as individuals who are well-connected or have influential relationships are given preferential treatment in the hiring and promotion process.

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  • 27. 

    The Sixteenth Amendment, ratified in 1913,

    • A.

      Explicitly permitted Congress to levy an income tax.

    • B.

      Required the federal government to balance its budget each year.

    • C.

      Limited the total income tax Congress could levy on an individual.

    • D.

      Set up the Social Security system.

    • E.

      Forbade Congress from levying an income tax.

    Correct Answer
    A. Explicitly permitted Congress to levy an income tax.
    Explanation
    The Sixteenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, explicitly permitted Congress to levy an income tax. This means that before the amendment, Congress did not have the power to impose an income tax. The amendment granted Congress the authority to tax individuals' income, allowing them to generate revenue for the federal government. This change in the Constitution was a significant development in the history of taxation in the United States.

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  • 28. 

    Approximately what percentage of the annual federal budget pays interest on the national debt?

    • A.

      5

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      9

    • D.

      15

    • E.

      22

    Correct Answer
    C. 9
    Explanation
    Approximately 9% of the annual federal budget pays interest on the national debt. This means that a significant portion of the budget is allocated to servicing the interest payments on the debt that the government owes. This indicates that the national debt is a substantial financial burden on the government, and highlights the importance of managing and reducing the debt to ensure fiscal stability.

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  • 29. 

    In 1965, _______ was added to the Social Security program to provide health care coverage to the elderly.

    • A.

      Disability

    • B.

      Medicaid

    • C.

      Medplan

    • D.

      Medicare

    • E.

      Unemployment insurance

    Correct Answer
    D. Medicare
    Explanation
    In 1965, Medicare was added to the Social Security program to provide health care coverage to the elderly.

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  • 30. 

    The purchasing of military hardware is known as

    • A.

      Appropriations.

    • B.

      Requisitioning.

    • C.

      Research and design.

    • D.

      Mobilization.

    • E.

      Procurement.

    Correct Answer
    E. Procurement.
    Explanation
    The purchasing of military hardware refers to the process of acquiring equipment, weapons, and supplies for military purposes. This involves identifying the needs, selecting suitable suppliers, negotiating contracts, and ultimately acquiring the desired items. The term "procurement" specifically encompasses these activities and accurately describes the process of acquiring military hardware.

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  • 31. 

    A budget resolution

    • A.

      Must be passed to actually fund programs established by authorization bills.

    • B.

      Revises program authorizations to achieve required savings.

    • C.

      Is an act of Congress that establishes a discretionary government program or an entitlement.

    • D.

      Resolves the differences between House and Senate versions of the budget.

    • E.

      Sets limits on expenditures based on revenue projections.

    Correct Answer
    E. Sets limits on expenditures based on revenue projections.
    Explanation
    A budget resolution sets limits on expenditures based on revenue projections. This means that it determines the maximum amount of money that can be spent on various programs and initiatives, taking into account the projected revenue that the government expects to receive. By setting these limits, the budget resolution helps to ensure that government spending remains within sustainable levels and prevents excessive deficits. It serves as a guideline for the allocation of funds and helps to prioritize spending in a way that aligns with the government's overall financial goals.

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  • 32. 

    Failing to meet its own budget timetable, Congress frequently resorts to ________, which are laws that allow agencies to spend at the previous year's level.

    • A.

      Reconciliations.

    • B.

      Continuing resolutions.

    • C.

      Retrenchments.

    • D.

      Appropriations.

    • E.

      Revenue extensions.

    Correct Answer
    B. Continuing resolutions.
    Explanation
    Congress frequently resorts to continuing resolutions, which are laws that allow agencies to spend at the previous year's level. This means that if Congress fails to pass a budget by the designated deadline, agencies can continue to operate and spend money based on the previous year's budget. Continuing resolutions provide temporary funding and help prevent government shutdowns while Congress works to pass a new budget.

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  • 33. 

    What was the result of the Supreme Court's ruling in Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust Co.?

    • A.

      A federal income tax was ruled unconstitutional.

    • B.

      Taxes on home loans were ruled unconstitutional.

    • C.

      The IRS was established.

    • D.

      The federal government was prohibited from spending tax revenue on farm subsidies.

    • E.

      Poll taxes were abolished.

    Correct Answer
    A. A federal income tax was ruled unconstitutional.
    Explanation
    The result of the Supreme Court's ruling in Pollock v. Farmer's Loan and Trust Co. was that a federal income tax was ruled unconstitutional.

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  • 34. 

    The ultimate power to determine how much the government will tax and spend, and what it will spend taxes for, lies with

    • A.

      The president.

    • B.

      The federal bureaucracy.

    • C.

      The Treasury Department.

    • D.

      The Congress.

    • E.

      The Internal Revenue Service.

    Correct Answer
    D. The Congress.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Congress. The Congress is responsible for making laws, including tax laws, and has the power to determine how much the government will tax and spend. This power is granted to the Congress by the U.S. Constitution, specifically in Article I, Section 8, which gives Congress the authority to levy taxes and appropriate funds for government spending. The president, federal bureaucracy, Treasury Department, and Internal Revenue Service all play roles in implementing and enforcing tax and spending policies, but the ultimate power to determine these policies lies with the Congress.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following statements about bureaucracies is FALSE?

    • A.

      Bureaucratic power extends to every corner of American economic and social life.

    • B.

      Each bureaucratic agency is created by the president.

    • C.

      How to manage and control bureaucracies is a central problem of democratic government.

    • D.

      Nothing better illustrates the complexity of modern government than its massive bureaucracies.

    • E.

      Bureaucracies are scarcely hinted at in the Constitution.

    Correct Answer
    B. Each bureaucratic agency is created by the president.
    Explanation
    The statement "Each bureaucratic agency is created by the president" is false because bureaucratic agencies are typically created by Congress through legislation, not by the president. The president may appoint individuals to lead these agencies, but the creation of the agencies themselves is not within the president's authority.

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  • 36. 

    To actually fund a program, Congress must pass an ______ bill.

    • A.

      Impoundment

    • B.

      Authorization

    • C.

      Expenditure

    • D.

      Omnibus

    • E.

      Appropriations

    Correct Answer
    E. Appropriations
    Explanation
    In order to provide the necessary funds for a program, Congress needs to pass an appropriations bill. This bill authorizes the allocation of funds for specific purposes, allowing the government to spend money on the program in question. The other options, such as impoundment, authorization, expenditure, and omnibus, do not specifically refer to the process of allocating funds for a program.

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  • 37. 

    The Weberian theory of bureaucracies views them in the most positive light as

    • A.

      Democratic.

    • B.

      Hierarchial.

    • C.

      Inefficient.

    • D.

      Acquisitive.

    • E.

      Monopolistic.

    Correct Answer
    B. Hierarchial.
    Explanation
    The Weberian theory of bureaucracies views them as hierarchical. This means that bureaucracies are organized in a hierarchical structure with clear lines of authority and a chain of command. This structure allows for efficient decision-making and coordination within the organization. Additionally, the hierarchical structure ensures that individuals in positions of authority have the power to make and enforce decisions, which is a key characteristic of bureaucracies according to Weber's theory.

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  • 38. 

    Who pays Social Security taxes?

    • A.

      Employees and Social Security recipients

    • B.

      Employers and employees

    • C.

      Employers only

    • D.

      Employees only

    • E.

      Employers and Social Security recipients

    Correct Answer
    B. Employers and employees
    Explanation
    Employers and employees both pay Social Security taxes. This tax is split between the employer and the employee, with each contributing a certain percentage of the employee's wages. The employer is responsible for withholding the employee's portion of the tax and submitting it to the government on their behalf. This tax is used to fund the Social Security program, which provides benefits to retired workers, disabled individuals, and their dependents. Therefore, both employers and employees have a financial obligation to contribute to the Social Security system.

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  • 39. 

    All regulations contain each of the following elements EXCEPT

    • A.

      A grant of power and set of directions from Congress.

    • B.

      Some means of enforcing compliance with congressional goals and agency regulations.

    • C.

      Presidential oversight and control of enforcement.

    • D.

      A set of rules and guidelines by the regulatory agency itself.

    • E.

      All of these elements of the regulatory process.

    Correct Answer
    C. Presidential oversight and control of enforcement.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "presidential oversight and control of enforcement." This is because while regulations do contain a grant of power and set of directions from Congress, some means of enforcing compliance with congressional goals and agency regulations, and a set of rules and guidelines by the regulatory agency itself, they do not typically involve presidential oversight and control of enforcement. The president's role in the regulatory process is usually limited to appointing agency heads and influencing the overall policy direction, rather than directly controlling enforcement activities.

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  • 40. 

    Independent regulatory agencies have

    • A.

      Complete independence from the president, but their policymakers are appointed by Congress.

    • B.

      Governing commissions composed of long-time federal Civil Service employees.

    • C.

      Powerful rule-making, dispute-settling, and enforcement authority.

    • D.

      No real enforcement power anymore, and remain today as part of the federal government only in a ceremonial role.

    • E.

      No formal ties to either the president or Congress.

    Correct Answer
    C. Powerful rule-making, dispute-settling, and enforcement authority.
    Explanation
    Independent regulatory agencies have powerful rule-making, dispute-settling, and enforcement authority. This means that these agencies have the ability to create and enforce regulations, settle disputes, and hold individuals or organizations accountable for non-compliance. They are not directly controlled by the president or Congress, giving them a level of independence in their decision-making processes. This authority allows them to effectively regulate industries and ensure compliance with laws and regulations.

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  • 41. 

    The largest federal agency based on dollars spent is the

    • A.

      Department of Health and Human Services.

    • B.

      State Department.

    • C.

      Department of Defense.

    • D.

      Social Security Administration.

    • E.

      Department of Justice.

    Correct Answer
    D. Social Security Administration.
    Explanation
    The Social Security Administration is the largest federal agency based on dollars spent because it oversees and administers the Social Security program, which provides retirement, disability, and survivor benefits to millions of Americans. The program requires a significant amount of funding to support these benefits, making the agency's budget one of the largest among federal agencies. Additionally, the Social Security Administration also plays a crucial role in managing Medicare, another major government program that requires substantial funding.

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  • 42. 

    A major feature of incremental budgeting is that it

    • A.

      Provides small increases in the current budget over the previous year's budget.

    • B.

      Reevaluates the budgetary base on which past budgets were built.

    • C.

      Fragments the budget into many small items, making it hard to plan for a unified budget.

    • D.

      Reduces current budgets by small amounts over successive years.

    • E.

      Greatly inflates government spending each year.

    Correct Answer
    A. Provides small increases in the current budget over the previous year's budget.
    Explanation
    Incremental budgeting is a budgeting approach where small increases are provided in the current budget over the previous year's budget. This means that the budget is built upon the previous year's budget and small increments are added to it. This approach allows for stability and continuity in budgeting, as it is easier to manage small increases rather than drastic changes. It also allows for better planning and allocation of resources as it takes into account the previous year's budget and builds upon it.

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  • 43. 

    What is the largest social policy of the federal government?

    • A.

      Job-training programs

    • B.

      College loans

    • C.

      Children's health insurance

    • D.

      Early childhood education

    • E.

      Social Security

    Correct Answer
    E. Social Security
    Explanation
    Social Security is the largest social policy of the federal government because it provides financial support to retired and disabled individuals, as well as to the dependents of deceased workers. It is a comprehensive program that covers a wide range of beneficiaries and plays a crucial role in ensuring the economic well-being of millions of Americans. Social Security is funded through payroll taxes and is administered by the Social Security Administration.

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  • 44. 

    All civil service systems are designed to

    • A.

      Create a system that ranks and rewards employees by their time spent in government.

    • B.

      Centralize government employment at the federal level.

    • C.

      Create job replacements when a new party comes to power.

    • D.

      Create a nonpartisan government service with promotion on the basis of merit.

    • E.

      Ensure the General Schedule rating system for patronage appointments.

    Correct Answer
    D. Create a nonpartisan government service with promotion on the basis of merit.
    Explanation
    Civil service systems are designed to create a nonpartisan government service with promotion on the basis of merit. This means that employees are evaluated and rewarded based on their performance and qualifications, rather than their political affiliations or the amount of time they have spent in government. The aim is to ensure a fair and efficient government workforce that is free from political bias and provides equal opportunities for career advancement based on individual abilities and achievements.

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  • 45. 

    The authority of administrative actors to select among various responses to a given problem is called

    • A.

      Administrative discretion.

    • B.

      The definition of alternatives.

    • C.

      Policy implementation.

    • D.

      The merit principle.

    • E.

      Selective management.

    Correct Answer
    A. Administrative discretion.
    Explanation
    Administrative discretion refers to the authority of administrative actors to choose from different options or responses when faced with a problem. It allows them to exercise judgment and make decisions based on their expertise and understanding of the situation. This discretion is essential in navigating complex administrative tasks and adapting to unique circumstances. The other options mentioned in the question, such as the definition of alternatives, policy implementation, the merit principle, and selective management, do not accurately describe the concept of administrative discretion.

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  • 46. 

    The income tax is generally progressive, meaning that

    • A.

      It increases incrementally on an annual basis.

    • B.

      It is a newer form of taxation than sales taxes.

    • C.

      It is better than a flat tax.

    • D.

      Those with more income pay more taxes than those with less income.

    • E.

      Those with more income pay higher rates of tax on their income.

    Correct Answer
    E. Those with more income pay higher rates of tax on their income.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that those with more income pay higher rates of tax on their income. This is because a progressive income tax system is designed to impose higher tax rates on individuals with higher incomes, in order to redistribute wealth and promote income equality. This means that as income increases, the tax rate also increases, resulting in a higher amount of taxes paid by those with higher incomes.

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  • 47. 

    A budget is

    • A.

      A policy determination of how much to spend.

    • B.

      A blueprint for what the government should do.

    • C.

      A policy document allocating burdens (taxes) and benefits (expenditures).

    • D.

      Passed by the president's cabinet.

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. A policy document allocating burdens (taxes) and benefits (expenditures).
    Explanation
    A budget is a policy document allocating burdens (taxes) and benefits (expenditures). This means that a budget is a plan that determines how much money should be spent and where it should be allocated. It involves making decisions on taxes and expenditures, determining who will bear the burden of taxes and who will receive the benefits of government spending. This explanation accurately describes the purpose and function of a budget.

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  • 48. 

    Amtrak and the United States Postal Service are examples of

    • A.

      Cabinet departments.

    • B.

      Independent regulatory agencies.

    • C.

      Government corporations.

    • D.

      Executive government agencies.

    • E.

      Independent executive agencies.

    Correct Answer
    C. Government corporations.
    Explanation
    Amtrak and the United States Postal Service are examples of government corporations. Government corporations are entities that are created by the government to provide a specific service or perform a specific function. They operate like private businesses, but they are owned and operated by the government. Amtrak is a government corporation that provides intercity passenger rail service, while the United States Postal Service is a government corporation that provides mail and package delivery services.

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  • 49. 

    There are ________ cabinet departments headed by a secretary chosen by the president and approved by the Senate.

    • A.

      25

    • B.

      20

    • C.

      15

    • D.

      10

    • E.

      5

    Correct Answer
    C. 15
    Explanation
    There are 15 cabinet departments headed by a secretary chosen by the president and approved by the Senate. The cabinet departments are crucial in advising the president on various matters and implementing policies. Each department focuses on specific areas such as defense, justice, treasury, and education, among others. The secretaries play a vital role in leading these departments and working closely with the president to shape and execute the administration's agenda.

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  • 50. 

    Government corporations

    • A.

      Sell stock and pay dividends.

    • B.

      Tend to be captured by interest groups.

    • C.

      Operate an airline, manufacture steel, and provide health insurance.

    • D.

      Provide services and charge for them.

    • E.

      Are independent regulatory agencies.

    Correct Answer
    D. Provide services and charge for them.
    Explanation
    Government corporations are entities that are owned and operated by the government but function like private businesses. They provide various services to the public and charge fees or prices for those services. This allows them to generate revenue and cover their operating costs. Unlike independent regulatory agencies, which have the authority to regulate specific industries, government corporations focus on providing services and operating in sectors such as airlines, steel manufacturing, or health insurance.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 11, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Hookemhorns6767
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