Fluid Electrolyte Imbalance Quiz

Reviewed by Farah Naz
Farah Naz, MBBS |
Medicine
Review Board Member
Farah holds a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) from Dow University of Health Sciences. She gained valuable experience through internships in Radiology, Cardiology, and Neurosurgery, and has contributed to two research publications in medical journals. Passionate about healthcare education, Farah excels in crafting medical content, including articles, literature reviews, and e-learning courses. Leveraging her expertise, she meticulously reviews medical science quizzes, ensuring accuracy and educational value for aspiring healthcare professionals.
, MBBS
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Fluid Electrolyte Imbalance Quiz - Quiz

Welcome to the Fluid Electrolyte Imbalance Quiz, the ultimate resource for medical students, nurses, and doctors aiming to master the diagnosis and treatment of electrolyte and fluid imbalances. This comprehensive quiz is designed to test your knowledge and improve your practical skills in managing these critical aspects of patient care.

Each question has been carefully formulated to not only test your theoretical understanding but also to apply this knowledge in practical, clinical contexts. Immediate feedback is provided on your answers, helping you learn the correct information quickly and effectively.

Taking the Fluid Electrolyte Imbalance Quiz will not only bolster your Read moreconfidence in managing fluid and electrolyte issues but will also prepare you for real-world medical challenges. Enhance your clinical judgment and readiness by engaging with our expert-designed questions today. This quiz is an essential tool for anyone looking to excel in the fields of nursing and medicine.


Fluid Electrolyte Imbalance Questions and Answers

  • 1. 

    Which of the following best describes an electrolyte?

    • A.

      A substance that is responsible for controlling appetite and mood

    • B.

      A mineral that has an electric charge, found dissolved in bodies of water

    • C.

      A substance that regulates metabolism and affects protein synthesis.

    • D.

      A hormone that is responsible for feelings of alertness throughout the day.

    Correct Answer
    B. A mineral that has an electric charge, found dissolved in bodies of water
    Explanation
    An electrolyte is a mineral that carries an electric charge and is found dissolved in bodies of water. Electrolytes are important for various bodily functions, including maintaining fluid balance, transmitting nerve impulses, and contracting muscles. They play a crucial role in regulating pH levels, hydration, and overall cell function.

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  • 2. 

    What is the normal range for potassium?

    • A.

      135 to 145 mEq/L

    • B.

      3.5 to 5 mEq/L

    • C.

      8.5 to 1O mEq/L

    • D.

      1.5 to 3 mEq/L

    Correct Answer
    B. 3.5 to 5 mEq/L
    Explanation
    The normal range for potassium is 3.5 to 5 mEq/L. This range represents the typical levels of potassium in the blood, which is an important electrolyte for various bodily functions. Potassium levels outside of this range can indicate an imbalance in the body and may require medical attention.

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  • 3. 

    A patient presents with thirst, dry skin, and decreased urine output. What diagnosis would you suspect?

    • A.

      Hypokalemia

    • B.

      Hyponatremia

    • C.

      Fluid volume excess

    • D.

      Fluid volume deficit

    Correct Answer
    D. Fluid volume deficit
    Explanation
    Based on the symptoms presented by the patient, such as thirst, dry skin, and decreased urine output, the most likely diagnosis would be fluid volume deficit. Thirst is a common symptom of dehydration, which is a characteristic of fluid volume deficit. Dry skin can also be a result of decreased fluid intake or loss. Decreased urine output is another indication of dehydration, as the body tries to conserve water. Hypokalemia and hyponatremia are conditions related to electrolyte imbalances and may not be the primary cause of the symptoms. Fluid volume excess, on the other hand, would present with symptoms like edema and weight gain, which are not mentioned in the patient's presentation.

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  • 4. 

    A patient presents with decreased deep tendon reflexes, muscle weakness, fatigue, altered level of consciousness, constipation, and abdominal pain. What electrolyte imbalance is suspected?

    • A.

      Hypokalemia

    • B.

      Hypocalcemia

    • C.

      Hypercalcemia

    • D.

      Hypernatremia

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypercalcemia
    Explanation
    The patient's symptoms of decreased deep tendon reflexes, muscle weakness, fatigue, altered level of consciousness, constipation, and abdominal pain are consistent with hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia is an electrolyte imbalance characterized by high levels of calcium in the blood. It can cause muscle weakness, fatigue, and altered mental status. Constipation and abdominal pain are also common symptoms of hypercalcemia. Therefore, hypercalcemia is the suspected electrolyte imbalance in this case.

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  • 5. 

    Vomiting, Diarrhea, prolonged NG suction, diuretics, kidney disease, renal, liver, and heart failure, and SIADH are causes of which electrolyte deficiency?

    • A.

      Hyponatremia

    • B.

      Hypocalcemia

    • C.

      Hyperkalemia

    • D.

      Hypomagnesemia

    Correct Answer
    A. Hyponatremia
    Explanation
    The given causes, such as vomiting, diarrhea, prolonged NG suction, diuretics, kidney disease, renal, liver, and heart failure, and SIADH, can lead to the depletion of sodium levels in the body. This condition is known as hyponatremia, which is characterized by low levels of sodium in the blood.

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  • 6. 

    Which value falls within the normal range for sodium?

    • A.

      160

    • B.

      120

    • C.

      148

    • D.

      142

    Correct Answer
    D. 142
    Explanation
    The normal range for sodium in the body is typically between 135-145 mmol/L. Among the given options, 142 falls within this range, making it the correct answer.

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  • 7. 

    Which electrolyte is the major intracellular ion?

    • A.

      Calcium

    • B.

      Magnesium

    • C.

      Potassium

    • D.

      Sodium

    Correct Answer
    C. Potassium
    Explanation
    Potassium is the major intracellular ion. It is found in high concentrations inside cells, playing a crucial role in maintaining cell function and regulating various cellular processes. Potassium helps in maintaining the cell's electrical potential, promoting proper nerve and muscle function, and regulating fluid balance within the cell. It is also involved in the transmission of nerve impulses and the contraction of muscles.

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  • 8. 

    IV Calcium Gluconate is used to treat which electrolyte deficiencies?

    • A.

      Hyperkalemia, Hypermagnesemia, Hypocalcemia

    • B.

      Hyperphosphatemia, Hypernatremia, Hypomagnesemia

    • C.

      Hypomagnesemia, Hypocalcemia, Hypercalcemia

    • D.

      Hypernatremia, Hyperphosphatemia, Hyperkalemia

    Correct Answer
    A. Hyperkalemia, Hypermagnesemia, Hypocalcemia
    Explanation
    Calcium gluconate is used to treat hyperkalemia, hypermagnesemia, and hypocalcemia. Hyperkalemia refers to high levels of potassium in the blood, and calcium gluconate can help lower potassium levels. Hypermagnesemia is the presence of excessive magnesium in the blood, and calcium gluconate can be used to counteract its effects. Hypocalcemia is a condition characterized by low levels of calcium in the blood, and calcium gluconate can be administered to increase calcium levels.

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  • 9. 

    Renal failure and chronic overuse of laxatives and enemas are causes associated with which electrolyte imbalance?

    • A.

      Hypomagnesemia

    • B.

      Hypocalcemia

    • C.

      Hypercalcemia

    • D.

      Hypermagnesemia

    Correct Answer
    D. Hypermagnesemia
    Explanation
    Renal failure and chronic overuse of laxatives and enemas can lead to an excess of magnesium in the body, causing hypermagnesemia. This electrolyte imbalance occurs when there is an abnormally high level of magnesium in the blood.

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  • 10. 

    Which is the major extracellular ion?

    • A.

      Potassium

    • B.

      Sodium

    • C.

      Magnesium

    • D.

      Phosphate

    Correct Answer
    B. Sodium
    Explanation
    Sodium is the major extracellular ion because it plays a crucial role in maintaining fluid balance, nerve function, and muscle contraction. It is the primary ion responsible for regulating blood pressure and volume. Sodium is found in high concentrations outside the cells, making it the major extracellular ion. Potassium, on the other hand, is the major intracellular ion. Magnesium and phosphate are also important ions in the body, but they are not as abundant in the extracellular fluid as sodium.

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  • 11. 

    This is essential to form ATP

    Correct Answer
    Phosphorus
    Explanation
    Phosphorus is essential for the formation of ATP. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a molecule that acts as the main energy source for cellular processes. Phosphorus is a key component of ATP, as it is involved in the phosphorylation process that converts ADP (adenosine diphosphate) into ATP. Without phosphorus, the formation of ATP would not be possible, and cells would lack the necessary energy to carry out their functions.

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  • 12. 

    When treating a patient with water retention, it is safer to administer sodium than restrict fluid intake

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Restricting fluid intake is safer than administering sodium when treating a patient with water retention. This is because excess sodium can further exacerbate water retention and lead to increased fluid accumulation in the body. On the other hand, restricting fluid intake helps to reduce the overall fluid volume in the body, thereby alleviating water retention. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 13. 

    Calcium has an inverse relationship with

    Correct Answer
    Phosphate
    Explanation
    Calcium and phosphate have an inverse relationship because they both play crucial roles in maintaining the balance of minerals in the body. When the level of calcium in the blood is high, the body tends to excrete more phosphate to maintain equilibrium. Similarly, when the level of phosphate is high, the body tends to excrete more calcium. This inverse relationship helps to regulate the levels of these minerals and ensure their proper functioning in various physiological processes such as bone formation, nerve function, and muscle contraction.

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  • 14. 

    Hypomagnesemia is associated with hypokalemia and hypocalcemia

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Hypomagnesemia is a condition characterized by low levels of magnesium in the blood. It is often associated with hypokalemia (low levels of potassium) and hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium). This is because magnesium plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of these electrolytes in the body. When magnesium levels are low, it can lead to imbalances in potassium and calcium levels as well. Therefore, it is true that hypomagnesemia is associated with hypokalemia and hypocalcemia.

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  • 15. 

    The client is admitted with a serum sodium level of 110 mEq/L. Which nursing intervention should be implemented?

    • A.

      Encourage fluids orally

    • B.

      Administer diuretics

    • C.

      Administer Anti Diuretic Hormone intranasally

    • D.

      Place on seizure precautions

    Correct Answer
    D. Place on seizure precautions
    Explanation
    A serum sodium level of 110 mEq/L indicates severe hyponatremia, which can lead to neurological symptoms such as seizures. Placing the client on seizure precautions is the appropriate nursing intervention to ensure their safety and prevent any potential harm that may occur due to seizures. This may include padding the side rails, ensuring a safe environment, and closely monitoring the client for any signs of seizures. Encouraging fluids orally, administering diuretics, and administering Anti Diuretic Hormone intranasally are not appropriate interventions for this condition.

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  • 16. 

    The client post-thyroidectomy complains of numbness and tingling around the mouth and the tips of the fingers. Which intervention should be implemented first?

    • A.

      Notify the health care provider immediately.

    • B.

      Tap the cheek about two (2) centimeters anterior to the ear lobe.

    • C.

      Check the serum calcium and magnesium levels.

    • D.

      Prepare to administer calcium gluconate IVP.

    Correct Answer
    B. Tap the cheek about two (2) centimeters anterior to the ear lobe.
    Explanation
    After a thyroidectomy, there is a risk of damage to the parathyroid glands, which can lead to hypocalcemia. Numbness and tingling around the mouth and fingertips are classic signs of hypocalcemia. Tapping the cheek about two centimeters anterior to the ear lobe is known as Chvostek's sign and is a quick and simple test to assess for hypocalcemia. This intervention should be implemented first to confirm the presence of hypocalcemia before notifying the healthcare provider or administering calcium gluconate. Checking the serum calcium and magnesium levels is also important but takes longer for results to come back, so it is not the first intervention.

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  • 17. 

    The client has been vomiting and has had numerous episodes of diarrhea. Which laboratory test should the nurse monitor?

    • A.

      Serum calcium.

    • B.

      Serum phosphorus.

    • C.

      Serum potassium

    • D.

      Serum sodium

    Correct Answer
    C. Serum potassium
    Explanation
    When a client is experiencing vomiting and diarrhea, they are at risk of losing electrolytes, including potassium, through these bodily fluids. Potassium is an essential electrolyte that plays a crucial role in maintaining proper functioning of the heart, muscles, and nerves. Therefore, monitoring the client's serum potassium level is important to ensure that it remains within the normal range.

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  • 18. 

    A nurse is assigned to care for a group of patients. On review of the patient's medical records, the nurse determines which patient is at risk for excess fluid volume.

    • A.

      The client taking diuretics

    • B.

      The client with renal failure

    • C.

      The client with an ileostomy

    • D.

      The client who requires gastrointestinal suctioning

    Correct Answer
    B. The client with renal failure
    Explanation
    The client with renal failure is at risk for excess fluid volume because renal failure impairs the kidneys' ability to properly filter and excrete fluids from the body. This can lead to fluid retention and an imbalance in fluid volume, resulting in excess fluid accumulation in the body. The other options, such as the client taking diuretics, the client with an ileostomy, and the client who requires gastrointestinal suctioning, do not necessarily indicate a risk for excess fluid volume.

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  • 19. 

    The nurse is caring for a client with congestive heart failure. On assessment, the nurse notes that the client is dyspneic and that crackles are audible on auscultation. The nurse suspects excess fluid volume. What additional signs would the nurse expect to note in this client if excess fluid volume is present?

    • A.

      Weight loss

    • B.

      Flat neck and hand veins

    • C.

      An increase in blood pressure

    • D.

      A decreased central venous pressure (CVP)

    Correct Answer
    C. An increase in blood pressure
    Explanation
    If the nurse suspects excess fluid volume in a client with congestive heart failure, they would expect to note an increase in blood pressure. Excess fluid volume can lead to increased blood volume, which in turn increases the pressure within the blood vessels. This can result in elevated blood pressure readings. Weight loss would not be expected as excess fluid volume typically leads to weight gain. Flat neck and hand veins would also not be expected as these are signs of decreased fluid volume. A decreased central venous pressure (CVP) would also not be expected as excess fluid volume would cause an increase in CVP.

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  • 20. 

    A nurse is caring for a client with acute congestive heart failure who is receiving high doses of a diuretic. On assessment, the nurse notes that the client has flat neck veins, generalized muscle weakness, and diminished deep tendon reflexes. The nurse suspects hyponatremia. What additional signs would the nurse expect to note in this client if hyponatremia were present?

    • A.

      Dry skin

    • B.

      Decrease urine output

    • C.

      Hyperactive bowel sounds

    • D.

      Increased specific gravity of urine

    Correct Answer
    C. Hyperactive bowel sounds
    Explanation
    Hyponatremia is a condition characterized by low levels of sodium in the blood. This can lead to various symptoms, including neurologic changes and gastrointestinal disturbances. Hyperactive bowel sounds are a common manifestation of hyponatremia. This occurs due to increased peristalsis in the intestines, leading to increased bowel sounds. Other signs of hyponatremia may include nausea, vomiting, headache, confusion, seizures, and muscle cramps. Dry skin, decreased urine output, and increased specific gravity of urine are not typically associated with hyponatremia.

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  • 21. 

    Causes of hypercalcemia are all except

    • A.

      Hypothyroidism                            

    • B.

      Malignancies    

    • C.

      Immobility

    • D.

      Calcium carbonate antacids

    Correct Answer
    A. Hypothyroidism                            
    Explanation
    Hypercalcemia is a condition characterized by high levels of calcium in the blood. Hypothyroidism, or underactive thyroid, is not a known cause of hypercalcemia. The other options, malignancies, immobility, and calcium carbonate antacids, are all known causes of hypercalcemia. Malignancies can cause the release of calcium from the bones, immobility can lead to increased calcium reabsorption in the kidneys, and calcium carbonate antacids can increase calcium levels in the blood.

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  • 22. 

    The process of movement of water molecules from area of low solute concentration to area of higher solute concentration

    • A.

      Active transport

    • B.

      Osmosis

    • C.

      Diffusion

    • D.

      Filtration

    Correct Answer
    B. Osmosis
    Explanation
    Osmosis is the process of movement of water from an area of low solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. This occurs through a selectively permeable membrane, allowing only water molecules to pass through. It is a passive process and does not require energy. Active transport, on the other hand, is the movement of substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Filtration is the process of separating solid particles from a liquid by passing it through a filter.

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  • 23. 

    Causes of hypovolemia include: (Mark all possible causes)

    • A.

      Prolonged inadequate fluid intake

    • B.

      Vomiting and diarrhea

    • C.

      Excessive fluid intake

    • D.

      High sodium intake

    • E.

      Sweating

    • F.

      GI suctioning

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Prolonged inadequate fluid intake
    B. Vomiting and diarrhea
    E. Sweating
    F. GI suctioning
    Explanation
    The causes of hypovolemia include prolonged inadequate fluid intake, vomiting and diarrhea, sweating, and GI suctioning. Prolonged inadequate fluid intake can lead to a decrease in blood volume. Vomiting and diarrhea can result in fluid loss from the body. Sweating can cause a loss of fluids and electrolytes. GI suctioning, which involves removing fluids and contents from the gastrointestinal tract, can also contribute to hypovolemia. These factors can all lead to a decrease in blood volume and potentially result in hypovolemia.

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  • 24. 

    Symptoms of hypervolemia include all except

    • A.

      Edema

    • B.

      Crackles

    • C.

      Shortness of breath and wheezing

    • D.

      Possible bradycardia

    Correct Answer
    D. Possible bradycardia
    Explanation
    Hypervolemia refers to an excessive accumulation of fluid in the body, leading to an increase in blood volume. The symptoms associated with hypervolemia are primarily related to fluid overload. Edema, which is the swelling caused by fluid retention in the tissues, is a common symptom. Crackles, which are abnormal lung sounds indicating fluid in the lungs, and shortness of breath and wheezing, caused by fluid accumulation in the lungs, are also common symptoms. However, bradycardia, which is a slower than normal heart rate, is not typically associated with hypervolemia.

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  • 25. 

    Bedridden patients are at risk for developing

    • A.

      Hypocalcemia

    • B.

      Hypernatremia

    • C.

      Hypercalcemia

    • D.

      Hypokalemia

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypercalcemia
    Explanation
    Bedridden patients are at risk for developing hypercalcemia. This is because when patients are immobile and confined to bed, their bones are not being regularly stressed, leading to decreased bone turnover. This can result in calcium being released from the bones into the bloodstream, causing elevated levels of calcium in the blood. Additionally, bedridden patients may have limited exposure to sunlight, which can decrease vitamin D production and impair calcium absorption. Overall, the lack of mobility and sunlight exposure in bedridden patients increases their risk for developing hypercalcemia.

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Farah Naz |MBBS |
Medicine
Farah holds a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) from Dow University of Health Sciences. She gained valuable experience through internships in Radiology, Cardiology, and Neurosurgery, and has contributed to two research publications in medical journals. Passionate about healthcare education, Farah excels in crafting medical content, including articles, literature reviews, and e-learning courses. Leveraging her expertise, she meticulously reviews medical science quizzes, ensuring accuracy and educational value for aspiring healthcare professionals.

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  • Current Version
  • Apr 25, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team

    Expert Reviewed by
    Farah Naz
  • Apr 02, 2020
    Quiz Created by
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