Tuesday's Pt Smash Group_a&p_muscles

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Tuesdays Pt Smash Group_a&p_muscles - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    1. Where are the biceps brachii muscles located?

    • A.

      Lower arm

    • B.

      Upper leg

    • C.

      Lower leg

    • D.

      Upper arm

    Correct Answer
    D. Upper arm
    Explanation
    The biceps brachii muscles are located in the upper arm. These muscles are responsible for flexing the elbow joint and rotating the forearm. They are easily visible on the front of the upper arm and play a key role in movements such as lifting and pulling.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is a global (superficial) muscle that supports posture?

    • A.

      Lumbar multifidus

    • B.

      Transverse abdominis

    • C.

      Pelvic floor

    • D.

      Erector spinae

    Correct Answer
    D. Erector spinae
    Explanation
    The erector spinae is a global muscle that supports posture. It is a group of muscles located along the spine that helps to maintain the natural curvature of the spine and keep the body upright. These muscles play a crucial role in supporting the back and maintaining proper posture during various activities such as sitting, standing, and lifting. By contracting and extending, the erector spinae muscles help to stabilize the spine and prevent excessive bending or twisting movements that could lead to injury.

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  • 3. 

    Which muscle crosses the elbow joint?

    • A.

      Levator scapula

    • B.

      Teres major

    • C.

      Biceps femoris

    • D.

      Triceps brachii

    Correct Answer
    D. Triceps brachii
    Explanation
    The triceps brachii muscle crosses the elbow joint. It is a large muscle located on the back of the upper arm and is responsible for extending the forearm at the elbow joint. When the triceps brachii contracts, it straightens the arm by pulling the forearm away from the upper arm.

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  • 4. 

    Which muscle covers the posterior of the neck and shoulders?

    • A.

      Trapezius

    • B.

      Lattisimus Dorsi

    • C.

      Deltoid

    • D.

      Infrasprinatus

    Correct Answer
    A. Trapezius
    Explanation
    The trapezius muscle covers the posterior of the neck and shoulders. It is a large, triangular muscle that extends from the base of the skull to the middle of the back and attaches to the shoulder blades and spine. The trapezius muscle is responsible for movements of the shoulder blades, such as shrugging and pulling them back, as well as stabilizing the neck and upper back.

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  • 5. 

    Which muscle crosses both the hip and knee joint?

    • A.

      Sartorius

    • B.

      Soleus

    • C.

      Subscapularis

    • D.

      Serratus anterior

    Correct Answer
    A. Sartorius
    Explanation
    The muscle that crosses both the hip and knee joint is the Sartorius. This muscle is the longest muscle in the human body and runs diagonally across the front of the thigh. It originates from the anterior superior iliac spine of the hip bone and inserts onto the medial surface of the tibia, just below the knee joint. Its primary actions include flexion, abduction, and external rotation of the hip, as well as flexion and medial rotation of the knee.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is a pelvic floor muscle?

    • A.

      Levator scapula

    • B.

      Piriformis

    • C.

      Coccygeus

    • D.

      Erector spinae

    Correct Answer
    C. Coccygeus
    Explanation
    The coccygeus muscle is a pelvic floor muscle that is located at the base of the spine. It attaches to the coccyx bone and helps support the pelvic organs, such as the bladder and uterus. This muscle plays a role in stabilizing the pelvis and maintaining continence.

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  • 7. 

    Which muscle crosses the knee joint?

    • A.

      Piriformis

    • B.

      Tibialis anterior

    • C.

      Soleus

    • D.

      Rectus femoris

    Correct Answer
    D. Rectus femoris
    Explanation
    The rectus femoris is the only muscle listed that crosses the knee joint. It is one of the four quadriceps muscles located in the front of the thigh. As it crosses the knee joint, it plays a crucial role in extending the leg and flexing the thigh at the hip joint. The other muscles listed, such as the piriformis, tibialis anterior, and soleus, do not cross the knee joint and have different functions in the body.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following is a primary core muscle?

    • A.

      Trapezius

    • B.

      Tensor fascia lata

    • C.

      Transverse abdominis

    • D.

      Tibialis anterior

    Correct Answer
    C. Transverse abdominis
    Explanation
    The transverse abdominis is considered a primary core muscle because it plays a crucial role in stabilizing the spine and maintaining proper posture. It is located deep within the abdomen and wraps around the torso like a corset, providing support to the lower back and internal organs. This muscle is responsible for maintaining core stability and protecting the spine during movements such as lifting heavy objects or performing exercises that require balance and stability. Strengthening the transverse abdominis can help improve overall core strength and prevent lower back pain.

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  • 9. 

    Which joint does the supraspinatus muscle cross?

    • A.

      Elbow

    • B.

      Hip

    • C.

      Knee

    • D.

      Shoulder

    Correct Answer
    D. Shoulder
    Explanation
    The supraspinatus muscle crosses the shoulder joint. This muscle is located on the upper part of the back and helps in the movement and stabilization of the shoulder joint. It is one of the four muscles that make up the rotator cuff, which plays a crucial role in shoulder movement and stability. The supraspinatus muscle is responsible for initiating the abduction of the arm, allowing it to be raised away from the body.

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  • 10. 

    Which muscle in the legs is the longest in the human body?

    • A.

      Sartorius

    • B.

      Supraspinalis

    • C.

      Splenius capitis

    • D.

      Serratus anterior

    Correct Answer
    A. Sartorius
    Explanation
    The sartorius muscle is the longest muscle in the human body. It is a long, thin muscle that runs from the hip down to the knee. It is responsible for flexing, abducting, and rotating the thigh. The sartorius muscle is named after the Latin word for "tailor" because it is involved in the cross-legged sitting position that tailors often adopt.

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  • 11. 

    Which local (deep) muscle supports posture?

    • A.

      External obliques

    • B.

      Transverse abdominis

    • C.

      Erector spinae

    • D.

      Rectus abdominis

    Correct Answer
    B. Transverse abdominis
    Explanation
    The transverse abdominis is a deep muscle that plays a crucial role in supporting posture. It is located underneath the external obliques and rectus abdominis muscles. This muscle wraps around the abdomen, acting like a corset, providing stability and support to the spine and pelvis. Its activation helps maintain proper alignment of the spine, preventing excessive curvature and promoting good posture.

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  • 12. 

    Which muscles are situated along each side of the spine?

    • A.

      Erector spinae

    • B.

      Teres minor

    • C.

      Infraspinatus

    • D.

      Deltoid

    Correct Answer
    A. Erector spinae
    Explanation
    The erector spinae muscles are situated along each side of the spine. These muscles are responsible for extending and straightening the back, as well as assisting in maintaining good posture. They play a crucial role in supporting the spine and allowing for movements such as bending, twisting, and lifting.

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  • 13. 

    What must happen to start a muscle contraction?

    • A.

      Stimulation of the muscle by a motor neuron impulse

    • B.

      Stimulation of the muscle by an actin filament

    • C.

      Stimulation of the muscle by a myosin filament

    • D.

      Stimulation of the muscle by adenosine triphosphate

    Correct Answer
    A. Stimulation of the muscle by a motor neuron impulse
    Explanation
    To start a muscle contraction, the muscle must be stimulated by a motor neuron impulse. Motor neurons transmit electrical signals from the brain or spinal cord to the muscles, causing them to contract. This impulse triggers a series of events within the muscle fibers, leading to the release of calcium ions and the interaction between actin and myosin filaments, which ultimately results in muscle contraction. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is required for muscle contraction to provide energy, but it is not directly involved in initiating the contraction.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following is a pelvic floor muscle?

    • A.

      Piriformis

    • B.

      Levator scapula

    • C.

      Coccygeus

    • D.

      Erector spinae

    Correct Answer
    C. Coccygeus
    Explanation
    The coccygeus is a pelvic floor muscle that is responsible for supporting the pelvic organs and stabilizing the pelvic joints. It is located in the posterior part of the pelvis, attaching to the coccyx and the ischial spine. This muscle plays a crucial role in maintaining continence and providing support during activities such as childbirth and defecation. The other options listed, including the piriformis, levator scapula, and erector spinae, are not pelvic floor muscles but rather muscles involved in other functions such as hip rotation, shoulder movement, and spinal extension, respectively.

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  • 15. 

    What is one of the key functions of the pelvic floor muscles?

    • A.

      Stability of the core

    • B.

      Support of the internal organs

    • C.

      Support of the trunk

    • D.

      Stability of the spine

    Correct Answer
    B. Support of the internal organs
    Explanation
    The pelvic floor muscles play a crucial role in supporting the internal organs, such as the bladder, uterus, and rectum. These muscles help maintain the position and function of these organs, preventing issues like pelvic organ prolapse. They also contribute to urinary and bowel control. Therefore, the support of internal organs is one of the key functions of the pelvic floor muscles.

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  • 16. 

    What is one of the key functions of the core muscles?

    • A.

      Support the chest

    • B.

      Stabilise the spine

    • C.

      Support the upper back

    • D.

      Stabilise the hips

    Correct Answer
    B. Stabilise the spine
    Explanation
    The core muscles play a crucial role in stabilizing the spine. They provide support and help maintain proper alignment and posture, preventing excessive movement and potential injuries. By stabilizing the spine, the core muscles also contribute to overall body strength and balance.

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  • 17. 

    The function of a Golgi tendon organ is to

    • A.

      Sense the strength of a stretch

    • B.

      Sense the speed of a stretch

    • C.

      Sense changes in muscle tension

    • D.

      Sense changes in muscle size

    Correct Answer
    C. Sense changes in muscle tension
    Explanation
    The Golgi tendon organ is a sensory receptor located in the tendons that connect muscles to bones. Its main function is to detect changes in muscle tension. When a muscle contracts, it exerts force on the tendon, and the Golgi tendon organ detects this increase in tension. This information is then transmitted to the central nervous system, which can regulate muscle contraction and prevent excessive force or injury. Therefore, the Golgi tendon organ plays a crucial role in maintaining muscle integrity and preventing damage due to excessive tension.

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  • 18. 

    When performing a supine leg raise, what muscle is the prime mover?

    • A.

      Rectus abdominis

    • B.

      Vastus medialis

    • C.

      Gluteus maximus

    • D.

      Psoas major

    Correct Answer
    D. Psoas major
    Explanation
    The prime mover muscle during a supine leg raise is the Psoas major. This muscle is located in the hip region and is responsible for flexing the hip joint. During a leg raise, the Psoas major contracts to lift the leg off the ground, allowing for the movement to occur. The other muscles listed, such as the Rectus abdominis, Vastus medialis, and Gluteus maximus, are not the primary muscles involved in this movement.

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  • 19. 

    Strengthening which muscles can help to correct lordosis?

    • A.

      Muscles that retract the scapula

    • B.

      Muscles that tilt the pelvic backwards

    • C.

      Muscles that protract the scapula

    • D.

      Muscles that tilt the pelvis forwards

    Correct Answer
    B. Muscles that tilt the pelvic backwards
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Muscles that tilt the pelvic backwards." Lordosis refers to an excessive inward curvature of the lower back. Tilt the pelvis backwards helps to correct this condition by reducing the excessive curvature and promoting a more neutral alignment of the spine. Strengthening the muscles that are responsible for tilting the pelvis backwards can help to improve posture and alleviate the symptoms associated with lordosis.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is the deepest layer of connective tissue within skeletal muscle?

    • A.

      Periosteum

    • B.

      Perimysium

    • C.

      Epimysium

    • D.

      Endomysium

    Correct Answer
    B. Perimysium
    Explanation
    The perimysium is the correct answer because it is the layer of connective tissue that surrounds each bundle of muscle fibers within the skeletal muscle. It provides support and protection to the muscle fibers, as well as helps to distribute blood vessels and nerves throughout the muscle. The periosteum is a connective tissue layer that covers the outer surface of bones, not skeletal muscle. The epimysium is the outermost layer of connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle, while the endomysium is the deepest layer that surrounds each individual muscle fiber.

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  • 21. 

    What effect will long-term strength training have on type 2 muscle fibres?

    • A.

      Atrophy

    • B.

      Hypertrophy

    • C.

      Hyperplasia

    • D.

      Articulation

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypertrophy
    Explanation
    Long-term strength training will result in hypertrophy of type 2 muscle fibers. Hypertrophy refers to the increase in size and volume of muscle fibers, leading to increased muscle mass and strength. This occurs as a response to the repeated stress and workload placed on the muscles during strength training exercises. Type 2 muscle fibers are responsible for generating force and power, and they have a greater potential for hypertrophy compared to type 1 muscle fibers, which are more endurance-oriented. Therefore, long-term strength training will primarily affect type 2 muscle fibers by causing them to grow and become stronger.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following muscles attaches to the femur and calcaneus?

    • A.

      Rectus femoris

    • B.

      Tibialis anterior

    • C.

      Gastrocnemius

    • D.

      Soleus

    Correct Answer
    C. Gastrocnemius
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Gastrocnemius. The gastrocnemius muscle is a large muscle located in the calf region of the leg. It attaches to both the femur, which is the thigh bone, and the calcaneus, which is the heel bone. This muscle plays a key role in plantar flexion of the foot, allowing us to point our toes downward and push off the ground while walking or running.

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  • 23. 

    Which exercise uses movement in the transverse plane?

    • A.

      Torso rotation

    • B.

      Knee extension

    • C.

      Side leg raise

    • D.

      Bicep curl

    Correct Answer
    A. Torso rotation
    Explanation
    Torso rotation is the exercise that uses movement in the transverse plane. This exercise involves rotating the torso from side to side, which requires movement along the horizontal axis of the body. The other exercises listed, knee extension, side leg raise, and bicep curl, do not involve rotational movements and therefore do not occur in the transverse plane.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following best describes the process of motor unit recruitment?

    • A.

      An efferent nerve impulse triggers some of the fibres in the motor unit to contract

    • B.

      An afferent nerve impulse triggers all of the fibres in the motor unit to contract

    • C.

      An afferent nerve impulse triggers some of the fibres in the motor unit to contract

    • D.

      An efferent nerve impulse triggers all of the fibres in the motor unit to contract

    Correct Answer
    D. An efferent nerve impulse triggers all of the fibres in the motor unit to contract
    Explanation
    An efferent nerve impulse triggers all of the fibers in the motor unit to contract. Motor unit recruitment refers to the process by which the nervous system activates more motor units to generate a stronger muscle contraction. When an efferent nerve impulse is sent from the central nervous system to the motor unit, it activates all the muscle fibers within that motor unit, leading to their contraction. This recruitment of all fibers ensures a coordinated and synchronized contraction, allowing for efficient and effective muscle function.

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  • 25. 

    Which of the following is a 'global' stabilising muscle of the spine?

    • A.

      Transverse abdominis

    • B.

      External oblique

    • C.

      Multifidus

    • D.

      Pelvic floor

    Correct Answer
    B. External oblique
    Explanation
    The external oblique is considered a "global" stabilizing muscle of the spine because it plays a key role in stabilizing the trunk and maintaining proper alignment of the spine during movement. It helps to support the spine by providing stability and control, especially during rotational movements. The external oblique muscle is located on the sides of the abdomen and wraps around the torso, providing support to the spine and contributing to overall core strength.

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  • 26. 

    As the agonist contracts, the antagonist muscle relaxes to allow movement. What is this occurence known as?

    • A.

      Reciprocal inhibition

    • B.

      Golgi tendon organ

    • C.

      Passive resistance

    • D.

      Inverse stretch reflex

    Correct Answer
    A. Reciprocal inhibition
    Explanation
    Reciprocal inhibition is the occurrence when the agonist muscle contracts, and the antagonist muscle relaxes to allow movement. This is a coordinated process that ensures smooth and coordinated movement by inhibiting the activity of the opposing muscle.

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  • 27. 

    Which structures within skeletal muscle tissue bring about contraction?

    • A.

      Action and myosin filaments

    • B.

      Epimysium and perimysium

    • C.

      Tendon and fascia

    • D.

      Regular collagen fibres

    Correct Answer
    A. Action and myosin filaments
    Explanation
    The correct answer is actin and myosin filaments. Actin and myosin filaments are the two main protein filaments responsible for muscle contraction. Actin filaments slide past myosin filaments, causing the muscle to contract. This sliding filament theory explains how muscle fibers generate force and movement. The other options mentioned, such as epimysium, perimysium, tendon, fascia, and regular collagen fibers, are not directly involved in muscle contraction but rather provide support, protection, and structure to the muscle tissue.

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  • 28. 

    What is a myofibril?

    • A.

      A protein which enables a muscle to contract

    • B.

      A neurotransmitter which initiates muscular contractions

    • C.

      The contractile part (unit) of a muscle fibre

    • D.

      The connective tissue which surrounds each muscle fibre

    Correct Answer
    C. The contractile part (unit) of a muscle fibre
    Explanation
    A myofibril is the contractile part or unit of a muscle fiber. It is responsible for the muscle's ability to contract and generate force. Myofibrils are composed of sarcomeres, which are repeating units of thick and thin filaments. When a muscle contracts, the myofibrils shorten, causing the muscle to contract as a whole.

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  • 29. 

    What is the name of the thicker of the two protein filaments involved in muscle contraction?

    • A.

      Actin

    • B.

      Collagen

    • C.

      Myosin

    • D.

      Keratin

    Correct Answer
    C. Myosin
    Explanation
    Myosin is the correct answer because it is the thicker of the two protein filaments involved in muscle contraction. Actin is the thinner filament that works in conjunction with myosin to generate muscle contractions. Collagen and keratin are not directly involved in muscle contraction and do not play a role in this process.

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  • 30. 

    When a myosin head attaches to an actin filament the resulting connection is known as a 

    • A.

      Cross-bridge

    • B.

      Synapse

    • C.

      Junction

    • D.

      Collagen fibre

    Correct Answer
    A. Cross-bridge
    Explanation
    When a myosin head attaches to an actin filament, it forms a temporary bond between the two proteins, creating a connection called a cross-bridge. This cross-bridge allows for the sliding of actin and myosin filaments, which is essential for muscle contraction. The other options, synapse, junction, and collagen fiber, are not relevant to the interaction between myosin and actin in muscle contraction.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following muscles attaches onto both the scapula and the radius?

    • A.

      Trapezius

    • B.

      Biceps brachii

    • C.

      Levator scapula

    • D.

      Pectoralis major

    Correct Answer
    B. Biceps brachii
    Explanation
    The biceps brachii muscle attaches to both the scapula and the radius. The origin of the muscle is at the scapula, specifically at the coracoid process, while the insertion is at the radius. This muscle is responsible for flexion of the elbow joint and supination of the forearm.

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  • 32. 

    When performing side lying leg abduction which of the following muscles is the fixator?

    • A.

      Tensor fascia latae

    • B.

      Quadratus lumborum

    • C.

      Gluteus maximus

    • D.

      Gluteus minimus

    Correct Answer
    B. Quadratus lumborum
    Explanation
    The quadratus lumborum muscle acts as a fixator during side lying leg abduction. This muscle is located in the lower back and helps stabilize the pelvis and spine during movement. When performing side lying leg abduction, the quadratus lumborum contracts to keep the pelvis level and prevent it from dropping to one side. This allows for proper alignment and efficient movement of the leg during the exercise.

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  • 33. 

    Through which anatomical plane does the leg movement when stepping forward?

    • A.

      Frontal

    • B.

      Transverse

    • C.

      Coronal

    • D.

      Sagittal

    Correct Answer
    D. Sagittal
    Explanation
    The leg movement when stepping forward occurs along the sagittal plane. The sagittal plane divides the body into left and right halves, and movements along this plane involve flexion and extension. When we step forward, our leg moves forward and backward in a swinging motion, which is an example of flexion and extension along the sagittal plane.

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  • 34. 

    Onto which 2 bones does the satorius muscle attach?

    • A.

      Ischium and femur

    • B.

      Ischium and tibia

    • C.

      Illium and femur

    • D.

      Illium and tibia

    Correct Answer
    D. Illium and tibia
    Explanation
    The satorius muscle attaches onto the illium and tibia.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following muscles contributes to extension of the vertebral column?

    • A.

      Multifidus

    • B.

      Pectineus

    • C.

      Rectus abdominis

    • D.

      Piriformis

    Correct Answer
    A. Multifidus
    Explanation
    The multifidus muscle is responsible for the extension of the vertebral column. It is a deep muscle that runs along the spine and helps to maintain the stability and alignment of the spine. When contracted, it helps to extend and straighten the vertebral column, allowing for movements such as standing upright and arching the back. The other muscles listed, such as the pectineus, rectus abdominis, and piriformis, are not directly involved in the extension of the vertebral column.

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  • 36. 

    What movement occurs at the ankle when standing on tip-toe

    • A.

      Dorsiflexion

    • B.

      Plantarflexion

    • C.

      Inversion

    • D.

      Eversion

    Correct Answer
    B. Plantarflexion
    Explanation
    When standing on tip-toe, the movement that occurs at the ankle is plantarflexion. Plantarflexion refers to the movement of pointing the toes downward, away from the body. This is the movement that allows us to rise up on our toes and push off the ground when walking or running.

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  • 37. 

    If the spine is insufficiently stabilised which of the following is likely to occur when extending the hip?

    • A.

      Erector spinae adopts the role of a prime mover

    • B.

      Gluteus maximus adopts the role of a fixator

    • C.

      Pelvic floor muscles adopt the role of antagonists

    • D.

      Latissimus dorsi adopts the role of a synergist

    Correct Answer
    A. Erector spinae adopts the role of a prime mover
    Explanation
    When extending the hip, the erector spinae muscles are responsible for stabilizing the spine. If the spine is insufficiently stabilized, it means that the erector spinae muscles are not able to properly support and control the movement. In this case, the erector spinae muscles will have to compensate and take on the role of a prime mover, meaning they will have to work harder to initiate and control the movement of hip extension. This is necessary to compensate for the lack of stability in the spine and ensure proper movement and function.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following methods of stretching requires an isometric contraction applied against a resistance?

    • A.

      Proprioceptive neuromuscles facilitation (PNF)

    • B.

      Active

    • C.

      Dynamic

    • D.

      Ballistic

    Correct Answer
    A. Proprioceptive neuromuscles facilitation (PNF)
    Explanation
    Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is a stretching technique that involves both active and passive movements. It requires an isometric contraction, which means the muscle is contracted without changing its length, against a resistance. This resistance could be provided by a partner, a wall, or an object. The isometric contraction helps to activate the muscle spindles and Golgi tendon organs, which in turn facilitate a greater stretch and improve flexibility. PNF stretching is often used in rehabilitation settings to increase range of motion and improve muscle function.

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  • 39. 

    What is the role of a motor unit?

    • A.

      To determine the stretch of contraction required

    • B.

      To activate (innervate) all the muscle fibres to which it is attached

    • C.

      To limit the number of muscle fibres available so as to minimise the risk of injury

    • D.

      To ensure that all the muscle fibres in a muscle work together (co-ordination)

    Correct Answer
    B. To activate (innervate) all the muscle fibres to which it is attached
    Explanation
    The role of a motor unit is to activate (innervate) all the muscle fibers to which it is attached. Motor units consist of a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates. When the motor neuron sends an electrical signal, all the muscle fibers within the motor unit contract simultaneously. This allows for coordinated and synchronized muscle contractions, enabling smooth and efficient movement.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following is a key factor in determining the strength of a muscle contraction?

    • A.

      The number of motor units recruited

    • B.

      The number of motor units inhibited

    • C.

      The type of muscle fibres recruited

    • D.

      The type of muscle fibres inhibited

    Correct Answer
    A. The number of motor units recruited
    Explanation
    The strength of a muscle contraction is determined by the number of motor units recruited. Motor units are composed of a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates. When a muscle contraction is initiated, the brain sends signals to activate motor units, causing the muscle fibers to contract. The more motor units that are recruited, the stronger the muscle contraction will be. Therefore, the number of motor units recruited is a key factor in determining the strength of a muscle contraction.

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  • 41. 

    When the stretch reflex is activated in the quadriceps, the quadriceps

    • A.

      Relax

    • B.

      Lengthen

    • C.

      Contract

    • D.

      Stretch

    Correct Answer
    C. Contract
    Explanation
    When the stretch reflex is activated in the quadriceps, the quadriceps contract. The stretch reflex is an automatic response of the muscle to a sudden stretch or lengthening. It involves the activation of sensory receptors called muscle spindles, which detect changes in muscle length. When the muscle spindles are stimulated, they send signals to the spinal cord, which in turn sends signals back to the muscle causing it to contract. This reflexive contraction helps to protect the muscle from being overstretched or damaged.

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  • 42. 

    A concentric contraction of which of the following muscle groups would utilise 'reciprocal inhibition' to help stretch the quadriceps?

    • A.

      Abductors

    • B.

      Quadriceps

    • C.

      Glutes

    • D.

      Hamstrings

    Correct Answer
    D. Hamstrings
    Explanation
    A concentric contraction of the hamstrings would utilize reciprocal inhibition to help stretch the quadriceps. Reciprocal inhibition is a process in which the contraction of one muscle group is accompanied by the relaxation of its antagonist muscle group. In this case, the hamstrings, as the antagonist muscle group to the quadriceps, would contract while the quadriceps relax, allowing for a stretch of the quadriceps.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following is a neuromuscular adaptation associated with resistance training

    • A.

      Hypertrophy of motor units

    • B.

      Increased number of motor units

    • C.

      Improved synchronisation of motor units

    • D.

      Hyperplasia of motor units

    Correct Answer
    C. Improved synchronisation of motor units
    Explanation
    Improved synchronization of motor units is a neuromuscular adaptation associated with resistance training. Resistance training involves the activation of motor units, which are groups of muscle fibers controlled by a single motor neuron. Through resistance training, the nervous system becomes more efficient at recruiting and coordinating these motor units, resulting in improved synchronization. This allows for better control and coordination of muscle contractions, leading to increased strength and performance. Hypertrophy of motor units refers to an increase in the size of individual motor units, while hyperplasia refers to an increase in the number of motor units. However, these adaptations are not typically associated with resistance training.

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