Trivia Quiz: Microbiology MCQ Exam!

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Trivia Quiz: Microbiology MCQ Exam! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which phase shows the reproduction rate equal to the equivalent death rate?

    • A.

      Log phase

    • B.

      Stationary phase

    • C.

      Death phase

    • D.

      Lag 

    Correct Answer
    B. Stationary phase
    Explanation
    The stationary phase is the phase in a bacterial growth curve where the reproduction rate equals the death rate. This means that the number of new cells being produced is equal to the number of cells dying, resulting in a stable population size. In this phase, the bacteria have reached their carrying capacity and resources are limited, leading to a balance between reproduction and death.

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  • 2. 

    The portion of the growth curve where rapid growth of bacteria is observed is known as:

    • A.

      Lag

    • B.

      Log

    • C.

      Death

    • D.

      Stationary

    Correct Answer
    B. Log
    Explanation
    The portion of the growth curve where rapid growth of bacteria is observed is known as the log phase. During this phase, the bacteria are actively dividing and multiplying, resulting in an exponential increase in population size. This phase is characterized by a constant rate of growth and the highest cell division rate. As the resources become limited and waste products accumulate, the growth rate eventually slows down, leading to the stationary phase. Therefore, the correct answer is log.

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  • 3. 

    Growth is defined as an increase in cellular constituents and may result in an increase in a microorganism’s size, population number, or both.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement accurately defines growth as an increase in cellular constituents, which can lead to an increase in a microorganism's size, population number, or both. Therefore, the correct answer is true.

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  • 4. 

    Aerotolerant anaerobes are microorganisms that grow equally well whether or not oxygen is present.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Aerotolerant anaerobes are microorganisms that are capable of growing in the presence or absence of oxygen. Unlike obligate anaerobes, they can tolerate the presence of oxygen and continue to grow. This ability is due to their unique metabolic pathways that allow them to generate energy without relying on oxygen. Therefore, it is true that aerotolerant anaerobes can grow equally well regardless of the presence of oxygen.

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  • 5. 

    Barotolerant is an organism that can grow and reproduce at high pressure but do not require them.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Barotolerant organisms are capable of surviving and reproducing in high-pressure environments, but they do not necessarily require those high pressures for growth. This means that while they can tolerate and adapt to high-pressure conditions, they can also thrive in normal or low-pressure environments. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 6. 

    Extremophiles are microorganisms that grow under harsh or extreme environmental conditions.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The given statement is true. Extremophiles are microorganisms that are capable of thriving and reproducing in extreme environmental conditions, such as high temperatures, acidic or alkaline environments, high pressure, or high levels of radiation. These organisms have adapted to survive and even flourish in these extreme habitats, which are typically inhospitable to most other forms of life. Extremophiles have been found in various extreme environments on Earth, including deep-sea hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salt flats, and polar regions. Their ability to survive in extreme conditions has also led to speculation about the possibility of life existing in similar extreme environments on other planets or moons.

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  • 7. 

    Generation time is the time required for a microbial population to double in size.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because generation time refers to the time it takes for a population of microbes to double in size. It is a measure of how quickly the population is growing and is commonly used in microbiology to study the growth and replication of microorganisms. By understanding the generation time, scientists can better understand the growth patterns and characteristics of different microbial species.

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  • 8. 

    An organism has an optimal growth rate when the hydrogen ion concentration is very high. This organism is a(n)

    • A.

      Osmotolerant

    • B.

      Acidophile

    • C.

      Neutrophile

    • D.

      Alkalophile

    Correct Answer
    B. Acidophile
    Explanation
    An organism that has an optimal growth rate when the hydrogen ion concentration is very high is called an acidophile. Acidophiles thrive in acidic environments and are able to tolerate high levels of hydrogen ions. This is because they have adapted to the high acidity and have mechanisms to maintain their internal pH balance.

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  • 9. 

    The term obligate anaerobe refers to an organism that:

    • A.

      Doesn't use oxygen but tolerates it.

    • B.

      Is killed by oxygen

    • C.

      Prefers to grow without oxygen

    Correct Answer
    B. Is killed by oxygen
    Explanation
    An obligate anaerobe is an organism that is killed by oxygen. This means that it cannot survive or grow in the presence of oxygen. Unlike other organisms, obligate anaerobes do not have the ability to utilize oxygen for their metabolic processes and instead rely on alternative pathways. Oxygen is toxic to them and can cause damage to their cells and enzymes, leading to their death. Therefore, obligate anaerobes prefer to grow in environments devoid of oxygen.

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  • 10. 

    In a gram-negative organism, how do small molecules move into the periplasm from outside of the cell? 

    • A.

      They diffuse freely through the peptidoglycan layer 

    • B.

      They pass through porins

    • C.

      Via binary fission

    • D.

      They are transported by lipid A 

    Correct Answer
    B. They pass through porins
    Explanation
    Small molecules move into the periplasm of a gram-negative organism by passing through porins. Porins are protein channels located in the outer membrane of the cell wall. These channels allow the passage of small molecules, such as ions and nutrients, into the periplasmic space. By passing through porins, these molecules can access the periplasm, which is the space between the outer and inner membranes of the cell. This mechanism of transport is essential for the uptake of essential molecules and nutrients by the organism.

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  • 11. 

    The use of sterile techniques and agar media-enabled early microbiologists to:

    • A.

      Study pure cultures 

    • B.

      Study mixed cultures 

    • C.

       study agar-metabolizing cultures 

    Correct Answer
    A. Study pure cultures 
    Explanation
    The use of sterile techniques and agar media allowed early microbiologists to study pure cultures. Sterile techniques involve creating a controlled environment free from any contamination, ensuring that only the desired microorganisms are present in the culture. Agar media provides a solid surface for the microorganisms to grow, making it easier to isolate and study individual strains. By studying pure cultures, microbiologists were able to better understand the characteristics, behavior, and growth patterns of specific microorganisms, leading to significant advancements in the field of microbiology.

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  • 12. 

    Will not use oxygen, but it wont kill them. This is an.

    • A.

      Obligate aerobe

    • B.

      Obligate anaerobe

    • C.

      Aerotolerant anaerobes

    • D.

      Facultative anaerobe

    Correct Answer
    C. Aerotolerant anaerobes
    Explanation
    Aerotolerant anaerobes are organisms that do not require oxygen for their metabolism, but they can tolerate its presence. They are capable of surviving in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. While they can live in the presence of oxygen, they do not utilize it for their metabolic processes. Therefore, they will not be harmed or killed by the presence of oxygen, unlike obligate anaerobes.

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  • 13. 

    Which are the only two types of bacteria that humans come into contact with normally?

    • A.

      Thermophiles and Psychrophiles

    • B.

      Extreme thermophiles and Psychrotrophs

    • C.

      Mesophiles and Psychrotrophs 

    • D.

      Thermophiles and Extreme thermophiles 

    Correct Answer
    C. Mesophiles and Psychrotrophs 
  • 14. 

    Need oxygen, but only will grow under low oxygen concentrations (soil, water)

    • A.

      Obligate aerobe

    • B.

      Aerotolerant anaerobes

    • C.

      Obligate anaerobe

    • D.

      Microaerophiles

    Correct Answer
    D. Microaerophiles
    Explanation
    Microaerophiles are organisms that require oxygen to survive, but only in low concentrations. They cannot tolerate high levels of oxygen like obligate aerobes, but they also cannot grow in the complete absence of oxygen like obligate anaerobes. Microaerophiles thrive in environments where oxygen levels are reduced, such as certain soil or water conditions. They have adapted to utilize oxygen for their metabolic processes, but they are unable to survive under high oxygen concentrations.

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  • 15. 

    Bacteria divide by which of the following?

    • A.

      Sexual reproduction

    • B.

      Budding

    • C.

      Binary Fission

    • D.

      None

    Correct Answer
    C. Binary Fission
    Explanation
    Bacteria divide by binary fission. Binary fission is a form of asexual reproduction in which a single organism divides into two identical daughter cells. During binary fission, the DNA of the bacterium replicates and then the cell divides into two separate cells. This process allows bacteria to rapidly increase their population and is the primary method of reproduction for most bacteria. Sexual reproduction and budding are not methods of division for bacteria.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial flagella?

    • A.

       flagellin

    • B.

      Basal body

    • C.

      Tubulin

    Correct Answer
    C. Tubulin
    Explanation
    Tubulin is not a component of bacterial flagella. Tubulin is a protein that makes up microtubules, which are found in eukaryotic cells and are involved in various cellular processes such as cell division and intracellular transport. Bacterial flagella, on the other hand, are composed of flagellin proteins and are responsible for bacterial motility. Therefore, tubulin is not a component of bacterial flagella.

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  • 17. 

    Bacterial pili can be described as

    • A.

      Composed of tubulin

    • B.

      Solid, rigid protein structures

    • C.

      Composed of peptidoglycan

    • D.

      Specialized fimbriae

    Correct Answer
    D. Specialized fimbriae
    Explanation
    Bacterial pili are specialized fimbriae. Pili are hair-like appendages found on the surface of bacteria that help in attachment to surfaces or other cells. They are composed of protein subunits and are involved in various functions such as adhesion, motility, and transfer of genetic material. Unlike tubulin, which is a protein involved in the structure of eukaryotic cells, bacterial pili are not composed of tubulin. Similarly, they are not solid, rigid protein structures like peptidoglycan, which is the main component of bacterial cell walls. Therefore, the correct answer is that bacterial pili are specialized fimbriae.

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  • 18. 

    Lipid A is also known as?

    • A.

      Endotoxin

    • B.

      Teichoic acid

    • C.

      Tetrapeptide

    • D.

      Mycolic acid

    Correct Answer
    A. Endotoxin
    Explanation
    Lipid A is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and is responsible for the toxic effects associated with these bacteria. It is a potent endotoxin, triggering an immune response and causing inflammation. Lipid A is not known as teichoic acid, tetrapeptide, or mycolic acid, as these are different components found in bacterial cell walls.

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  • 19. 

    One lipid found in eukaryotes but NOT in prokaryotes is

    • A.

      Hopanoid

    • B.

      Lipopolysaccharide

    • C.

      Phospholipid

    • D.

      Steroid

    Correct Answer
    D. Steroid
    Explanation
    Steroids are a type of lipid that is found in eukaryotes but not in prokaryotes. They have a unique structure consisting of four fused carbon rings, which gives them their characteristic shape. Steroids play important roles in various biological processes, such as regulating cell membrane fluidity, acting as signaling molecules, and serving as precursors for the synthesis of hormones. Prokaryotes lack the enzymes necessary to synthesize steroids, which is why they are not found in these organisms.

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  • 20. 

    Hopanoids are found in __________ cytoplasmic membranes.

    • A.

      Eukaryotic

    • B.

      Bacterial

    • C.

      Archaeal

    • D.

      Prokaryotic

    Correct Answer
    B. Bacterial
    Explanation
    Hopanoids are found in bacterial cytoplasmic membranes. Hopanoids are a type of sterol-like molecules that are structurally similar to cholesterol in eukaryotic cells. They are primarily found in bacteria and play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and fluidity of the bacterial cell membrane. These molecules are absent in eukaryotic, archaeal, and prokaryotic cytoplasmic membranes. Therefore, the correct answer is bacterial.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following may have cell walls containing teichoic acids?

    • A.

      Gram-negative bacteria

    • B.

      Gram-positive bacteria

    • C.

      Archaea

    • D.

      Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Correct Answer
    B. Gram-positive bacteria
    Explanation
    Gram-positive bacteria may have cell walls containing teichoic acids. Teichoic acids are a type of molecule found in the cell walls of some bacteria. They play a role in maintaining the structure and integrity of the cell wall. Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan layer in their cell walls, and teichoic acids are embedded within this layer. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria have a thinner peptidoglycan layer and do not typically have teichoic acids in their cell walls. Archaea, a separate domain of microorganisms, have cell walls that are structurally different from bacteria and do not contain teichoic acids.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the following prokaryotic cells contain an outer membrane?

    • A.

      Gram-negative bacteria

    • B.

      Gram-positive bacteria

    • C.

       both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Correct Answer
    A. Gram-negative bacteria
    Explanation
    Gram-negative bacteria contain an outer membrane. This outer membrane is an additional layer that surrounds the cell wall and provides extra protection. It helps to prevent the entry of harmful substances and plays a role in the bacteria's ability to resist antibiotics. Gram-positive bacteria, on the other hand, do not have an outer membrane. They only have a thick cell wall made of peptidoglycan. Therefore, the correct answer is Gram-negative bacteria.

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