Mechanisms of amphotericin B resistance
Azoles mechanism of resistance
Resistance to Terbinafine
None of the above
Indirectly via arthropod vectors.
Direct mucous membrane-to-mucous membrane
Indirectly via airborne droplets
Direct skin-to-skin contact
Bacterial biofilms are virtually difficult to eliminate with antibiotics or biocides.
In the human body the resident cells within the biofilm are not exposed to attack by the immune system
Enveloping of the attached cells in EPS.
Biofilm formation usually begins with pioneer cells attaching to a surface
The diarrheal disease relates to the feces of turtles, other reptiles
Toxoplasmosis may cause severe brain damage to the fetus when contracted by a woman during of pregnancy.
The rabies virus can be contracted by ingesting oocysts from cat feces
Cat and dog bites often transfer species of Pasteurella into tissue of human
Fimbriated (piliated) strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Fimbriated strains of E. coli
Nonfimbriated (nonpiliated) strains of N. gonorrhoeae
Bile salts that contain surfactants
Inhalation of tobacco smoke
The possession of surface adhesins
Extreme acidity and presence of digestive enzymes
Tend to spread outward and across larger areas.
Grow to a certain size and stop and limited in their diameter.
Fuzzy and fluffy or powdery in appearance.
Impart a "moldy" odor to their substrates.
In some Gram-positive bacteria glycerol–teichoic acids are bound to membrane lipids
The envelope of Gram- negative cells is a far more complicated structure than Gram +ve cells.
Under the light microscope Gram-negative cells appear purple while Gram-positive cells are red.
The Gram-positive cell wall consists primarily of a single type of molecule