Microbiology Quiz 2 - Chapter 4

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Microbiology Quiz 2 - Chapter 4 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The two functions of bacterial appendages are

    • A.

      Attachment and protection

    • B.

      Attachment and motility

    • C.

      Motility and slime production

    • D.

      Energy reactions and synthesis

    • E.

      Protection and motility

    Correct Answer
    B. Attachment and motility
    Explanation
    Bacterial appendages serve two main functions: attachment and motility. Attachment refers to the ability of bacteria to adhere to surfaces, which is important for colonization and biofilm formation. Motility, on the other hand, enables bacteria to move and navigate through their environment. These two functions are crucial for bacterial survival and play a significant role in their ability to interact with their surroundings and carry out various biological processes.

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  • 2. 

    The basal body of a flagellum is anchored into the

    • A.

      Hook

    • B.

      Outer membrane

    • C.

      Cell wall

    • D.

      Peptidoglycan layer

    • E.

      Cell membrane

    Correct Answer
    E. Cell membrane
    Explanation
    The basal body of a flagellum is anchored into the cell membrane because the cell membrane is the outermost layer of the cell and provides structural support. The flagellum is a whip-like appendage that helps in cell movement, and it needs to be firmly anchored into the cell membrane to function properly. The cell membrane also acts as a barrier, regulating the movement of substances in and out of the cell, so anchoring the flagellum into the cell membrane ensures that it remains securely attached while allowing for the movement of the flagellum.

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  • 3. 

    The term that refers to flagella at both poles is

    • A.

      Amphitrichous

    • B.

      Atrichous

    • C.

      Lophotrichous

    • D.

      Monotrichous

    • E.

      Peritrichous

    Correct Answer
    A. Amphitrichous
    Explanation
    Amphitrichous refers to the presence of flagella at both poles of a bacterial cell. This means that the flagella are located at both ends of the cell, allowing for movement in multiple directions. The other options, Atrichous, Lophotrichous, Monotrichous, and Peritrichous, all refer to different arrangements of flagella on a bacterial cell, but none of them specifically indicate flagella at both poles. Therefore, the correct answer is Amphitrichous.

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  • 4. 

    Chemo taxis refers to the ability to

    • A.

      Move in response to light

    • B.

      Move in response to a chemical

    • C.

      Not move in response to a chemical

    • D.

      Transport desired molecules into cell

    • E.

      None of the choices are correct

    Correct Answer
    B. Move in response to a chemical
    Explanation
    Chemotaxis is the process by which cells move in response to a chemical stimulus. This can involve moving towards or away from the source of the chemical. It is a crucial mechanism for various biological processes such as immune response, wound healing, and the movement of sperm cells towards an egg. Therefore, the correct answer is "Move in response to a chemical."

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  • 5. 

    The transfer of genes during bacterial conjugation involves rigid, tubular appendages called

    • A.

      Flagella

    • B.

      Cilia

    • C.

      Fimbriae

    • D.

      Periplasmic flagella (axial filaments)

    • E.

      Sex pili

    Correct Answer
    E. Sex pili
    Explanation
    During bacterial conjugation, the transfer of genes occurs through sex pili. Sex pili are rigid, tubular appendages that are used by bacteria to establish contact between donor and recipient cells. These pili allow for the transfer of genetic material, such as plasmids, from one bacterium to another. Unlike flagella, cilia, and fimbriae, which serve different functions such as locomotion or attachment, sex pili specifically facilitate the transfer of genetic material during bacterial conjugation.

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  • 6. 

    A bacterial genus that has waxy mycolic acid in the cell walls is

    • A.

      Mycobacterium

    • B.

      Mycoplasma

    • C.

      Streptococcus

    • D.

      Corynebacterium

    • E.

      Salmonella

    Correct Answer
    A. Mycobacterium
    Explanation
    Mycobacterium is the correct answer because it is a bacterial genus that is known to have waxy mycolic acid in its cell walls. Mycolic acid is a unique component of the cell wall structure of Mycobacterium species, which gives them their characteristic waxy appearance. This waxy layer helps protect the bacteria from environmental stresses and makes them more resistant to antibiotics and disinfectants. Mycobacterium species include important human pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis.

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  • 7. 

    The enzyme _____, that is found in tears and saliva, can hydrolyze the bonds in the glycan chains of certain bacterial cell walls.

    • A.

      Penicillinase

    • B.

      Lysozyme

    • C.

      Peptidase

    • D.

      All of the choices are correct

    • E.

      None of the choices are correct

    Correct Answer
    B. Lysozyme
    Explanation
    Lysozyme is an enzyme that is found in tears and saliva. It is capable of hydrolyzing the bonds in the glycan chains of certain bacterial cell walls. This means that lysozyme can break down the structure of bacterial cell walls, leading to their destruction. Therefore, lysozyme is an important component of the innate immune system, helping to protect the body against bacterial infections.

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  • 8. 

    Lysozyme is most effective against 

    • A.

      Gram negative organisms

    • B.

      Gram positive organisms

    • C.

      Mycoplasmas

    • D.

      Cyanobacteria

    • E.

      Archea

    Correct Answer
    B. Gram positive organisms
    Explanation
    Lysozyme is an enzyme that targets the peptidoglycan layer in bacterial cell walls. Gram positive organisms have a thick layer of peptidoglycan, making them more susceptible to lysozyme's action. In contrast, Gram negative organisms have an outer membrane that provides additional protection, making them less susceptible to lysozyme. Mycoplasmas, Cyanobacteria, and Archea have different cell wall compositions, making them less affected by lysozyme. Therefore, the most effective target for lysozyme is Gram positive organisms.

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  • 9. 

    The fragile cell produced when gram positive bacteria are exposed to lysozyme or penicillin is a/an

    • A.

      Protoplast

    • B.

      Mycoplasma

    • C.

      Spheroplast

    • D.

      Glycocalyx

    • E.

      Glycan

    Correct Answer
    A. Protoplast
    Explanation
    When gram positive bacteria are exposed to lysozyme or penicillin, they lose their cell wall and become fragile. The term used to describe this fragile cell is "protoplast." A protoplast is a bacterial cell that has lost its cell wall but still retains the cell membrane. This term is specifically used for gram positive bacteria because gram negative bacteria have an outer membrane that protects them from becoming protoplasts. Therefore, the correct answer is protoplast.

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  • 10. 

    All of the following structures contribute to the ability of pathogenic bacteria to cause disease except the

    • A.

      Inclusions

    • B.

      Fimbriae

    • C.

      Capsule

    • D.

      Slime layer

    • E.

      Outer membrane of gram negative cell walls

    Correct Answer
    A. Inclusions
    Explanation
    Inclusions are not directly involved in the ability of pathogenic bacteria to cause disease. Inclusions are storage granules that allow bacteria to store excess nutrients for later use. While they play a role in the metabolism of bacteria, they do not directly contribute to the ability to cause disease. On the other hand, fimbriae, capsule, slime layer, and the outer membrane of gram-negative cell walls are all structures that contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria by aiding in adhesion, evasion of the host immune system, and protection against host defenses.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following does not pertain to endotoxins?

    • A.

      Are specific bacterial cell wall lipids

    • B.

      Can stimulate fever in the human body

    • C.

      Can cause septic shock in the human body

    • D.

      Involved in typhoid fever and some meningitis cases

    • E.

      Found in acid fast bacterial cell walls

    Correct Answer
    E. Found in acid fast bacterial cell walls
    Explanation
    Endotoxins are specific bacterial cell wall lipids that can stimulate fever and cause septic shock in the human body. They are also involved in typhoid fever and some meningitis cases. However, they are not found in acid fast bacterial cell walls.

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  • 12. 

    Lipopolysaccharide is an important cell wall component of

    • A.

      Gram negative bacteria

    • B.

      Gram positive bacteria

    • C.

      Acid fast bacteria

    • D.

      Mycoplasmas

    • E.

      Protoplasts

    Correct Answer
    A. Gram negative bacteria
    Explanation
    Lipopolysaccharide is a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It acts as an endotoxin and is responsible for the strong immune response triggered by these bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria do not have an outer membrane and therefore do not contain lipopolysaccharide. Acid-fast bacteria, mycoplasmas, and protoplasts also do not have lipopolysaccharide in their cell walls. Therefore, the correct answer is Gram-negative bacteria.

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  • 13. 

    The site/s for most ATP synthesis in prokaryotic cells is/are the

    • A.

      Ribosomes

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Cell wall

    • D.

      Inclusions

    • E.

      Cell membrane

    Correct Answer
    E. Cell membrane
    Explanation
    The cell membrane is responsible for most ATP synthesis in prokaryotic cells. This is because prokaryotes lack mitochondria, which are the main sites of ATP synthesis in eukaryotic cells. The cell membrane of prokaryotes contains enzymes and transport proteins that are involved in the electron transport chain and ATP synthesis. These enzymes generate ATP by utilizing the energy from the electron transport chain. Therefore, the cell membrane is the primary site for ATP synthesis in prokaryotic cells.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Jul 03, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Dindiam
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