Microbiology Trivia Quiz: Fill In The Blank!

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Microbiology Trivia Quiz: Fill In The Blank! - Quiz

For you to pass an exam, you must be a good listener in class. To help see just how attentive you have been, I have prepared a series of tests that will help you revise on a chapter to chapter basis. How attentive were you when it comes to chapter five of the microbiology class? Take this quiz, fill the blanks, and let the results tell you.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The sum of chemical reactions in an organism

    Explanation
    Metabolism refers to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur within an organism. It involves the breakdown of molecules to release energy (catabolism) and the synthesis of molecules to build and maintain cellular structures (anabolism). Metabolism is essential for various biological processes such as growth, reproduction, and maintaining homeostasis. It encompasses the conversion of nutrients into energy and the elimination of waste products. Overall, metabolism plays a crucial role in sustaining life by ensuring the proper functioning of cells and the organism as a whole.

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  • 2. 

    The energy-releasing processes

    Explanation
    Catabolism refers to the energy-releasing processes in living organisms. It involves breaking down complex molecules into simpler ones, releasing energy in the process. This process is essential for the production of ATP, the main energy currency of cells. Catabolism allows organisms to obtain energy from the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, which are then used for various metabolic activities. Therefore, catabolism is the correct answer as it accurately describes the energy-releasing processes in living organisms.

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  • 3. 

    The energy-using processes

    Explanation
    Anabolism refers to the energy-using processes in an organism. It involves the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones, requiring energy input. This process is essential for growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues. Anabolism includes activities such as protein synthesis, DNA replication, and the production of new cells. It is the opposite of catabolism, which involves the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, releasing energy. Anabolism is crucial for maintaining the overall energy balance and supporting the body's metabolic functions.

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  • 4. 

    The _________ _________ states that chemical reactions can occur when atoms, ions, and molecules collide.

    Explanation
    The collision theory explains that chemical reactions can take place when atoms, ions, and molecules collide. This theory suggests that for a reaction to occur, the colliding particles must have enough energy and the correct orientation. When they collide with sufficient energy and in the proper orientation, the existing bonds can break, and new bonds can form, leading to a chemical reaction. The collision theory provides a fundamental understanding of how reactions happen at the molecular level.

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  • 5. 

    ___________ ____________ is needed to disrupt molecular collisions

    Explanation
    Activation energy is the minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction by breaking the bonds of reactant molecules. It is needed to disrupt molecular collisions because molecules need to acquire a certain amount of energy to overcome the energy barrier and react with each other. Activation energy ensures that only molecules with sufficient energy can undergo the reaction, preventing spontaneous reactions and controlling the rate of chemical reactions.

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  • 6. 

    ___________ _______ is the frequency of collisions with enough energy to bring about a reaction.

    Explanation
    The term "reaction rate" refers to the frequency at which collisions occur with sufficient energy to initiate a chemical reaction. It represents the speed at which reactant molecules collide and convert into products. The higher the reaction rate, the more collisions that occur with enough energy to overcome the activation energy barrier and lead to a reaction. Therefore, the given answer accurately describes the concept of reaction rate in relation to the frequency of collisions with enough energy to bring about a reaction.

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  • 7. 

    Reaction rate can be increased by enzymes or by increasing temperature or 

    Explanation
    Increasing pressure can increase the reaction rate because it leads to a higher concentration of reactant molecules in a given volume. This increases the chances of successful collisions between the reactant molecules, promoting the formation of products. Additionally, higher pressure can also affect the equilibrium of the reaction, shifting it towards the side with fewer moles of gas, which can further increase the reaction rate. However, it is important to note that pressure may not always be a significant factor in all reactions and its effect depends on the specific reaction and conditions.

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  • 8. 

    _______ are biological catalysts.

    Explanation
    Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up chemical reactions in living organisms. They are proteins that act as specific catalysts, meaning they facilitate specific reactions without being consumed in the process. Enzymes lower the activation energy required for a reaction to occur, making it easier and faster for the reaction to take place. This allows cells to carry out essential metabolic processes efficiently. Enzymes are highly specific, meaning each enzyme catalyzes a particular reaction or set of reactions. They play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as digestion, energy production, and DNA replication.

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  • 9. 

    Protein portion of an enzyme

    Explanation
    The correct answer is "apoenzyme." An apoenzyme refers to the protein portion of an enzyme that is inactive on its own and requires the binding of a cofactor or coenzyme to become fully functional. The cofactor or coenzyme is responsible for activating the apoenzyme and enabling it to catalyze a specific biochemical reaction. Therefore, the apoenzyme alone cannot carry out its enzymatic function without the presence of a cofactor or coenzyme.

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  • 10. 

    Nonprotein component of an enzyme

    Explanation
    A cofactor is a nonprotein component of an enzyme that is necessary for the enzyme's activity. It can be either a metal ion or an organic molecule, and it helps in the catalytic function of the enzyme by assisting in the binding of the substrate or participating in the chemical reaction. Cofactors are essential for the proper functioning of many enzymes and are often required in small amounts. They can be permanently bound to the enzyme or loosely attached and can be derived from vitamins or minerals in the diet.

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  • 11. 

    Organic cofactor of an enzyme

    Explanation
    A coenzyme is an organic cofactor of an enzyme. It is a non-protein molecule that binds to an enzyme and helps it carry out its function. Coenzymes participate in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions by transferring chemical groups or electrons between different molecules. They are often derived from vitamins or other small organic molecules. Coenzymes are essential for the proper functioning of many enzymes and are involved in various metabolic pathways in the body.

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  • 12. 

    Together, the apoenzyme and cofactor form the 

    Explanation
    The apoenzyme is the protein component of an enzyme, while the cofactor is a non-protein molecule that is necessary for the enzyme's activity. When the apoenzyme and cofactor bind together, they form the holoenzyme, which is the active form of the enzyme. The holoenzyme is capable of catalyzing a specific biochemical reaction, while the apoenzyme alone is inactive. Therefore, the correct answer is holoenzyme.

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  • 13. 

    Enzymes can be denatured by temperature and 

    Explanation
    Enzymes can be denatured by pH levels. pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Enzymes have an optimal pH at which they function best. When the pH deviates from this optimal range, the enzyme's structure can be altered, leading to a loss of its catalytic activity. Extreme pH levels can disrupt the hydrogen bonds and ionic interactions that maintain the enzyme's shape, causing it to unfold or denature. This denaturation can render the enzyme inactive and unable to perform its biological function.

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  • 14. 

    __________ is the removal of electrons

    Explanation
    Oxidation is the process of removing electrons from an atom or molecule. During oxidation, the atom or molecule loses electrons, resulting in an increase in its oxidation state. This can occur through various chemical reactions, such as the addition of oxygen or the loss of hydrogen. Oxidation is a fundamental process in many chemical reactions and is often associated with the production of energy or the breakdown of organic compounds.

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  • 15. 

    __________ is the gain of electrons

    Explanation
    Reduction is the gain of electrons in a chemical reaction. During reduction, the oxidation state of an atom or ion decreases as it gains electrons. This process is often associated with the addition of hydrogen atoms or the removal of oxygen atoms from a molecule. Reduction reactions are commonly observed in various biological and chemical processes, such as photosynthesis and the formation of metal ions. Therefore, the correct answer to the question is "reduction."

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  • 16. 

    __________ is an oxidation reaction paired with reduction reaction

    Explanation
    A redox reaction is an oxidation-reduction reaction. In this type of reaction, one species loses electrons (oxidation) while another species gains electrons (reduction). The transfer of electrons between the two species allows for a change in oxidation states, resulting in the overall redox reaction. This reaction involves the transfer of electrons from the reducing agent (which gets oxidized) to the oxidizing agent (which gets reduced).

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  • 17. 

    Energy released from the transfer of electrons (oxidation) of one compound to another (reduction) is used to generate ATP by 

    Explanation
    Chemiosmosis is the process by which the energy released from the transfer of electrons (oxidation) of one compound to another (reduction) is used to generate ATP. During chemiosmosis, electrons flow through a series of electron carriers in the electron transport chain, creating a proton gradient across a membrane. This proton gradient drives the synthesis of ATP by ATP synthase, as protons flow back across the membrane. Therefore, chemiosmosis is the correct answer as it accurately describes the mechanism by which ATP is generated from the transfer of electrons.

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  • 18. 

    The breakdown of carbohydrates to release energy has three stages

    Explanation
    The breakdown of carbohydrates to release energy occurs in three stages: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. In glycolysis, glucose is converted into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP. The Krebs cycle then takes place in the mitochondria, where pyruvate is further broken down, generating more ATP and electron carriers (NADH and FADH2). Finally, in the electron transport chain, electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed through a series of protein complexes, creating a proton gradient that drives the synthesis of ATP. This sequential process efficiently extracts energy from carbohydrates.

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  • 19. 

    The oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid produces 

    Explanation
    During the process of glucose oxidation, glucose molecules are broken down into pyruvic acid molecules through a series of chemical reactions. This process, known as glycolysis, occurs in the cytoplasm of cells and is the first step in cellular respiration. As glucose is oxidized, it releases energy that is used to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main energy currency of cells. Additionally, NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is also produced as a result of the oxidation process. NADH acts as an electron carrier and plays a crucial role in the later stages of cellular respiration, where it donates electrons to the electron transport chain to generate more ATP.

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  • 20. 

    During the prepatory stage _________ ATP are used

    Explanation
    During the preparatory stage, 2 ATP molecules are used. This stage, also known as the energy investment phase, requires ATP to initiate the breakdown of glucose. The energy from ATP is used to phosphorylate glucose, making it more reactive and allowing it to be further broken down in later stages of cellular respiration. The use of ATP in this stage is necessary to kickstart the process of extracting energy from glucose.

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  • 21. 

    Glycolysis produces 

    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the initial step in cellular respiration, where glucose is broken down into pyruvate. During this process, a small amount of energy is produced in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Specifically, glycolysis generates a net gain of 2 ATP molecules. This occurs through substrate-level phosphorylation, where high-energy phosphate groups are transferred to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) to form ATP. Therefore, the correct answer is 2 ATPs.

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  • 22. 

    During the energy-conserving stage, _____ ATP are produced

    Explanation
    During the energy-conserving stage, four ATP molecules are produced. This stage refers to the final steps of cellular respiration, specifically oxidative phosphorylation, where the majority of ATP is generated. Through the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis, the energy from the electrons is used to pump protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane, creating a proton gradient. This gradient drives ATP synthase to produce ATP molecules. In total, four ATP molecules are produced per glucose molecule during this stage.

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  • 23. 

    During the intermediate step, ________ __________ (from glycolysis) is oxidized and decarboyxlated

    Explanation
    During the intermediate step, pyruvic acid from glycolysis is oxidized and decarboxylated. This step occurs in the mitochondria and is a crucial part of cellular respiration. Pyruvic acid is converted into acetyl CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle to produce ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. The oxidation of pyruvic acid releases high-energy electrons, which are carried by NADH to the electron transport chain. The decarboxylation of pyruvic acid removes a carbon dioxide molecule, resulting in the formation of acetyl CoA.

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  • 24. 

    __________ is the mechanism of ATP synthesis using the electron transport chain.

    Explanation
    Chemiosmosis is the process by which ATP is synthesized using the electron transport chain. During this mechanism, electrons are transferred through a series of protein complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane. As the electrons pass through these complexes, protons are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space, creating an electrochemical gradient. This gradient drives the movement of protons back into the matrix through ATP synthase, which generates ATP. Therefore, chemiosmosis is the correct term to describe the ATP synthesis mechanism using the electron transport chain.

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  • 25. 

    The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is molecular oxygen (O2)

    Explanation
    Aerobic respiration is a metabolic process that occurs in the presence of oxygen. During this process, glucose is broken down in the presence of oxygen to produce energy in the form of ATP. The final step of aerobic respiration is the electron transport chain, where electrons are passed along a series of protein complexes and coenzymes. These electrons are eventually accepted by molecular oxygen (O2), which acts as the final electron acceptor. This reaction produces water as a byproduct. Therefore, the correct answer is aerobic respiration.

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  • 26. 

    The final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is not O2.

    Explanation
    Anaerobic respiration is a type of cellular respiration that occurs in the absence of oxygen. In this process, the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is not oxygen (O2), as is the case in aerobic respiration. Instead, other molecules such as nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), or even organic molecules like pyruvate can serve as the final electron acceptor. This allows cells to still produce ATP and carry out energy metabolism in environments where oxygen is not available.

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  • 27. 

    The eukaryote in the Krebs cycle is a

    Explanation
    The Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, is a key metabolic pathway in eukaryotic cells that takes place in the mitochondria. It occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, which is the innermost compartment of the mitochondria. This is where the majority of the Krebs cycle reactions occur. The mitochondrial matrix contains the enzymes and coenzymes necessary for the cycle to take place, and it is where the production of energy-rich molecules like ATP occurs. Therefore, the correct answer is the mitochondrial matrix.

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  • 28. 

    __________ ATPs are produced in prokaryotes and eukaryotes

    Explanation
    ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) is the main energy currency in cells. It is produced through cellular respiration, which occurs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. During cellular respiration, ATP is generated through the process of oxidative phosphorylation in the electron transport chain. This process occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and in the cell membrane of prokaryotic cells. Therefore, 38 ATPs are produced in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes through cellular respiration.

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  • 29. 

    Releases energy from oxidation of organic molecules, does not require oxygen, does not use the krebs cycle or etc, uses and organic molecule as the final electron acceptor.

    Explanation
    Fermentation is a metabolic process that releases energy from the oxidation of organic molecules. Unlike aerobic respiration, it does not require oxygen and does not use the Krebs cycle or electron transport chain. Instead, fermentation uses an organic molecule as the final electron acceptor. This process is commonly observed in microorganisms such as yeast and bacteria, and is utilized in various industrial processes including the production of alcoholic beverages, bread, and yogurt.

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  • 30. 

    Metabolic pathways that have both catabolic and anabolic functions

    Explanation
    Amphibolic pathways are metabolic pathways that have both catabolic and anabolic functions. This means that they can both break down molecules to release energy and build up molecules using energy. These pathways are important for the overall functioning of cells as they allow for the interconversion of different molecules and the regulation of energy production and utilization. Examples of amphibolic pathways include the citric acid cycle and the pentose phosphate pathway.

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