Medical Terminology -- Blood System

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Medical Terminology -- Blood System - Quiz

Med. Term. 2 Final Study -- In Chabner: The Language of Medicine


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Reduction in red cells due to excessive cell destruction

    • A.

      Pernicious anemia

    • B.

      Iron-deficiency anemia

    • C.

      Aplastic anemia

    • D.

      Hemolytic anemia

    • E.

      Thalassemia

    Correct Answer
    D. Hemolytic anemia
    Explanation
    Hemolytic anemia is characterized by a reduction in red blood cells due to excessive destruction of these cells. This condition can be caused by various factors such as autoimmune disorders, infections, certain medications, or inherited conditions. The destruction of red blood cells leads to a decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, resulting in symptoms such as fatigue, pale skin, and shortness of breath. Treatment for hemolytic anemia may involve addressing the underlying cause, medications to suppress the immune system, blood transfusions, or, in severe cases, a bone marrow transplant.

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  • 2. 

    Protein threads that form the basis of a clot

    • A.

      Fibrinogen

    • B.

      Globulin

    • C.

      Hemoglobin

    • D.

      Thrombin

    • E.

      Fibrin

    Correct Answer
    E. Fibrin
    Explanation
    Fibrin is the correct answer because it is the protein thread that forms the basis of a clot. When there is an injury or damage to a blood vessel, fibrinogen, a soluble protein, is converted into fibrin by an enzyme called thrombin. Fibrin then forms a mesh-like structure that traps platelets and red blood cells, leading to the formation of a blood clot. This clot helps to stop bleeding and promotes wound healing.

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  • 3. 

    Excessive bleeding caused by congenital lack of factor VIII or IX

    • A.

      Autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura

    • B.

      Hemophilia

    • C.

      Granulocytosis

    • D.

      Erythremia

    • E.

      Polycythemia vera

    Correct Answer
    B. Hemophilia
    Explanation
    Hemophilia is a genetic disorder that results in excessive bleeding due to a lack of clotting factors, specifically factor VIII or IX. This condition is congenital, meaning it is present from birth. People with hemophilia have a deficiency or absence of these clotting factors, which are necessary for blood to clot properly. As a result, even minor injuries can cause prolonged bleeding. Hemophilia is typically inherited and primarily affects males, as it is an X-linked recessive disorder.

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  • 4. 

    Venous blood is clotted in a test tube

    • A.

      Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

    • B.

      Red blood cell morphology

    • C.

      Coagulation time

    • D.

      Hematocrit

    • E.

      White blood cell differential

    Correct Answer
    C. Coagulation time
    Explanation
    Coagulation time refers to the time it takes for venous blood to clot in a test tube. This test measures the functioning of the blood's clotting factors and can help diagnose bleeding disorders or monitor the effectiveness of anticoagulant therapy. The other options, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate, red blood cell morphology, hematocrit, and white blood cell differential, are not directly related to the clotting process and would not provide information about coagulation time.

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  • 5. 

    Leukocytes are stained and counted under a microscope to see numbers of mature and immature forms

    • A.

      Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

    • B.

      Red blood cell morphology

    • C.

      Coagulation time

    • D.

      Hematocrit

    • E.

      White blood cell differential

    Correct Answer
    E. White blood cell differential
    Explanation
    A white blood cell differential is a laboratory test that involves staining and counting leukocytes (white blood cells) under a microscope. This test is used to determine the numbers of mature and immature forms of white blood cells in a blood sample. By examining the different types of white blood cells present, healthcare professionals can gain valuable information about a patient's immune system and diagnose various conditions such as infections, allergies, and leukemia.

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  • 6. 

    IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, IgE

    • A.

      Megakaryocytes

    • B.

      Eosinophils

    • C.

      Neutrophils

    • D.

      Stem cells

    • E.

      Immunoglobulins

    Correct Answer
    E. Immunoglobulins
    Explanation
    The given answer, "Immunoglobulins," is correct because IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, and IgE are all types of immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies. Immunoglobulins are proteins produced by plasma cells, which are derived from B cells, as part of the immune response to foreign substances in the body. Each type of immunoglobulin has a specific function in the immune system, such as neutralizing pathogens, activating complement, or triggering allergic reactions. Therefore, the answer "Immunoglobulins" accurately represents the common characteristic of IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, and IgE.

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  • 7. 

    Relieving symptoms, but not curing disease

    • A.

      Hemostasis

    • B.

      Palliative

    • C.

      Myelopoiesis

    • D.

      Hemolysis

    • E.

      Coagulopathy

    Correct Answer
    B. Palliative
    Explanation
    Palliative refers to a type of medical care that focuses on relieving symptoms and improving the quality of life for patients with serious illnesses, rather than curing the underlying disease. This approach aims to provide comfort and support to patients, managing pain and other distressing symptoms, while also addressing their emotional, social, and spiritual needs. Palliative care can be provided alongside curative treatments, and it is often used for patients with advanced or terminal conditions. Therefore, the answer "Palliative" correctly describes the concept of relieving symptoms without curing the disease.

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  • 8. 

    Deficiency of clotting cells (Proper Spelling)

    • A.

      Thrombositopenea

    • B.

      Thrombocytopenia

    • C.

      Thrombocitopenia

    • D.

      Thrombocytopenea

    • E.

      Thrombosytopenia

    Correct Answer
    B. Thrombocytopenia
    Explanation
    Thrombocytopenia refers to a deficiency of clotting cells, specifically platelets, in the blood. Platelets are responsible for blood clotting, and when their levels are low, it can lead to excessive bleeding and difficulty in forming clots. The correct spelling of this condition is "thrombocytopenia."

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  • 9. 

    Large cell that engulfs foreign material and worn out red cells (Proper Spelling)

    • A.

      Macrophage

    • B.

      Macropage

    • C.

      Makrophage

    • D.

      Mackrophage

    • E.

      Macrohage

    Correct Answer
    A. Macrophage
    Explanation
    A macrophage is a large cell that is capable of engulfing foreign material and worn out red cells. It is an important part of the immune system and plays a crucial role in eliminating pathogens and cellular debris. The correct spelling of this term is "macrophage".

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  • 10. 

    White blood cell that destroys foreign material by phagocytosis (Proper Spelling)

    • A.

      Neutrophill

    • B.

      Nuetrophil

    • C.

      Neutrophel

    • D.

      Neutrophil

    • E.

      Neutrophell

    Correct Answer
    D. Neutrophil
    Explanation
    A white blood cell that destroys foreign material by phagocytosis is called a neutrophil. Neutrophils are a type of granulocyte and are part of the body's immune response. They are highly effective at engulfing and destroying bacteria and other pathogens.

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  • 11. 

    Lack of mature red cells owing to inability to absorb vitamin B12   (Proper Spelling)

    • A.

      Perniscious anemia

    • B.

      Panescius anemia

    • C.

      Pernicious anemia

    • D.

      Percnicious anemia

    • E.

      Pernicous anemia

    Correct Answer
    C. Pernicious anemia
    Explanation
    Pernicious anemia is a condition characterized by a lack of mature red blood cells due to the body's inability to absorb vitamin B12. This vitamin is essential for the production of healthy red blood cells. Without enough vitamin B12, the red blood cells become enlarged and immature, leading to anemia. The correct spelling of this condition is "pernicious anemia".

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  • 12. 

    Foreign material that invades the body

    • A.

      Antigens

    • B.

      Antibodies

    • C.

      Macrophages

    • D.

      Antigines

    • E.

      Granulocytes

    Correct Answer
    A. Antigens
    Explanation
    Antigens are foreign substances that invade the body, triggering an immune response. They can be bacteria, viruses, toxins, or other foreign materials. When antigens enter the body, they stimulate the production of antibodies by the immune system. Antibodies are proteins that bind to antigens, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Macrophages and granulocytes are types of immune cells that also play a role in the immune response, but antigens are the correct answer as they are the foreign materials that trigger the immune system.

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  • 13. 

    Increase in red blood cells (Proper Spelling)

    • A.

      Polycytemia vera

    • B.

      Polysithemia vera

    • C.

      Polycytemea vera

    • D.

      Policythemia vera

    • E.

      Polycythemia vera

    Correct Answer
    E. Polycythemia vera
    Explanation
    Polycythemia vera is a rare blood disorder characterized by the overproduction of red blood cells in the bone marrow. The correct answer, "polycythemia vera," accurately refers to this condition. The other options provided are misspelled variations of the correct term.

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  • 14. 

    Orange-yellow pigment produced from hemoglobin when red blood cells are destroyed

    • A.

      Serum

    • B.

      Bilirubin

    • C.

      Albumin

    • D.

      Globulin

    • E.

      Plasma

    Correct Answer
    B. Bilirubin
    Explanation
    Bilirubin is an orange-yellow pigment that is produced from the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells are destroyed. It is then transported to the liver where it is processed and eventually excreted in the bile. Bilirubin levels can be measured in the blood, and elevated levels can indicate liver or gallbladder dysfunction.

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  • 15. 

    A disorder of red blood cell morphology is

    • A.

      Multiple myeloma

    • B.

      Monocytosis

    • C.

      Poikilocytosis

    • D.

      Acute myelocytic leukemia

    • E.

      Hemochromatosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Poikilocytosis
    Explanation
    Poikilocytosis refers to an abnormal variation in the shape of red blood cells. This disorder can be caused by various factors, such as genetic abnormalities, nutritional deficiencies, or certain diseases. The abnormal shapes of the red blood cells can interfere with their ability to carry oxygen and nutrients throughout the body, leading to symptoms like fatigue, shortness of breath, and pale skin. Treatment for poikilocytosis depends on the underlying cause and may involve addressing any nutritional deficiencies, managing the underlying disease, or in severe cases, blood transfusions.

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  • 16. 

    Leukocyte (granulocyte) whose granules have an affinity for basic dye; releases histamine and heparin

    • A.

      Eosinophil

    • B.

      Neutrophil

    • C.

      Lymphocyte

    • D.

      Basophil

    • E.

      Monocyte

    Correct Answer
    D. Basophil
    Explanation
    A basophil is a type of leukocyte (granulocyte) whose granules have an affinity for basic dye. Basophils release histamine and heparin, which are important in the body's immune response. Histamine is involved in the inflammatory response, while heparin helps prevent blood clotting. Therefore, the correct answer is basophil.

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  • 17. 

    Leukocyte (polymorphonuclear granulocyte) formed in bone marrow having neutral-staining granules

    • A.

      Neutrophil

    • B.

      Monosycte

    • C.

      Basophil

    • D.

      Eosinophil

    • E.

      Lymphocyte

    Correct Answer
    A. Neutrophil
    Explanation
    Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell (leukocyte) that are formed in the bone marrow. They are characterized by having neutral-staining granules, which means that these granules do not take up any specific color when stained. Neutrophils are the most abundant type of white blood cell and play a crucial role in the immune response by engulfing and destroying bacteria and other pathogens.

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  • 18. 

    Iron-containing nonprotein part of hemoglobin

    • A.

      Glo

    • B.

      Bulin

    • C.

      Heme

    • D.

      Globulin

    Correct Answer
    C. Heme
    Explanation
    Heme is the correct answer because it is the iron-containing nonprotein part of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein found in red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body. Heme is responsible for binding to oxygen and allowing it to be transported to tissues and organs. It is an essential component of hemoglobin and plays a crucial role in the oxygen-carrying capacity of red blood cells.

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  • 19. 

    Plasma proteing that maintains the proper amount of water in the blood

    • A.

      Plasma

    • B.

      Bilirubin

    • C.

      Antigen

    • D.

      Antibody

    • E.

      Albumin

    Correct Answer
    E. Albumin
    Explanation
    Albumin is a plasma protein that plays a crucial role in maintaining the proper amount of water in the blood. It acts as a carrier for various substances such as hormones, vitamins, and drugs. It also helps in regulating blood pressure and preventing fluid from leaking out of blood vessels. Albumin is synthesized in the liver and is the most abundant protein in plasma. Its presence ensures the osmotic balance of the blood, preventing excessive fluid loss and maintaining overall blood volume and pressure.

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  • 20. 

    Proteins in plasma

    • A.

      Hemoglobins

    • B.

      Globulins

    • C.

      Bilirubins

    • D.

      Albumins

    • E.

      Platelets

    Correct Answer
    B. Globulins
    Explanation
    Proteins in plasma are classified into different types, including hemoglobins, globulins, bilirubins, albumins, and platelets. Among these options, globulins are a type of protein found in plasma. Therefore, the correct answer is globulins.

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  • 21. 

    Plasmapheresis

    • A.

      Using centrifuge to separate or remove RBC from plasma

    • B.

      Method of separating plasma proteins by charge

    • C.

      Protein with antibody activity

    • D.

      Change in the structure and function of a plasma cell

    Correct Answer
    A. Using centrifuge to separate or remove RBC from plasma
    Explanation
    Plasmapheresis is a medical procedure that involves using a centrifuge to separate or remove red blood cells from plasma. This process allows for the collection of plasma, which can then be used for various medical purposes such as transfusions or the extraction of plasma proteins. By physically separating the red blood cells from the plasma, plasmapheresis enables the isolation of specific components for further analysis or treatment.

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  • 22. 

    Any irregularity in the shape of red blood cells

    • A.

      Erythropoiesis

    • B.

      Anisocytosis

    • C.

      Poikilocytosis

    • D.

      Macrocytosis

    • E.

      Microcytosis

    Correct Answer
    C. Poikilocytosis
    Explanation
    Poikilocytosis refers to any irregularity in the shape of red blood cells. This can include cells that are elongated, oval, teardrop-shaped, or have other abnormal shapes. It is often seen in conditions such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and vitamin deficiencies. Anisocytosis refers to a variation in the size of red blood cells, macrocytosis refers to larger than normal red blood cells, and microcytosis refers to smaller than normal red blood cells. Erythropoiesis refers to the process of red blood cell production.

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  • 23. 

    Increase in numbers of large red blood cells

    • A.

      Erythropoiesis

    • B.

      Anisocytosis

    • C.

      Poikilocytosis

    • D.

      Macrocytosis

    • E.

      Microcytosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Macrocytosis
    Explanation
    Macrocytosis refers to an increase in the size of red blood cells. This can be caused by various factors such as vitamin B12 or folate deficiencies, alcoholism, certain medications, or underlying medical conditions. Macrocytosis can be detected through a blood test and is often associated with anemia. It is important to identify the underlying cause of macrocytosis in order to provide appropriate treatment and management for the patient.

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  • 24. 

    Variation in size of red blood cells

    • A.

      Erythropoiesis

    • B.

      Anisocytosis

    • C.

      Poikilocytosis

    • D.

      Macrocytosis

    • E.

      Microcytosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Anisocytosis
    Explanation
    Anisocytosis refers to the variation in size of red blood cells. This condition is characterized by the presence of both larger and smaller red blood cells in the blood. It can be caused by various factors such as nutritional deficiencies, certain diseases, or bone marrow disorders. Anisocytosis can be detected through a blood test and may indicate an underlying health problem.

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  • 25. 

    Formation

    • A.

      -cytosis

    • B.

      -penia

    • C.

      -blast

    • D.

      -plasty

    • E.

      -poiesis

    Correct Answer
    E. -poiesis
    Explanation
    The suffix "-poiesis" refers to the formation or production of something. In the context of medical terminology, it is commonly used to indicate the formation or production of cells or tissues. For example, erythropoiesis refers to the production of red blood cells, while osteopoiesis refers to the formation of bone. Therefore, the suffix "-poiesis" is the correct answer as it accurately represents the process of formation.

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  • 26. 

    General increase in numbers of red blood cells

    • A.

      Erythrocytopenia

    • B.

      Erythropoiesis

    • C.

      Polycythemia vera

    • D.

      Erythromacrocytosis

    • E.

      Hemolysis

    Correct Answer
    C. Polycythemia vera
    Explanation
    Polycythemia vera is a condition characterized by an abnormally high number of red blood cells in the body. This condition is not caused by an increase in erythropoiesis (production of red blood cells) or hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells), but rather by a mutation in the bone marrow cells that leads to the overproduction of red blood cells. Therefore, polycythemia vera is the correct answer as it directly relates to the general increase in numbers of red blood cells.

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  • 27. 

    Destruction of red blood cells

    • A.

      Hemolysis

    • B.

      Erythropoiesis

    • C.

      Erythropenia

    • D.

      Hematocrit

    • E.

      Microcytosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Hemolysis
    Explanation
    Hemolysis refers to the destruction of red blood cells. This process can occur due to various reasons such as infections, immune reactions, or certain medical conditions. When red blood cells are destroyed, the hemoglobin inside them is released into the bloodstream. This can lead to a decrease in the number of red blood cells and cause symptoms like anemia. Therefore, hemolysis is the most appropriate term to describe the destruction of red blood cells in this context.

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  • 28. 

    Deficiency

    • A.

      -cytosis

    • B.

      -penia

    • C.

      -blast

    • D.

      -plast

    • E.

      -poiesis

    Correct Answer
    B. -penia
    Explanation
    The suffix "-penia" refers to a deficiency or a decrease in a particular substance or cell type. It is commonly used in medical terminology to indicate a low or inadequate level of something. For example, "leukopenia" refers to a low white blood cell count, and "thrombocytopenia" refers to a low platelet count. Therefore, the correct answer choice "-penia" aligns with the theme of deficiency.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Mar 17, 2009
    Quiz Created by
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