MBLEx Anatomy And Physiology Exam Practice Quiz!

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MBLEx Anatomy And Physiology Exam Practice Quiz! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The skeletal system is composed of bones, cartilage, ligaments and joints.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The skeletal system is indeed composed of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and joints. These components work together to provide support, protection, and movement for the body. Bones are the main structural component, while cartilage helps to cushion and support joints. Ligaments connect bones to other bones, providing stability, and joints allow for movement between bones. Overall, these components make up the skeletal system, making the statement true.

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  • 2. 

    The fibrous membrane covering bone that is the bone's life support system is called the intraosteum.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The fibrous membrane covering bone that is the bone's life support system is not called the intraosteum. The correct term for this fibrous membrane is the periosteum. The periosteum contains blood vessels, nerves, and cells that are essential for the bone's growth, repair, and nutrition. The intraosteum does not exist and is not a recognized term in anatomy. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 3. 

    The two regions of the skeleton are the axial and the appendicular skeleton. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the skeleton is divided into two main regions: the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. The axial skeleton includes the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage, which provide support and protection for the organs in the central axis of the body. The appendicular skeleton includes the bones of the limbs, shoulder girdle, and pelvic girdle, which are involved in movement and locomotion. Therefore, the statement accurately describes the two regions of the skeleton.

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  • 4. 

    The bones of the skull, thorax, and vertebral column and the hyoid bone comprise the appendicular skeleton.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The given statement is false. The bones of the skull, thorax, and vertebral column, along with the hyoid bone, actually comprise the axial skeleton, not the appendicular skeleton. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper and lower limbs, including the shoulder and pelvic girdles.

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  • 5. 

    One of the functions of the skeletal system is to restore vital minerals. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The skeletal system plays a crucial role in maintaining mineral balance in the body. It stores minerals such as calcium and phosphorus, which are essential for various bodily functions. When the body needs these minerals, the skeletal system releases them into the bloodstream. This process helps maintain the mineral levels required for vital functions like muscle contraction, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. Therefore, the statement that the skeletal system restores vital minerals is true.

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  • 6. 

    The intercartilaginous ligament is a tough membrane that interconnects select bones, attaching to their periosteum.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The intercartilaginous ligament does not exist. It is not a recognized ligament in the human body. Therefore, the statement that it is a tough membrane that interconnects select bones and attaches to their periosteum is false.

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  • 7. 

    Spongy bone is found in the center of long bones, typically filled with red and yellow bone marrow.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Spongy bone is indeed found in the center of long bones. It is characterized by its porous and honeycomb-like structure, which provides strength and support while also reducing the weight of the bone. The spongy bone contains spaces filled with red and yellow bone marrow. Red marrow is responsible for producing blood cells, while yellow marrow stores fat. Therefore, the given statement is true.

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  • 8. 

    The two girdles in the axial skeleton are the shoulder girdle and the pelvic girdle. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because the axial skeleton only includes the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage. The shoulder girdle and pelvic girdle are actually part of the appendicular skeleton, which includes the limbs and the bones that connect them to the axial skeleton.

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  • 9. 

    The plane that divides the body into superior and inferior halves is the... 

    • A.

      Midsagittal (median) plane

    • B.

      Frontal (coronal) plane

    • C.

      Transverse (horizontal) plane

    • D.

      Sagittal plane

    Correct Answer
    C. Transverse (horizontal) plane
    Explanation
    The plane that divides the body into superior and inferior halves is the transverse (horizontal) plane. This plane is perpendicular to the long axis of the body and separates the body into upper and lower portions. It is also known as the horizontal plane because it is parallel to the ground when a person is standing upright. The other planes mentioned, such as the midsagittal (median) plane, frontal (coronal) plane, and sagittal plane, divide the body in different ways but not specifically into superior and inferior halves.

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  • 10. 

    The plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior halves is the...

    • A.

      Midsagittal (median) plane

    • B.

      Frontal (coronal) plane

    • C.

      Tranverse (horizontal) plane

    • D.

      Sagittal plane

    Correct Answer
    B. Frontal (coronal) plane
    Explanation
    The frontal (coronal) plane is the plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior halves. This plane runs from side to side and is perpendicular to the sagittal plane. It separates the body into front and back portions, allowing for the examination of structures from a front or back view. This plane is commonly used in medical imaging and anatomical studies to visualize the internal structures of the body.

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  • 11. 

    If you were to assume the anatomical position, you would do which of the following?

    • A.

      Lie face down with both feet hip distance apart, toes pointing downward

    • B.

      Lie flat on your back, with the palms of your hands flat on the floor and your head looking over your right shoulder

    • C.

      Stand erect and face forward, with your palms facing forward with the thumbs to the side, and your feet about hip distance apart with toes pointing forward

    • D.

      Stand erect and face forward, with your palms facing each other and feet about hip distance apart with the toes pointing to the side

    Correct Answer
    C. Stand erect and face forward, with your palms facing forward with the thumbs to the side, and your feet about hip distance apart with toes pointing forward
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to stand erect and face forward, with your palms facing forward with the thumbs to the side, and your feet about hip distance apart with toes pointing forward. This position is known as the anatomical position, which is a standardized reference point used in anatomy and medicine. It allows for consistent and accurate descriptions and measurements of the body's structures and movements.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is in the proper order from least complex to most complex?

    • A.

      Cells, tissues, membranes, organs, organ systems, organism

    • B.

      Cells, chemicals, organs, tissues, organ systems

    • C.

      Chemicals, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism

    • D.

      Molecules, tissues, cells, organism

    Correct Answer
    C. Chemicals, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Chemicals, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism. This is the proper order from least complex to most complex in terms of biological organization. Chemicals are the basic building blocks of life, followed by cells which are made up of chemicals. Tissues are formed by groups of cells working together, organs are made up of different tissues working together, and organ systems are composed of multiple organs working together. Finally, an organism is the highest level of biological organization, consisting of all the organ systems working together to maintain life.

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  • 13. 

    What is the fundamental unit of all living organisms?

    • A.

      Atom

    • B.

      Molecule

    • C.

      Tissue

    • D.

      Cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Cell
    Explanation
    The fundamental unit of all living organisms is the cell. Cells are the basic building blocks of life and are responsible for carrying out all the necessary functions for an organism to survive. They are capable of reproducing, obtaining and using energy, and responding to their environment. Cells can exist as single-celled organisms, such as bacteria, or as part of a larger organism, such as in plants and animals. Overall, the cell is the smallest and most essential unit of life.

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  • 14. 

    Which of the following quadrants contains the liver?

    • A.

      Left lower quadrant

    • B.

      Left upper quadrant

    • C.

      Right lower quadrant

    • D.

      Right upper quadrant

    Correct Answer
    D. Right upper quadrant
    Explanation
    The liver is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. This is because the liver is the largest solid organ in the body and is situated on the right side, just below the diaphragm. It extends from the right upper quadrant towards the middle of the abdomen. The other quadrants mentioned in the options do not contain the liver.

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  • 15. 

    When oriented away from the midline of the body, we refer to it as...

    • A.

      Lateral

    • B.

      Anterior

    • C.

      Posterior

    • D.

      Inferior

    Correct Answer
    A. Lateral
    Explanation
    When oriented away from the midline of the body, we refer to it as "lateral". This term is used to describe a position or structure that is located farther away from the midline of the body, towards the sides. It is the opposite of "medial", which refers to a position closer to the midline.

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  • 16. 

    ________ describes the armpit region. Blank is... 

    • A.

      Axillary

    • B.

      Antebrachial

    • C.

      Brachial

    • D.

      Antecubital

    Correct Answer
    A. Axillary
    Explanation
    Axillary describes the armpit region. It is the correct answer because "axillary" specifically refers to the area under the arm where the arm connects to the shoulder. The other options, "antebrachial," "brachial," and "antecubital," do not accurately describe the armpit region.

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  • 17. 

    The Greek root derm- means... 

    • A.

      Skin

    • B.

      Follicles

    • C.

      Nails

    • D.

      Hair

    Correct Answer
    A. Skin
    Explanation
    The Greek root "derm-" refers to the skin. This can be seen in words like dermatology (the study of skin) and epidermis (the outermost layer of the skin).

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following cells gives color to the skin and serves to decrease the amount of ultraviolet light that can penetrate into deeper layers of the skin?

    • A.

      Keratinocytes

    • B.

      Mesocytes

    • C.

      Astrocytes

    • D.

      Melanocytes

    Correct Answer
    D. Melanocytes
    Explanation
    Melanocytes are the cells that give color to the skin and serve to decrease the amount of ultraviolet light that can penetrate into deeper layers of the skin. They produce a pigment called melanin, which is responsible for the color of our skin, hair, and eyes. Melanin acts as a natural sunscreen, protecting the skin from the harmful effects of UV radiation. This helps to prevent sunburn and reduce the risk of skin cancer.

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  • 19. 

    Which layer is known as the true skin?

    • A.

      Epidermis

    • B.

      Subdermis

    • C.

      Dermis

    • D.

      Hypodermis

    Correct Answer
    C. Dermis
    Explanation
    The dermis is known as the true skin because it is the layer of skin that lies beneath the epidermis and is responsible for providing strength, elasticity, and support to the skin. It contains various structures such as blood vessels, nerve endings, sweat glands, and hair follicles. The dermis also plays a crucial role in regulating body temperature and protecting the body from external threats.

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  • 20. 

    Collagen and elastin are found in which layer of skin?

    • A.

      Epidermis

    • B.

      Dermis

    • C.

      Hypodermis

    • D.

      Mesodermis

    Correct Answer
    B. Dermis
    Explanation
    Collagen and elastin are found in the dermis layer of the skin. The dermis is the middle layer of the skin, located between the epidermis (outer layer) and the hypodermis (innermost layer). Collagen provides structural support and strength to the skin, while elastin allows the skin to stretch and recoil. These proteins are essential for maintaining the elasticity, firmness, and overall health of the skin.

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  • 21. 

    Which are pouch-like structures in the skin from which hair grows?

    • A.

      Follicles

    • B.

      Indentions

    • C.

      Sacs

    • D.

      Cysts

    Correct Answer
    A. Follicles
    Explanation
    Pouch-like structures in the skin from which hair grows are called follicles. These follicles are located in the dermis layer of the skin and contain the hair root. The hair follicles play a crucial role in hair growth and development, as they supply nutrients and oxygen to the hair shaft. Therefore, follicles are responsible for the growth and maintenance of hair on the body.

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  • 22. 

    What is another term used to describe the subcutaneous layer?

    • A.

      Epidermis

    • B.

      Hypodermis

    • C.

      Subdermis

    • D.

      Mesodermis

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypodermis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Hypodermis". The hypodermis is another term used to describe the subcutaneous layer. It is the deepest layer of the skin and is composed of fat cells and connective tissue. The hypodermis helps to insulate the body, store energy, and cushion organs and tissues.

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  • 23. 

    Which layer of skin contains blood vessels, many nerve receptors, hair follicles, and skin glands?

    • A.

      Epidermis

    • B.

      Mesodermis

    • C.

      Hypodermis

    • D.

      Dermis

    Correct Answer
    D. Dermis
    Explanation
    The dermis is the correct answer because it is the layer of skin that contains blood vessels, many nerve receptors, hair follicles, and skin glands. The dermis is located beneath the epidermis and provides support and nourishment to the skin. It is responsible for regulating body temperature, sensing touch, and producing sweat and oil.

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  • 24. 

    Which receptors are often called the "cold receptors"?

    • A.

      Pacinian corpuscles

    • B.

      Ruffini end organs

    • C.

      Krause end bulbs

    • D.

      Meissner's corpuscles

    Correct Answer
    C. Krause end bulbs
    Explanation
    Krause end bulbs are often called the "cold receptors" because they are sensitive to cold temperatures. These receptors are located in the skin and help detect changes in temperature, particularly cold sensations. They are responsible for sending signals to the brain when the skin comes into contact with cold objects or environments, allowing us to perceive and respond to cold stimuli.

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  • 25. 

    Which skin region is relatively avascular?

    • A.

      Epidermis

    • B.

      Dermis

    • C.

      Hypodermis

    • D.

      Endodermis

    Correct Answer
    A. Epidermis
    Explanation
    The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin and is relatively avascular, meaning it lacks blood vessels. It is primarily composed of keratinocytes, which are responsible for producing the protein keratin that provides strength and waterproofing to the skin. The lack of blood vessels in the epidermis is important for its main function of protecting the body from external factors such as pathogens and UV radiation. The dermis, on the other hand, is highly vascularized and contains blood vessels, nerves, and other structures. The hypodermis is also vascularized and contains adipose tissue and blood vessels. The endodermis is not a skin region but rather a layer of cells in plant roots.

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  • 26. 

    The hollow space within the center of the diaphysis is...

    • A.

      Haversian canal

    • B.

      Volkman's canal

    • C.

      Periosteal cavity

    • D.

      Medullary cavity

    Correct Answer
    D. Medullary cavity
    Explanation
    The medullary cavity is the correct answer. It is the hollow space within the center of the diaphysis, which is the long shaft of a bone. This cavity contains bone marrow, which is responsible for producing blood cells. The medullary cavity is surrounded by compact bone and provides structural support to the bone while also allowing for the storage of minerals.

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  • 27. 

    What is the long cylindrical shaft of the bone?

    • A.

      Epiphysis

    • B.

      Diaphysis

    • C.

      Bony markings

    • D.

      Periosteum

    Correct Answer
    B. Diaphysis
    Explanation
    The long cylindrical shaft of a bone is called the diaphysis. This is the main portion of a long bone, located between the two ends known as the epiphyses. The diaphysis is composed of compact bone tissue and contains the medullary cavity, which is filled with bone marrow. It provides support and strength to the bone, allowing for movement and protection of internal organs. The diaphysis also plays a role in the production of red and white blood cells in the bone marrow.

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  • 28. 

    What are the two ends of a long bone?

    • A.

      Epiphyses

    • B.

      Diaphyses

    • C.

      Surface markings

    • D.

      Periosteum

    Correct Answer
    A. Epiphyses
    Explanation
    The two ends of a long bone are called epiphyses. Epiphyses are the rounded, bulbous portions of the bone that articulate with other bones to form joints. They are covered with a layer of hyaline cartilage, which helps to reduce friction and absorb shock during movement. The epiphyses also contain spongy bone tissue, which is responsible for producing red blood cells. The other options listed, diaphyses, surface markings, and periosteum, are incorrect as they do not refer to the ends of a long bone.

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  • 29. 

    Minute vascular canals running longitudinally down the bone are the...

    • A.

      Volkman's canals

    • B.

      Periosteal cavities

    • C.

      Medullary cavities

    • D.

      Haversian canals

    Correct Answer
    D. Haversian canals
    Explanation
    Haversian canals are minute vascular canals that run longitudinally down the bone. They contain blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue, and they are responsible for supplying nutrients and removing waste products from the bone tissue. Haversian canals are found in compact bone and are surrounded by concentric layers of bone tissue called lamellae.

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  • 30. 

    What is a meeting place for bones at which joint movement occurs?

    • A.

      Periosteum

    • B.

      Hemopoiesis

    • C.

      Diaphysis

    • D.

      Articulation

    Correct Answer
    D. Articulation
    Explanation
    Articulation refers to the meeting place for bones where joint movement occurs. It is the point where two or more bones come together, allowing for various types of movement such as flexion, extension, rotation, and abduction. The term "articulation" is commonly used in anatomy to describe the joints in the human body, which are essential for mobility and range of motion.

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  • 31. 

    Small, round bones embedded in tendons are classified as which of the following categories?

    • A.

      Flat

    • B.

      Irregular

    • C.

      Short

    • D.

      Sesamoid

    Correct Answer
    D. Sesamoid
    Explanation
    Sesamoid bones are small, round bones that are embedded within tendons. They are classified as sesamoid bones because they resemble a sesame seed in shape and size. These bones are found in areas of the body where tendons are subjected to a lot of pressure, such as the hands, feet, and knees. Their purpose is to provide protection and improve the mechanical efficiency of the associated tendons.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following systems of canals connects to Haversian canals and runs horizontally through bone?

    • A.

      Golgi canal

    • B.

      Volkman's canal

    • C.

      Osteal canal

    • D.

      Medullary canal

    Correct Answer
    B. Volkman's canal
    Explanation
    Volkman's canal is the correct answer because it is a system of canals that connects to Haversian canals and runs horizontally through bone. Haversian canals are small channels in the bone that contain blood vessels and nerves, and Volkman's canals provide a means for these blood vessels and nerves to travel horizontally through the bone, connecting different Haversian canals. The other options, Golgi canal, osteal canal, and medullary canal, are not associated with connecting to Haversian canals or running horizontally through bone.

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  • 33. 

    Freely movable joins are classified as...

    • A.

      Synarthrotic

    • B.

      Amphiarthrotic

    • C.

      Diarthrotic

    • D.

      Triarthrotic

    Correct Answer
    C. Diarthrotic
    Explanation
    Diarthrotic joints are freely movable joints. These joints allow for a wide range of motion and are found in areas such as the shoulder, hip, and knee. Synarthrotic joints are immovable joints, while amphiarthrotic joints allow for limited movement. Triarthrotic is not a recognized classification for joints. Therefore, the correct classification for freely movable joints is diarthrotic.

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  • 34. 

    Hip and shoulder joints are examples of synovial joints that offer the greates range of motion and are commonly know as...

    • A.

      Hinge joints

    • B.

      Pivot joints

    • C.

      Saddle joints

    • D.

      Ball and socket joints

    Correct Answer
    D. Ball and socket joints
    Explanation
    Hip and shoulder joints are examples of synovial joints that offer the greatest range of motion. These joints allow movement in multiple directions, including flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation. The term "ball and socket joints" accurately describes the structure and function of these joints, as the rounded head of one bone fits into the cup-shaped socket of another bone, allowing for a wide range of movement.

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  • 35. 

    Medial or inward rotation of the forearm is called... 

    • A.

      Pronation

    • B.

      Inversion

    • C.

      Supination

    • D.

      Eversion

    Correct Answer
    A. Pronation
    Explanation
    Pronation refers to the medial or inward rotation of the forearm. This movement occurs when the palm of the hand is turned downward or backward. It involves the rotation of the radius bone around the ulna bone, resulting in the crossing of the two bones. Pronation is commonly observed when performing activities such as turning a doorknob or pouring water from a jug.

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  • 36. 

    Flexion of the foot dorsally so that the toes are moving toward the shin is called...

    • A.

      Plantarflexion

    • B.

      Dorsiflexion

    • C.

      Inversion

    • D.

      Eversion

    Correct Answer
    B. Dorsiflexion
    Explanation
    Dorsiflexion refers to the flexion of the foot in a dorsal direction, which means moving the toes towards the shin. This movement is opposite to plantarflexion, which involves pointing the toes away from the shin. Inversion and eversion, on the other hand, refer to the movements of the foot in the frontal plane, with inversion being the inward movement of the foot and eversion being the outward movement. Therefore, the correct answer is dorsiflexion.

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  • 37. 

    Elevation of the medial edge of the foot so that the sole is turned inward (or medially) is called...

    • A.

      Eversion

    • B.

      Circumduction

    • C.

      Inversion

    • D.

      Rotation

    Correct Answer
    C. Inversion
    Explanation
    Inversion refers to the elevation of the medial edge of the foot, causing the sole to turn inward or medially. This movement occurs when the foot is rolled inward, towards the midline of the body. It is the opposite of eversion, which involves the outward rolling of the foot. Circumduction refers to a circular movement involving a combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction. Rotation refers to a movement around a central axis.

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  • 38. 

    Circular movemnt created when a bone moves around its own central axis is called... 

    • A.

      Rotation

    • B.

      Protraction

    • C.

      Circumduction

    • D.

      Retraction

    Correct Answer
    A. Rotation
    Explanation
    Rotation is the correct answer because it refers to the circular movement created when a bone moves around its own central axis. This movement can be seen in joints such as the shoulder or hip, where the bone rotates in a circular motion. Protraction, circumduction, and retraction are all different types of movements but do not specifically refer to the circular movement around the central axis of a bone.

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  • 39. 

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum stores and releases which ion?

    • A.

      Phosphorus

    • B.

      Potassium

    • C.

      Sodium

    • D.

      Calcium

    Correct Answer
    D. Calcium
    Explanation
    The sarcoplasmic reticulum is a specialized organelle in muscle cells that stores and releases calcium ions. Calcium plays a crucial role in muscle contraction by binding to proteins within the muscle fibers, allowing them to slide past each other and generate force. When a muscle is stimulated to contract, calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the surrounding muscle fibers, initiating the contraction process. Therefore, the correct answer is calcium.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following is the term used to describe the opposing muscle that relaxes and stretches or eccentrically contracts to allow the actions of the agonists to occur?

    • A.

      Agonist

    • B.

      Synergist

    • C.

      Antagonist

    • D.

      Fixator

    Correct Answer
    C. Antagonist
    Explanation
    The term used to describe the opposing muscle that relaxes and stretches or eccentrically contracts to allow the actions of the agonists to occur is the antagonist. The antagonist muscle works in opposition to the agonist muscle and helps to control and regulate movement by providing resistance or slowing down the movement.

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  • 41. 

    What is the theory that explains how filaments within the sarcomere slide past each other in order to create a change in muscle length?

    • A.

      Gliding filament theory

    • B.

      Sliding theory of contraction

    • C.

      Telescoping theory

    • D.

      Sliding filament theory

    Correct Answer
    D. Sliding filament theory
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Sliding filament theory. This theory explains how filaments within the sarcomere slide past each other in order to create a change in muscle length. According to this theory, during muscle contraction, the thin actin filaments slide over the thick myosin filaments, causing the sarcomere to shorten. This sliding of filaments is facilitated by the interaction between the myosin heads and actin, which results in the formation of cross-bridges and the subsequent pulling of actin filaments towards the center of the sarcomere. This theory is widely accepted and supported by experimental evidence.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following is the thin myofilament?

    • A.

      Actin

    • B.

      Epimysium

    • C.

      Myosin

    • D.

      Fasciculi

    Correct Answer
    A. Actin
    Explanation
    Actin is the correct answer because it is a protein that forms the thin filaments in muscle cells. These thin filaments interact with thick filaments made of myosin to generate muscle contractions. Epimysium is a connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle, while fasciculi are bundles of muscle fibers. Therefore, Actin is the only option that represents the thin myofilament.

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  • 43. 

    Which is a skeletal muscle's contractile unit?

    • A.

      Fasciculi

    • B.

      Sarcomere

    • C.

      Perimysium

    • D.

      Retinacula

    Correct Answer
    B. Sarcomere
    Explanation
    A skeletal muscle's contractile unit is called a sarcomere. It is the basic functional unit of a muscle and is responsible for muscle contraction. Sarcomeres are composed of thick and thin filaments that slide past each other during muscle contraction, resulting in the shortening of the muscle fiber. Fasciculi refers to a bundle of muscle fibers, perimysium is the connective tissue surrounding a fascicle, and retinacula are bands of connective tissue that hold tendons in place.

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  • 44. 

    Which is the fascial covering of the entire muscle?

    • A.

      Perimysium

    • B.

      Epimysium

    • C.

      Endomysium

    • D.

      Aponeurosis

    Correct Answer
    B. Epimysium
    Explanation
    Epimysium is the correct answer because it is the fascial covering that surrounds the entire muscle. It is a dense connective tissue layer that provides protection and support to the muscle, helping to maintain its shape and integrity. Epimysium also connects the muscle to the surrounding structures, allowing for coordinated movement and transmission of forces.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following is the thick myofilament?

    • A.

      Actin

    • B.

      Fasciculi

    • C.

      Myofascial

    • D.

      Myosin

    Correct Answer
    D. Myosin
    Explanation
    Myosin is the correct answer because it is a thick myofilament found in muscle fibers. It is responsible for the contraction of muscles by interacting with actin, a thin myofilament. Myosin molecules have a long tail and a globular head that binds to actin, forming cross-bridges. These cross-bridges undergo a series of chemical reactions that generate the force required for muscle contraction. Therefore, myosin plays a crucial role in muscle function and is the thick myofilament in this context.

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  • 46. 

    Which are the two ends of a sarcomere?

    • A.

      A-bands

    • B.

      Z-lines

    • C.

      S-lines

    • D.

      H-bands

    Correct Answer
    B. Z-lines
    Explanation
    The two ends of a sarcomere are called Z-lines. These structures mark the boundaries of the sarcomere and are responsible for anchoring the actin filaments. During muscle contraction, the Z-lines move closer together, causing the sarcomere to shorten. Therefore, Z-lines play a crucial role in the contraction and relaxation of muscles.

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  • 47. 

    What percentage of blood is plasma?

    • A.

      30%

    • B.

      45%

    • C.

      55%

    • D.

      70%

    Correct Answer
    C. 55%
    Explanation
    Plasma is the liquid component of blood that carries various substances such as nutrients, hormones, and waste products. It makes up about 55% of the total blood volume. This is because plasma is the largest component of blood and occupies a significant portion of the blood volume, while the remaining percentage is made up of red and white blood cells, platelets, and other cellular components.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of blood?

    • A.

      It is warmer than the rest of the body

    • B.

      Viscous fluid that is thicker and more adhesive than water

    • C.

      Color varies from bright scarlet to dull maroon

    • D.

      PH is slightly acid

    Correct Answer
    D. PH is slightly acid
    Explanation
    Blood is slightly alkaline, not acidic. The pH of blood is typically around 7.4, which is slightly alkaline. This alkaline pH is important for maintaining proper functioning of enzymes and other biochemical processes in the body.

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  • 49. 

    Which ABO blood type is called the universal recipient?

    • A.

      Type AB

    • B.

      Type O

    • C.

      Type A

    • D.

      Type B

    Correct Answer
    A. Type AB
    Explanation
    Type AB is called the universal recipient because individuals with this blood type can receive blood from any of the other blood types (A, B, or O) without experiencing an adverse immune response. This is because type AB blood has both A and B antigens on its red blood cells, and therefore does not produce antibodies against either A or B antigens. As a result, type AB individuals can safely receive transfusions of any ABO blood type.

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  • 50. 

    Which ABO blood type is called the universal donor?

    • A.

      Type AB

    • B.

      Type O

    • C.

      Type A

    • D.

      Type B

    Correct Answer
    B. Type O
    Explanation
    Type O blood is considered the universal donor because it lacks both A and B antigens on the red blood cells. This means that it can be transfused to individuals with any blood type without causing an immune reaction. Individuals with type O blood are often encouraged to donate blood as it can be used in emergencies when the recipient's blood type is unknown or when there is a shortage of compatible blood types.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 02, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Fiore Ariadne
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