Lung Cancer: Disease, Diagnosis And Treatment

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Lung Cancer: Disease, Diagnosis And Treatment - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the most common type of lung cancer?

    • A.

      Large cell carcinoma

    • B.

      Oat cell carcinoma

    • C.

      Adenocarcinoma

    • D.

      Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma

    • E.

      Squamous cell carcinoma

    Correct Answer
    C. Adenocarcinoma
    Explanation
    Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer. It originates in the cells that produce mucus in the lining of the airways. Adenocarcinoma is more common in non-smokers and women, and it tends to grow in the outer regions of the lungs. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, as it may not cause noticeable symptoms until it has spread to other parts of the body. Treatment options for adenocarcinoma include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.

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  • 2. 

    Which lung cancer is characterized by cells that grow and metastasize more rapidly than cells involved in other types of lung cancer?

    • A.

      Adenocarcinoma

    • B.

      NSCLC

    • C.

      SCLC

    • D.

      Secondary lung cancer

    • E.

      B & C

    Correct Answer
    C. SCLC
    Explanation
    SCLC, or Small Cell Lung Cancer, is characterized by cells that grow and metastasize more rapidly than cells involved in other types of lung cancer. This type of lung cancer is known for its aggressive nature and tendency to spread quickly to other parts of the body. Adenocarcinoma, NSCLC (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer), and Secondary lung cancer do not exhibit the same rapid growth and metastasis as SCLC.

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  • 3. 

    Which type of lung cancer is known to originate in the bronchial tubes and the bronchial epithelium?

    • A.

      Adenocarcinoma

    • B.

      Large cell lung cancer

    • C.

      Secondary lung cancer

    • D.

      Squamous cell carcinoma

    • E.

      Small cell undifferentiated carcinoma

    Correct Answer
    D. Squamous cell carcinoma
    Explanation
    Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of lung cancer that originates in the bronchial tubes and the bronchial epithelium. It is characterized by the abnormal growth of squamous cells in these areas. This type of cancer is often associated with smoking and is more common in men than in women. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 25-30% of all lung cancer cases and is typically found in the central part of the lungs. Symptoms may include coughing, chest pain, and coughing up blood.

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  • 4. 

    Which cancer has the lowest 5-year survival rate?

    • A.

      Breast cancer

    • B.

      Lung cancer

    • C.

      Colon cancer

    Correct Answer
    B. Lung cancer
    Explanation
    Lung cancer has the lowest 5-year survival rate compared to breast cancer and colon cancer. This is due to various factors such as late-stage diagnosis, aggressive nature of the disease, limited treatment options, and a higher likelihood of metastasis. Lung cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage when it has already spread to other parts of the body, making it more difficult to treat and resulting in a lower survival rate.

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  • 5. 

    How is NSCLC in Stage 0 usually treated?

    • A.

      Brachytherapy

    • B.

      Surgery

    • C.

      Chemotherapy

    • D.

      Chemotherapy and radiation therapy

    • E.

      Radiation therapy

    Correct Answer
    B. Surgery
    Explanation
    Stage 0 NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) refers to cancer that is localized and has not spread beyond the lining of the lung. Surgery is usually the preferred treatment for Stage 0 NSCLC as it involves removing the tumor and potentially curing the cancer. Brachytherapy, chemotherapy, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and radiation therapy may be used in other stages of NSCLC, but are not typically the primary treatment for Stage 0.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following statements is true regarding PET imaging?

    • A.

      It does not expose the patient to ionizing radiation

    • B.

      It images physiology rather than anatomy

    • C.

      It has a higher sensitivity and specificity in evaluating mediastinal masses than CT

    • D.

      A & C

    • E.

      B & C

    Correct Answer
    E. B & C
    Explanation
    PET imaging is a medical imaging technique that uses a radioactive substance called a tracer to visualize the physiological processes in the body. It does not expose the patient to ionizing radiation, making it safer compared to other imaging modalities such as CT scans. PET imaging primarily focuses on imaging physiology rather than anatomy, allowing for the detection and evaluation of functional abnormalities in the body. Additionally, PET has been found to have a higher sensitivity and specificity in evaluating mediastinal masses compared to CT scans. Therefore, the correct answer is B & C.

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  • 7. 

    What is the main factor influencing the prognosis/survival rate of a patient diagnosed with lung cancer?

    • A.

      Location of primary lung nodule in lung

    • B.

      Proximity of primary nodule to other organs

    • C.

      Stage of lung cancer at the time of diagnosis

    • D.

      Patient's age

    • E.

      Patient's family history

    Correct Answer
    C. Stage of lung cancer at the time of diagnosis
    Explanation
    The main factor influencing the prognosis/survival rate of a patient diagnosed with lung cancer is the stage of lung cancer at the time of diagnosis. The stage of lung cancer refers to the extent to which the cancer has spread in the body. It helps in determining the appropriate treatment options and predicting the patient's prognosis. The earlier the stage of lung cancer, the better the prognosis and survival rate, as it is more likely to be localized and easier to treat.

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  • 8. 

    What piece of information collected in a recent study on lung cancer biomarkers shows promise in lung cancer screening? 

    • A.

      An abnormal structure of miRNA is the first biomarker that has been discovered to be linked to lung cancer

    • B.

      MiRNA only exists in patients with lung cancer

    • C.

      An abnormal structure of miRNA was found in lung cancer patients before nodules were visualized in CT imaging

    • D.

      The presence of abnormal miRNA can indicate lung cancer has metastasized into the bone

    Correct Answer
    C. An abnormal structure of miRNA was found in lung cancer patients before nodules were visualized in CT imaging
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that an abnormal structure of miRNA was discovered in lung cancer patients before nodules were visible in CT imaging. This indicates that the abnormal miRNA can serve as a potential biomarker for lung cancer screening, allowing for early detection and potentially improving patient outcomes.

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  • 9. 

    What element do chemotherapy agents ciplatin and carboplatin contain that acts on cancer cells by leading to apoptosis?

    • A.

      Zinc

    • B.

      Iron

    • C.

      Platinum

    • D.

      Aluminum

    • E.

      Phosphate

    Correct Answer
    C. Platinum
    Explanation
    Chemotherapy agents ciplatin and carboplatin contain platinum, which acts on cancer cells by leading to apoptosis. Platinum compounds are known to bind to DNA and interfere with its replication, ultimately causing cell death. This mechanism of action makes platinum-based drugs effective in treating various types of cancer.

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  • 10. 

    It is rare for SCLC to be diagnosed ________________ .

    • A.

      Before the age of 70

    • B.

      In limited stage

    • C.

      In extensive stage

    • D.

      In men

    • E.

      Using chest x-ray

    Correct Answer
    B. In limited stage
    Explanation
    SCLC (small cell lung cancer) is rarely diagnosed in the limited stage. This means that the cancer is confined to one lung and may have spread to nearby lymph nodes, but has not spread to other parts of the body. Limited stage SCLC is typically diagnosed when the cancer is still localized and can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In contrast, extensive stage SCLC refers to cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and is generally more difficult to treat.

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  • 11. 

    In which procedure is a radioisotope and phosphate analogue used to assess the occurrence of bone metastasis?

    • A.

      PET

    • B.

      PET/CT

    • C.

      CT

    • D.

      Nuclear bone scan

    • E.

      MRI

    Correct Answer
    D. Nuclear bone scan
    Explanation
    A nuclear bone scan is a procedure that uses a radioisotope and a phosphate analogue to assess the occurrence of bone metastasis. The radioisotope is injected into the bloodstream and is taken up by the bones, while the phosphate analogue binds to areas of increased bone activity. This allows for the detection of abnormal bone growth or areas where cancer cells have spread to the bones. PET, PET/CT, CT, and MRI are other imaging procedures that can be used for different purposes, but they do not specifically use a radioisotope and phosphate analogue to assess bone metastasis.

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  • 12. 

    Elevated levels of ____________ found in a blood test could indicate bone metastasis.

    • A.

      Micro RNA

    • B.

      Alanine aminotransferase

    • C.

      Alkaline phosphatase

    • D.

      Calcium

    • E.

      B & C

    • F.

      C & D

    Correct Answer
    F. C & D
    Explanation
    Elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase and calcium found in a blood test could indicate bone metastasis. Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme that is found in high levels in the bone and liver, and increased levels in the blood may suggest bone involvement. Calcium is an essential mineral for bone health, and elevated levels in the blood can be a sign of bone destruction or release of calcium from the bones due to metastasis. Therefore, both alkaline phosphatase and calcium levels are important indicators for bone metastasis.

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  • 13. 

    What type of lung cancer is staged using LS and ES classifications? 

    • A.

      NSCLC

    • B.

      SCLC

    • C.

      Adenocarcinoma

    • D.

      A & B

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. SCLC
    Explanation
    SCLC, or Small Cell Lung Cancer, is staged using LS (Limited Stage) and ES (Extensive Stage) classifications. This means that the staging of SCLC is determined based on whether the cancer is localized to one side of the chest or has spread to other parts of the body. NSCLC, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, on the other hand, is staged using a different system called TNM staging. Adenocarcinoma is a type of NSCLC, so it is not staged using LS and ES classifications. Therefore, the correct answer is SCLC.

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  • 14. 

    Which procedure involves the removal of a lung?

    • A.

      Lobectomy

    • B.

      Wedge resection

    • C.

      Pneumonectomy

    • D.

      Lymph node removal

    • E.

      Brachytherapy

    Correct Answer
    C. Pneumonectomy
    Explanation
    Pneumonectomy is the procedure that involves the complete removal of a lung. This is typically done to treat lung cancer, severe lung infections, or lung diseases that have severely damaged the lung. During a pneumonectomy, the entire lung is removed, including the bronchus, blood vessels, and surrounding tissues. This procedure is considered a last resort when other treatments have failed or when the disease is too advanced to be treated with other methods.

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  • 15. 

    In which NSCLC stage is the disease limited to only the lung tissue and has no lymph node involvement?

    • A.

      0

    • B.

      I

    • C.

      II

    • D.

      III

    • E.

      IV

    Correct Answer
    B. I
    Explanation
    Stage I NSCLC is characterized by the disease being limited to only the lung tissue and no lymph node involvement. This means that the cancer has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites in the body. In Stage I, the tumor is generally smaller in size and has not invaded nearby structures or spread to other organs. Treatment options for Stage I NSCLC often include surgery to remove the tumor, and the prognosis is generally more favorable compared to more advanced stages of the disease.

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  • 16. 

    In which NSCLC stage has the disease metastasized to distant organs and tissues, such as the brain and bones?

    • A.

      0

    • B.

      I

    • C.

      II

    • D.

      III

    • E.

      IV

    Correct Answer
    E. IV
    Explanation
    Stage IV of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is characterized by the metastasis of the disease to distant organs and tissues, including the brain and bones. This means that the cancer has spread beyond the lung to other parts of the body, making it more difficult to treat and resulting in a poorer prognosis. Stage IV is considered an advanced stage of NSCLC and may require a combination of treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.

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  • 17. 

    What is most commonly the main treatment regime for SCLC?

    • A.

      Internal beam radiation therapy

    • B.

      Chemotherapy

    • C.

      External beam radiation

    • D.

      Lobectomy

    • E.

      Pneumonectomy

    Correct Answer
    B. Chemotherapy
    Explanation
    Chemotherapy is the most commonly used main treatment regime for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). This is because SCLC is a highly aggressive and fast-growing type of lung cancer that tends to spread quickly. Chemotherapy involves the use of powerful drugs that can kill cancer cells throughout the body, including those that may have spread beyond the lungs. It is often used in combination with other treatments such as radiation therapy. Internal and external beam radiation therapy, lobectomy, and pneumonectomy may be used as additional treatments depending on the stage and extent of the cancer.

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  • 18. 

    In regards to treatment regimes, what does it mean for a treatment to be systemic?

    • A.

      It targets malignancy in a specific part of the body

    • B.

      It is used in addition to other treatments

    • C.

      The treatment is given over a duration of time in specific cycles

    • D.

      The treatment targets malignancy throughout the entire body

    • E.

      Patients can develop resistance to the treatment over time

    Correct Answer
    D. The treatment targets malignancy throughout the entire body
    Explanation
    A systemic treatment refers to a treatment that targets malignancy throughout the entire body. This means that the treatment is not limited to a specific part of the body but is designed to reach and affect cancer cells wherever they may be. Systemic treatments can include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others. These treatments are typically administered through the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells that may have spread to different organs or tissues in the body. This approach is important because cancer cells can travel and metastasize to different parts of the body, so targeting them systemically increases the chances of effectively treating the disease.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following treatment regimes is considered systemic? 

    • A.

      Chemotherapy

    • B.

      External beam radiation therapy

    • C.

      Surgery

    • D.

      Internal beam radiation therapy

    Correct Answer
    A. Chemotherapy
    Explanation
    Chemotherapy is considered a systemic treatment regime because it involves the use of drugs that can travel throughout the body to reach and kill cancer cells. Unlike surgery or external beam radiation therapy, which target specific areas, chemotherapy can target cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body. Internal beam radiation therapy, on the other hand, is a localized treatment that uses radiation delivered directly to a specific area or organ.

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  • 20. 

    Most noticeable symptoms of lung cancer _________________ .

    • A.

      Occur as respiratory symptoms

    • B.

      Are usually ignored by patients

    • C.

      Do not present themselves until after metastasis occur

    • D.

      Present themselves more often in SCLC than NSCLC

    Correct Answer
    C. Do not present themselves until after metastasis occur
    Explanation
    The most noticeable symptoms of lung cancer do not present themselves until after metastasis occur. This means that the symptoms of lung cancer are often not noticeable until the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. This can make it more difficult to diagnose and treat the cancer at an early stage.

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