# Logic Chapter 4

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This is based off of Concise Introduction to Logic 10th edition
by Patrick J Hurley

• 1.

### A proposition that relates two classes (or categories)

Explanation
A categorical proposition is a statement that establishes a relationship between two classes or categories. It provides information about the inclusion or exclusion of members from one class to another. These propositions are usually expressed in the form of subject-predicate statements, such as "All cats are mammals" or "No birds can swim." Categorical propositions are commonly used in logic and reasoning to make assertions about the characteristics and relationships of different groups or classes.

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• 2.

### (1) An "if . . . then' statement(2) a statement having a horseshoe as its main operator

Explanation
The correct answer is "Conditional statement (conditional)". This answer is based on the given options, which include an "if . . . then" statement and a statement having a horseshoe as its main operator. Both of these options are commonly associated with conditional statements in logic and programming. Therefore, it can be inferred that the correct answer is a conditional statement.

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• 3.

• 4.

### The relation that exists between statements that necessarily have opposite truth values

Explanation
The term "contradictory relation" refers to the relationship between statements that must have opposite truth values. In other words, if one statement is true, the other statement must be false, and vice versa. This implies that the two statements cannot both be true or both be false at the same time. The contradictory relation is a fundamental concept in logic and is often used to analyze and evaluate arguments and propositions.

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• 5.

### Statements that necessarily have opposite truth values

Explanation
Contradictory statements are statements that cannot both be true at the same time. They are opposite in truth value, meaning that if one statement is true, the other must be false, and vice versa. These statements directly contradict each other and cannot both be true in any given context. Therefore, contradictory statements are necessarily opposite in truth values.

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• 6.

### An operation that consists in switching the subject and predicate terms in a standard-form categorical proposition and replacing each with its term complement

Explanation
Contraposition is an operation in logic where the subject and predicate terms in a standard-form categorical proposition are switched and replaced with their term complements. This process helps to form an equivalent proposition that can be used to test the validity of an argument. Contraposition is a useful tool in logic as it allows for the examination of the relationship between two statements by negating and switching their terms.

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• 7.

### The relation that exists between two statements that are necessarily not both true

Explanation
Contrary relation refers to the relationship between two statements that cannot both be true at the same time. In other words, if one statement is true, then the other statement must be false. This type of relation is characterized by the fact that both statements cannot be simultaneously true, but they can both be simultaneously false.

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• 8.

### In standard-form categorical propositions, the words "are' and "are not

Explanation
The correct answer is Copula. In standard-form categorical propositions, the copula is the verb that connects the subject term and the predicate term. It indicates the relationship between the two terms, whether they are affirming or denying something about each other. The copula "are" is used when the subject term and the predicate term are affirmed to be related, while the copula "are not" is used when the subject term and the predicate term are denied to be related.

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• 9.

### A categorical proposition having the form "No S are P'

Explanation
The given correct answer is "E proposition" because an E proposition is a categorical proposition that denies the existence of any relationship between the subject and predicate terms. In this case, the proposition "No S are P" states that there are no instances where the subject term (S) is included in the predicate term (P). Therefore, it falls under the category of an E proposition.

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• 10.

### A categorical proposition having the form "Some S are P'

Explanation
The given statement is an example of an I proposition. In categorical logic, an I proposition asserts that some of the subject term (S) belongs to the predicate term (P). It indicates that there is at least one member of the subject term that is also a member of the predicate term. Therefore, the given statement "Some S are P" is an example of an I proposition.

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• 11.

### A formal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the contraposition of an E or I statement

Explanation
Illicit contraposition is a formal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the contraposition of an E or I statement. In logic, contraposition is a valid inference rule that allows us to switch the subject and predicate terms of a conditional statement and negate both terms. However, in the case of illicit contraposition, this rule is incorrectly applied to an E or I statement, leading to an invalid conclusion. This fallacy is a common mistake in logical reasoning and can undermine the soundness of an argument.

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• 12.

### A formal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on an incorrect application of the contrary relation

Explanation
The term "illicit contrary" refers to a formal fallacy in which the conclusion of an argument is based on an incorrect application of the contrary relation. This means that the argument mistakenly assumes that if one statement is false, then its contrary statement must be true. However, this is not always the case, as there may be other possibilities or intermediate positions between the two statements. The fallacy occurs when this incorrect reasoning is used to support a conclusion, leading to flawed or invalid arguments.

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• 13.

### A formal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the conversion of an A or O statement

Explanation
Illicit conversion is a formal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on the conversion of an A or O statement. This means that the argument mistakenly assumes that the subject and predicate of the statement can be switched without changing the meaning. This fallacy violates the rules of logic and can lead to incorrect conclusions.

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• 14.

### A formal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on an incorrect application of the subalternation relation

Explanation
Illicit subalternation is a formal fallacy that happens when the conclusion of an argument relies on an incorrect use of the subalternation relation. Subalternation is a logical relation between a universal statement and a particular statement, where the truth of the particular statement is implied by the truth of the universal statement. Illicit subalternation occurs when this relation is mistakenly applied, leading to an incorrect conclusion.

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• 15.

### A formal fallacy that occurs when the conclusion of an argument depends on an incorrect application of the subcontrary relation

Explanation
An illicit subcontrary is a formal fallacy that happens when the conclusion of an argument relies on an incorrect use of the subcontrary relation. The subcontrary relation states that if one statement is false, then the other statement must be true. In the case of an illicit subcontrary, this relation is misapplied, leading to an invalid conclusion. This fallacy occurs when someone assumes that if one statement is false, then the other statement must be true, without considering other possibilities or potential middle ground.

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• 16.

### An argument having a single premise

Explanation
Immediate inference refers to the process of drawing a conclusion directly from a single premise without the need for additional premises or evidence. In this context, an argument with a single premise can be seen as an example of immediate inference. Since immediate inference involves making a logical deduction based on a single piece of information, it aligns with the idea of an argument having a single premise. Therefore, the correct answer is immediate inference.

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• 17.

### A condition that exists when a certain statement is not necessarily either true or false, given the truth value of some related statement

Explanation
The term "logically undetermined truth value" refers to a condition where a statement cannot be definitively classified as either true or false, based on the truth value of another related statement. This suggests that there is uncertainty or ambiguity in determining the truthfulness of the statement, as it is not clearly supported or contradicted by the available information.

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• 18.

### A diagram that illustrates the necessary relations that prevail between the four kinds of standard-form categorical propositions as interpreted from the Boolean standpoint

Explanation
The modern square of opposition is a diagram that represents the relationships between the four types of standard-form categorical propositions (A, E, I, and O) from a Boolean perspective. It shows the logical relations between these propositions, such as contraries, subcontraries, subalternation, and contradiction. The modern square of opposition helps to understand the logical implications and relationships between categorical propositions.

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• 19.

### A statement that denies class membership

Explanation
The given correct answer is "Negative statement" because a negative statement is a type of statement that denies class membership. It is a statement that indicates that something does not belong to a particular category or group. In other words, it expresses the absence or negation of a certain attribute or characteristic.

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• 20.

### A categorical proposition having the form "Some S are not P'

Explanation
The given categorical proposition "Some S are not P" is an O proposition. An O proposition is a type of categorical proposition that asserts that there is at least one member of the subject class (S) that does not belong to the predicate class (P). In this case, the proposition states that there are some members of S that are not members of P. Therefore, it fits the definition of an O proposition.

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• 21.

### A phrase that, when introduced into a statement, affects the form but not the meaning

Explanation
In the given question, the term "parameter" is the correct answer. A parameter is a variable that is used in a function or a statement to affect its form or behavior. It is a value that can be adjusted or specified to modify the outcome of a statement or function. In this context, when a phrase, which is a parameter, is introduced into a statement, it may alter the structure or format of the statement but does not change its underlying meaning.

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• 22.

### A statement that makes a claim about one or more (but not all) members of a class

Explanation
A particular statement is a type of statement that makes a claim about one or more, but not all, members of a class. It is different from a general statement, which makes a claim about all members of a class. In a particular statement, the claim is limited to only some specific members of the class, leaving room for other members to have different characteristics or properties. This allows for more specific and nuanced claims to be made about certain individuals or subsets within a larger group.

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• 23.

### In a standard-form categorical proposition, the term that comes immediately after the copula

Explanation
In a standard-form categorical proposition, the term that comes immediately after the copula is called the predicate term. The copula is the linking verb that connects the subject and the predicate in a proposition. The predicate term is the term that provides information or makes a statement about the subject. It helps to define or describe the subject in the proposition.

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• 24.

### The attribute of a categorical proposition by which it is either affirmative or negative

Explanation
The attribute of a categorical proposition that determines whether it is affirmative or negative is known as its quality. This refers to whether the proposition affirms or denies the inclusion of a subject within a particular class. The quality of a proposition is essential in logic as it helps to establish the truth value of the statement. An affirmative proposition asserts that the subject belongs to the class, while a negative proposition denies this inclusion.

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• 25.

### The attribute of a categorical proposition by which it is either universal or particular

Explanation
The attribute of a categorical proposition refers to whether it is universal or particular. Universal propositions make a statement about all members of a category, while particular propositions make a statement about some members of a category. The term "quantity" accurately describes this attribute as it distinguishes between propositions that are universal and those that are particular. Therefore, "Quantity" is the correct answer.

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• 26.

### A proposition (statement) that makes an assertion about a specifically named person, place, thing, or time

Explanation
A singular proposition (statement) is a type of proposition that specifically names a person, place, thing, or time and makes an assertion about it. It is a statement that refers to a specific entity or occurrence and provides information or makes a claim about it. This type of proposition is different from a general proposition, which does not refer to a specific entity or occurrence.

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• 27.

### A proposition that has one of the following forms: "All S are P'"No S are P' "Some S are P' "Some S are not P'

Explanation
A standard-form categorical proposition refers to a proposition that has one of the four forms mentioned: "All S are P," "No S are P," "Some S are P," or "Some S are not P." These propositions are used in categorical logic to make statements about the relationship between two categories or classes.

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• 28.

### The relation by which a true A or E statement necessarily implies a true I or O statement, respectively, and by which a false I or O statement necessarily implies a false A or E statement, respectively

Explanation
The given correct answer is "Subalternation relation". This term refers to the logical relationship between categorical statements in which a true universal statement (A or E) necessarily implies a true particular statement (I or O), and a false particular statement (I or O) necessarily implies a false universal statement (A or E). In other words, if a statement of the form "All S are P" or "No S are P" is true, then a statement of the form "Some S are P" or "Some S are not P" must also be true. Conversely, if a statement of the form "Some S are P" or "Some S are not P" is false, then the corresponding universal statement must also be false.

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• 29.

### The relation that exists between two statements that are necessarily not both false

Explanation
The subcontrary relation refers to a relationship between two statements where they cannot both be false, but they can both be true. In other words, if one statement is true, then the other statement must be at least possibly true. This means that it is possible for both statements to be true, but it is also possible for only one of them to be true. Therefore, the subcontrary relation is the correct answer as it accurately describes the relationship between two statements that are necessarily not both false.

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• 30.

### In a standard-form categorical proposition, the term that comes immediately after the quantifier

Explanation
In a standard-form categorical proposition, the subject term refers to the term that comes immediately after the quantifier. The subject term is the term that the proposition is making a statement about or describing. It is the term that is being affirmed or denied in relation to the predicate term.

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• 31.

### The word or group of words that denotes the class complement

Explanation
In linguistics, the term "complement" refers to a word or group of words that completes the meaning of a sentence or phrase. In this context, the "term complement" specifically denotes the word or group of words that serves as the complement for a term. This means that it provides additional information or clarification about the term, helping to define or describe it more fully. Therefore, the correct answer is "term complement."

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• 32.

### A diagram that illustrates the necessary relations that prevail between the four kinds of standard-form categorical propositions as interpreted from the Aristotelian standpoint

Explanation
The traditional square of opposition is a diagram that represents the relationships between the four types of categorical propositions (A, E, I, O) according to Aristotelian logic. It shows the logical connections between these propositions, such as the contradictory, contrary, subcontrary, and subalternation relationships. This diagram is a useful tool for understanding and analyzing categorical propositions and their logical implications.

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• 33.

### The attribute by which a statement is either true or false

Explanation
The term "truth value" refers to the attribute of a statement that determines whether it is true or false. It is a binary concept, as a statement can only have one of these two values. The truth value of a statement is based on its correspondence to reality or its conformity with facts. In logic and philosophy, the concept of truth value is fundamental in evaluating the validity and soundness of arguments and reasoning.

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• 34.

### A statement that makes an assertion about every member of its subject class

Explanation
A universal statement is a type of statement that makes a claim or assertion about every member of a particular subject class. It is a general statement that applies to all instances or examples within the subject class. In other words, it is a statement that is true for every individual or thing in the group being referred to. This type of statement is often used in logic, mathematics, and philosophy to express broad generalizations or principles that hold true universally.

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• Current Version
• Mar 20, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Mar 24, 2009
Quiz Created by
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