# Third Quarter Logic Exam @ Ctk

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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 70
Questions: 30 | Attempts: 72

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• 1.

### Aristotle suggested that practical, productive, and theoretical sciences correspond to the pursuit of the truth, but which one did he identify as being the most important for our search?

• A.

Practical

• B.

Productive

• C.

Theoretical

C. Theoretical
Explanation
Aristotle identified theoretical science as the most important for our search for truth. This is because theoretical science involves the study and contemplation of abstract concepts and universal principles, which allows us to gain a deeper understanding of the nature of reality. Practical and productive sciences, on the other hand, focus more on practical applications and tangible outcomes, which may not necessarily lead to a comprehensive understanding of the truth. Therefore, Aristotle believed that theoretical science holds the highest value in our pursuit of knowledge and truth.

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• 2.

### This act of the mind builds on two premises to lead to a conclusion.

• A.

Simple apprehension

• B.

Judging

• C.

Reasoning

C. Reasoning
Explanation
Reasoning is the act of the mind that combines simple apprehension and judging to reach a conclusion. Simple apprehension involves grasping the meaning of concepts or ideas, while judging involves evaluating the truth or falsity of propositions. Through reasoning, one can use these two processes to analyze information, make connections, and draw logical inferences to arrive at a final conclusion. It is a cognitive process that allows individuals to think critically and make informed decisions based on evidence and logical thinking.

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• 3.

### If an argument has clear terms and true propositions, we declare that the argument must be _______________.

valid
Explanation
If an argument has clear terms and true propositions, we declare that the argument must be valid. A valid argument is one where the conclusion logically follows from the premises. In other words, if the premises are true, then the conclusion must also be true. The clarity of terms ensures that there is no ambiguity or confusion in the argument, while the truth of propositions guarantees that the premises are accurate. Thus, when both these conditions are met, we can confidently say that the argument is valid.

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• 4.

• 5.

### ________________ is the Latin word for "term," meaning "the end."

terminus
Explanation
The Latin word for "term," meaning "the end," is "terminus."

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• 6.

### Which of the following philosophers suggested that universals are really real?

• A.

Plato

• B.

Aristotle

• C.

Ockham

• D.

A. Plato
Explanation
Plato suggested that universals are really real. In his philosophy, he believed in the existence of abstract concepts or forms that are separate from the physical world. According to Plato, these forms or universals are the ultimate reality and the physical objects in the world are just imperfect imitations or reflections of these forms. He argued that universals have a transcendent existence and are eternal and unchanging, serving as the true essence of things. Plato's theory of forms has had a significant influence on Western philosophy and has been widely debated and interpreted by philosophers throughout history.

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• 7.

• 8.

### What kind of relationship exists between the subject and the predicate when the predicate gives the term's essence?

• A.

Accident

• B.

Specific difference

• C.

Property

• D.

Species

D. Species
Explanation
When the predicate gives the term's essence, it indicates that the subject and predicate have a relationship of species. In this context, "species" refers to a category or classification that represents the essential qualities or characteristics of the subject. Therefore, the predicate is defining the subject based on its inherent nature or defining properties.

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• 9.

### John: "The government spends too much money."  Ralph: "John, you're a greedy tightwad."  Cite the name of the fallacy that Ralph is committing in the conversation above and explain why it is the fallacy that you claim it to be.

will vary
Explanation
Ralph is committing the ad hominem fallacy in the conversation above. This fallacy occurs when someone attacks the character or personal traits of the person making an argument instead of addressing the argument itself. In this case, instead of addressing John's statement about government spending, Ralph attacks John by calling him a "greedy tightwad." This fallacy is a diversionary tactic that avoids engaging with the actual argument and instead focuses on attacking the person making the argument.

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• 10.

### "Fifty million viewers can't be wrong."  Someone who uses this phrase may very well be committing what fallacy?

• A.

• B.

• C.

• D.

Explanation
The correct answer is ad populum. This phrase suggests that because a large number of people believe or support something, it must be true or correct. However, the truth of a statement or belief is not determined by how many people believe it. This is a fallacy because popularity does not necessarily equate to truth or correctness.

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• 11.

### If a term has two or more meanings, it is an univocal term.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because a term that has two or more meanings is actually called an equivocal term, not univocal. Univocal terms have only one clear and consistent meaning.

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• 12.

### These terms--triplets, flocks, congregations, colonies--are collective terms.

• A.

True

• B.

False

A. True
Explanation
These terms (triplets, flocks, congregations, colonies) are all examples of collective terms used to refer to groups of living beings. Triplets are a collective term for a group of three individuals, flocks are a collective term for a group of birds, congregations are a collective term for a group of people gathered for religious worship, and colonies are a collective term for a group of animals or organisms living together. Therefore, the statement is true.

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• 13.

### She yelled at me. She must hate me.  He's a nice guy. He'd never fail anyone.  I don't like pickles. Therefore, I will lose the tennis match today.  All of these statements constitute this kind of fallacy:

• A.

Quoting out of context

• B.

• C.

Slanting

• D.

Non sequitur

D. Non sequitur
Explanation
The given statements do not have a logical connection between the cause and effect. In the first statement, just because someone yells at another person does not necessarily mean they hate them. In the second statement, being a nice guy does not guarantee that someone will never fail anyone. In the third statement, disliking pickles does not logically lead to losing a tennis match. Therefore, all of these statements exhibit a non sequitur fallacy, where the conclusion does not follow logically from the premises.

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• 14.

### Sam: "Why are you wiggling your fingers like that?" Aaron: "To keep elephants away." Sam: "There are no elephants here!" Aaron: "See, it works!"  Out of the choices below, which fallacy is Aaron committing?

• A.

Slanting

• B.

Accent

• C.

Post hoc

• D.

C. Post hoc
Explanation
Aaron is committing the fallacy of post hoc. He is assuming that because he wiggled his fingers, there are no elephants present. This is a logical fallacy because there is no causal relationship between wiggling fingers and the absence of elephants.

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• 15.

### A feather is light.  What is light cannot be dark.  Therefore, a feather cannot be dark.  This line of reasoning is problematic because the term "light" is used

• A.

Univocally

• B.

Equivocally

• C.

Analogically

B. Equivocally
Explanation
This line of reasoning is problematic because the term "light" is used equivocally. In the first statement, "light" refers to the physical property of being lightweight. However, in the second statement, "light" is used to mean the absence of darkness or brightness. These two different meanings of "light" make the reasoning flawed and unreliable.

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• 16.

### When I heard the sharp sound, it made me fall on the sharp knife that I had in my hand, and when I arose, the stars that I saw were a sharp light in my eyes.  In the sentence above, the word "sharp" is used

• A.

Univocally

• B.

Equivocally

• C.

Analogically

C. Analogically
Explanation
The word "sharp" is used analogically in the sentence. It is used to describe both the sound and the light, suggesting that both were intense and piercing.

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• 17.

### Which of these terms has the great extension?

• A.

Numbers

• B.

Factors of ten

• C.

Positive integers

• D.

A negative integer

A. Numbers
Explanation
The term "numbers" has the greatest extension because it encompasses all types of numbers, including positive integers, negative integers, fractions, decimals, and irrational numbers. It is a broad term that includes all possible numerical values, making its extension greater than the other options given.

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• 18.

### In the system of logic, terms are either ____________ or ____________.

clear or unclear
Explanation
In the system of logic, terms can be classified as either clear or unclear. Clear terms are those that have a precise and unambiguous meaning, while unclear terms are those that lack clarity or have multiple interpretations. This classification is important in logic as it helps to ensure that arguments and statements are logically sound and free from ambiguity. By distinguishing between clear and unclear terms, we can effectively analyze and evaluate the validity of logical reasoning.

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• 19.

### In the system of logic, propositions are either ____________ or ____________.

true or false
Explanation
In the system of logic, propositions are either true or false. This means that a proposition can be evaluated as either being true or being false, with no other possibilities. This binary nature of propositions allows for clear and precise reasoning and argumentation based on logical principles.

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• 20.

### In the system of logic, arguments are either ____________ or ____________.

valid or invalid
Explanation
In the system of logic, arguments are classified as either valid or invalid. A valid argument is one where the conclusion logically follows from the premises, meaning that if the premises are true, then the conclusion must also be true. On the other hand, an invalid argument is one where the conclusion does not logically follow from the premises, even if the premises are true. Therefore, the classification of arguments as valid or invalid is based on their logical coherence and the relationship between the premises and the conclusion.

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• 21.

• 22.

• 23.

### "A triangle is a three-sided plane figure." What kind of definition is this?

• A.

Essential definition

• B.

Nominal definition

• C.

Definition by accident

• D.

Definition by properties

A. Essential definition
Explanation
This statement is an essential definition because it provides the fundamental characteristics of a triangle, which is being a three-sided plane figure. An essential definition focuses on the essential or necessary attributes of a concept or object, in this case, a triangle.

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• 24.

### A rose is a plant that has a beautiful smell.

• A.

Essential definition

• B.

Nominal definition

• C.

Definition by accident

• D.

Definition by properties

D. Definition by properties
Explanation
Definition by properties is the correct answer because it refers to defining something based on its characteristics or attributes. In this case, a rose is defined as a plant that has a beautiful smell, which is a property or characteristic of roses. This type of definition focuses on the essential qualities or features of the thing being defined.

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• 25.

### Abstract means "to draw from."  Virtue consists of justice, fortitude, prudence, temperance, faith, hope, and love.  Both of these definitions are

• A.

Essential definitions

• B.

Nominal definitions

• C.

Definitions by accident

• D.

Definitions by properties

B. Nominal definitions
Explanation
The given definitions of "abstract" and "virtue" do not describe the properties or essential nature of the words. Instead, they provide nominal definitions, which simply state the meaning of the words without delving into their deeper characteristics. Therefore, the correct answer is nominal definitions.

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• 26.

### "Not everyone that acts is able to dance." What kind of logical proposition is this sentence?

• A.

A

• B.

E

• C.

I

• D.

O

D. O
Explanation
This sentence is an example of an "O" proposition in traditional Aristotelian logic. In this type of proposition, it states that there are some individuals who do not possess a certain attribute or quality. In this case, it suggests that not all people who act are capable of dancing.

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• 27.

### Sins are destructive to the soul.  What kind of logical proposition is this sentence?

• A.

A

• B.

E

• C.

I

• D.

O

A. A
Explanation
This sentence is an example of an A proposition in logic. An A proposition is a universal affirmative proposition that asserts that all members of a particular class have a specific attribute or characteristic. In this case, the sentence asserts that all sins are destructive to the soul.

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• 28.

### No pig feet are tasty.  What kind of logical proposition is this sentence?

• A.

A

• B.

E

• C.

I

• D.

O

B. E
Explanation
This sentence is an example of an E proposition in classical logic. The E proposition is a universal negative proposition, which means it denies that any members of a particular category possess a certain property. In this case, the sentence denies that any pig feet are tasty.

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• 29.

• 30.

### What is truth? (Summarize Kreeft's answer to this question.)

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• Current Version
• Jun 12, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Mar 19, 2012
Quiz Created by
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