# Introduction To Earth Science Test

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In this first unit we have been able to cover the introductory part on earth science. How well did you understand this topic? The quiz below is designed to test that out, give it a try and share what score you get in the comment section. All the best of luck!

Questions and Answers
• 1.

### The distance covered by a degree of longitude

• A.

Is 1/180 of Earth's circumference

• B.

Is always equal to 11 km

• C.

Increases as you approach the poles

• D.

Decreases as you approach the poles

Correct Answer
D. Decreases as you approach the poles
Explanation
As you approach the poles, the lines of longitude converge, resulting in a smaller distance between each degree of longitude. This means that the distance covered by a degree of longitude decreases as you approach the poles.

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• 2.

### The needle of a magnetic compass points toward the

• A.

Geomagnetic pole

• B.

Geographic pole

• C.

Parallels

• D.

Meridians

Correct Answer
A. Geomagnetic pole
Explanation
The needle of a magnetic compass points toward the geomagnetic pole because the Earth's magnetic field is aligned with the axis of rotation. The geomagnetic pole is the point on the Earth's surface where the magnetic field lines are vertical, and the compass needle aligns itself with these field lines. This allows the compass to indicate the direction of magnetic north, which may differ from true north (geographic pole) due to the Earth's magnetic field not being perfectly aligned with the rotational axis. Parallels and meridians, on the other hand, are lines of latitude and longitude used for geographic coordinates and do not directly affect the compass needle's orientation.

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• 3.

### The shortest distance between any two points on the globe is along

• A.

The equator

• B.

A line of latitude

• C.

The prime meridian

• D.

A great circle

Correct Answer
D. A great circle
Explanation
A great circle is the shortest distance between any two points on the globe because it is a circle that has the same center as the globe and its circumference is equal to the circumference of the globe. This means that any other path between two points on the globe would be longer than the great circle route. Therefore, the great circle is the most direct and shortest route between any two points on the globe.

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• 4.

### The distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian is

• A.

Latitude

• B.

Longitude

• C.

Declination

• D.

Projection

Correct Answer
B. Longitude
Explanation
Longitude is the distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian. It is used to measure locations on the Earth's surface horizontally, running from 0Â° at the prime meridian to 180Â° at the International Date Line. Latitude, on the other hand, measures locations vertically, running from 0Â° at the equator to 90Â° at the North and South Poles. Declination refers to the angular difference between true north and magnetic north, while projection is a method used to represent the Earth's curved surface on a flat map.

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• 5.

### Latitude is the angular distance in degrees north or south of the equator.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Latitude is the measurement of the angular distance between a specific point on the Earth's surface and the equator. It is expressed in degrees and can be either north or south of the equator. Therefore, the statement that latitude is the angular distance in degrees north or south of the equator is true.

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• 6.

### Legends on a map help people calculate distances in the real world from distances on the map.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Legends on a map do not help people calculate distances in the real world from distances on the map. Legends provide information about the symbols and colors used on the map, such as what different lines or shapes represent. They do not provide a direct way to measure distances accurately. Instead, people use scales or grids on the map to estimate distances. Therefore, the statement is false.

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• 7.

### The three main types of map projections are cylindrical, azimuthal and conic.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because the three main types of map projections are indeed cylindrical, azimuthal, and conic. These types of projections are used to represent the curved surface of the Earth on a flat map. Cylindrical projections are created by wrapping a cylinder around the Earth and projecting the surface onto it. Azimuthal projections are formed by projecting the Earth's surface onto a plane from a specific point. Conic projections are made by placing a cone over the Earth and projecting the surface onto it. These three types of projections are commonly used in cartography to create different map representations.

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• 8.

### On a topographic map, elevation is shown by means of

• A.

Great circles

• B.

Contour lines

• C.

Verbal scale

• D.

Fractional scale

Correct Answer
B. Contour lines
Explanation
Contour lines are used to show elevation on a topographic map. These lines connect points of equal elevation, allowing the reader to visualize the shape of the land and understand the changes in elevation across the map. The spacing and shape of the contour lines indicate the steepness of the terrain, with closely spaced lines indicating steep slopes and widely spaced lines indicating gentler slopes. By interpreting the contour lines, one can determine the height and shape of mountains, valleys, and other landforms on the map.

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• 9.

### Subatomic particles in atoms that do not carry an electric charge are called

• A.

Neutrons

• B.

Protons

• C.

Nuclei

• D.

Ions

Correct Answer
A. Neutrons
Explanation
Neutrons are subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom that do not carry an electric charge. They have a mass similar to protons but do not have a positive or negative charge. Neutrons play a crucial role in determining the stability and properties of an atom, as they help to balance the repulsive forces between positively charged protons in the nucleus.

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• 10.

### What type of map is commonly used to locate faults and folds in beds of rock?

• A.

Geologic map

• B.

Topographic map

• C.

Soil map

• D.

Isogram map

Correct Answer
A. Geologic map
Explanation
A geologic map is commonly used to locate faults and folds in beds of rock. This type of map provides information about the geologic features and formations present in an area. It shows the distribution of different rock types, their ages, and the structures such as faults and folds that have formed over time. By studying a geologic map, geologists can understand the geological history of an area and identify potential areas of interest for further exploration or study. Therefore, a geologic map is the most appropriate type of map for locating faults and folds in beds of rock.

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• 11.

### Longitude is the angular distance in degrees east or west of of the prime meridian.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Longitude is the measurement of the distance, in degrees, from the prime meridian, which is the starting point for measuring longitude. It indicates the east-west position of a location on the Earth's surface. Therefore, the statement that longitude is the angular distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian is correct.

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• 12.

### A disadvantage of a cylindrical map is that distances and sizes near the poles are distorted.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
A cylindrical map is created by projecting the Earth's surface onto a cylinder. This projection causes distortion, particularly near the poles. As the cylinder is unrolled to create the map, the areas near the poles are stretched out, resulting in exaggerated sizes and distances. This distortion can make it challenging to accurately measure distances or compare sizes of objects or locations near the poles on a cylindrical map. Therefore, the statement that distances and sizes near the poles are distorted on a cylindrical map is true.

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• 13.

### Scales help people understand the symbols used on maps.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Scales on maps actually help people determine the actual distance between two points on the map in relation to the actual distance on the ground. It does not help people understand the symbols used on maps. Therefore, the statement is false.

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• 14.

### A combination of letters and numbers that indicates which elements make up a compound is a

• A.

Coefficient

• B.

Reactant

• C.

Chemical bond

• D.

Chemical formula

Correct Answer
D. Chemical formula
Explanation
A chemical formula is a combination of letters and numbers that indicates which elements make up a compound. It provides information about the types and numbers of atoms present in a compound, allowing scientists to understand its composition. Coefficients are used in chemical equations to balance the number of atoms on each side, reactants are substances that undergo a chemical reaction, and a chemical bond is the force that holds atoms together in a compound. Therefore, the correct answer is chemical formula.

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• 15.

### The outermost electrons in an atom's electron cloud are called

• A.

Ions

• B.

Isotopes

• C.

Valence electrons

• D.

Neutrons

Correct Answer
C. Valence electrons
Explanation
Valence electrons are the outermost electrons in an atom's electron cloud. These electrons are involved in chemical reactions and bonding with other atoms. They determine the atom's reactivity and ability to form chemical bonds. Ions are charged particles formed when atoms gain or lose electrons. Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. Neutrons are subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom.

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• 16.

### Subatomic particles that carry a negative charge are called

• A.

Neutrons

• B.

Electrons

• C.

Protons

• D.

Ions

Correct Answer
B. Electrons
Explanation
Subatomic particles that carry a negative charge are called electrons. Neutrons are neutral particles, protons carry a positive charge, and ions can either carry a positive or negative charge depending on whether they have gained or lost electrons.

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• 17.

### Color and hardness are examples of a substance's

• A.

Physical properties

• B.

Chemical properties

• C.

Atomic structure

• D.

Molecular properties

Correct Answer
A. pHysical properties
Explanation
Color and hardness are examples of physical properties because they can be observed or measured without changing the chemical composition of the substance. Physical properties describe the characteristics of a substance that can be observed or measured, such as color, hardness, density, melting point, boiling point, etc. These properties are related to the physical state or behavior of the substance, rather than its chemical composition or structure.

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• 18.

### Chemical properties are characteristics that can be observed without changing the composition of a substance.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Chemical properties are characteristics that can only be observed by changing the composition of a substance. This means that in order to determine the chemical properties of a substance, it needs to undergo a chemical reaction or change. Therefore, the statement that chemical properties can be observed without changing the composition of a substance is false.

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• 19.

### Subatomic particles in atoms that carry a positive charge are called

• A.

Neutrons

• B.

Electrons

• C.

Protons

• D.

Ions

Correct Answer
C. Protons
Explanation
Protons are subatomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom and carry a positive charge. Neutrons have no charge, electrons carry a negative charge, and ions are atoms or molecules with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of electrons. Therefore, the correct answer is protons.

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• 20.

### Atoms of the same element that differ in mass are

• A.

Ions

• B.

Neutrons

• C.

Isotopes

• D.

Molecules

Correct Answer
C. Isotopes
Explanation
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different masses. This is because isotopes have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. The difference in the number of neutrons affects the atomic mass of the isotope, resulting in different isotopes of the same element.

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• 21.

### How many neutrons does a potassium atom have if its atomic number is 19 and its mass number is 39?

• A.

19

• B.

39

• C.

20

• D.

40

Correct Answer
C. 20
Explanation
The atomic number of an element represents the number of protons in its nucleus. In this case, the atomic number of potassium is 19, which means it has 19 protons. The mass number of an element represents the sum of its protons and neutrons. Given that the mass number of potassium is 39, and we know it has 19 protons, we can subtract the atomic number from the mass number to find the number of neutrons. 39 - 19 = 20. Therefore, a potassium atom with an atomic number of 19 and a mass number of 39 has 20 neutrons.

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• 22.

### Two or more elements whose atoms are chemically bonded form a(n)

• A.

Mixture

• B.

Ion

• C.

Nucleus

• D.

Compound

Correct Answer
D. Compound
Explanation
When two or more elements chemically bond, they form a compound. In a compound, the atoms of different elements are held together by chemical bonds, resulting in a new substance with unique properties. This is different from a mixture, which is a combination of substances that are not chemically bonded and can be separated physically. An ion refers to an atom or molecule that has gained or lost electrons, resulting in a positive or negative charge. The nucleus is the central part of an atom that contains protons and neutrons.

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• 23.

### Molecules join together to form atoms.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
This statement is incorrect. Molecules are made up of atoms, not the other way around. Atoms are the building blocks of matter, and they combine to form molecules through chemical bonding. Therefore, it is false to say that molecules join together to form atoms.

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• 24.

### An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by chemical means.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
An element is a pure substance that consists of only one type of atom. It cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means such as chemical reactions. This is a fundamental concept in chemistry and is one of the defining characteristics of elements. Therefore, the statement that an element cannot be broken down into a simpler substance by chemical means is true.

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• 25.

### What is the volume of 325 g of metal with a density of 9 g/cubic centimeters?

• A.

V= 325 g

• B.

V= 36 cubic centimeters

• C.

V= 9 g/cubic centimeters

• D.

V= 360 cubic centimeters

Correct Answer
B. V= 36 cubic centimeters
Explanation
The volume of a substance can be calculated by dividing its mass by its density. In this case, the mass of the metal is given as 325 g and the density is given as 9 g/cubic centimeters. By dividing the mass by the density, we can find the volume. Therefore, the volume of the metal is 36 cubic centimeters.

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• 26.

### The amount of protons and neutrons located in the nucleus of an atom.

• A.

Atomic Mass

• B.

Isotope

• C.

Ion

• D.

Atomic Number

Correct Answer
A. Atomic Mass
Explanation
The atomic mass refers to the total number of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom. It is calculated by adding the mass of protons and neutrons together. This value is important in determining the overall mass of an atom and is often represented as a decimal number on the periodic table.

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• 27.

### A piece of tin has a mass of 16.52 g and a volume of 2.26 cubic centimeters.  What is the density of the tin?

• A.

D= 7.31 g/cubic centimeter

• B.

D= .731 g/cubic centimeter

• C.

D= 731 g/cubic centimeter

• D.

D= 7310 g/cubic centimeter

Correct Answer
A. D= 7.31 g/cubic centimeter
Explanation
The density of a substance is calculated by dividing its mass by its volume. In this case, the mass of the tin is given as 16.52 g and the volume is given as 2.26 cubic centimeters. By dividing the mass by the volume, we get a density of 7.31 g/cubic centimeter.

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• 28.

### The scientific study of the universe.

• A.

Astronomy

• B.

Astrology

• C.

Asthenosphere

• D.

Topography

Correct Answer
A. Astronomy
Explanation
Astronomy is the correct answer because it is the scientific study of the universe. It involves observing and understanding celestial objects such as stars, planets, galaxies, and other astronomical phenomena. Astrology, on the other hand, is a pseudoscience that claims to predict human behavior and events based on the positions of celestial bodies. Asthenosphere is a term used in geology to describe a layer of the Earth's mantle, and topography refers to the physical features and elevation of the Earth's surface.

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• 29.

### The solid, plastic layer of the mantle beneath the lithosphere; made of mantle rock that flows very slowly, which allows tectonic plates to move on top of it.

• A.

Lithosphere

• B.

Biosphere

• C.

Asthenosphere

• D.

Geosphere

Correct Answer
C. AsthenospHere
Explanation
The asthenosphere is the correct answer because it is the solid, plastic layer of the mantle that lies beneath the lithosphere. It is made up of mantle rock that flows very slowly, allowing tectonic plates to move on top of it. The asthenosphere's ability to flow allows for the movement of the Earth's lithospheric plates, which is a key characteristic of plate tectonics.

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• 30.

### What is the mass of an object that has a density of 8 g/per cubic centimeter and a volume of 64 cubic centimeters?

• A.

M= 8 g/per cubic centimeter

• B.

M= 50 g

• C.

M= 500 g

• D.

M= 64 cubic centimeters

Correct Answer
C. M= 500 g
Explanation
The mass of an object can be calculated by multiplying its density by its volume. In this case, the object has a density of 8 g/per cubic centimeter and a volume of 64 cubic centimeters. Multiplying 8 g/per cubic centimeter by 64 cubic centimeters gives us a mass of 512 g, which is not one of the given options. Therefore, the correct answer must be a mistake, as none of the options match the correct calculation.

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• 31.

### The density of a substance is equal to its mass divided by its volume.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The statement is true because density is defined as the mass of a substance per unit volume. In other words, it is a measure of how much mass is packed into a given volume. Therefore, the density of a substance can be calculated by dividing its mass by its volume.

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• 32.

### A molecule of water has one atom of

• A.

Hydrogen

• B.

Oxygen

• C.

Helium

• D.

Osmium

Correct Answer
B. Oxygen
Explanation
A molecule of water consists of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom. Therefore, the correct answer is oxygen.

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• 33.

### The scientific study of the ocean, including the properties and movements of ocean water, the characteristics of the ocean floor, and the organisms that live in the ocean.

• A.

Geology

• B.

Astronomy

• C.

Meteorology

• D.

Oceanography

Correct Answer
D. OceanograpHy
Explanation
Oceanography is the correct answer because it is the scientific study of the ocean, including its water properties, movements, the characteristics of the ocean floor, and the organisms that inhabit it. Geology is the study of the Earth's solid materials, while astronomy is the study of celestial bodies and the universe, and meteorology is the study of the atmosphere and weather patterns. Only oceanography encompasses all the aspects mentioned in the question.

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• 34.

### The solid, outer layer of Earth that consists of the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle.

• A.

Lithosphere

• B.

Biosphere

• C.

Asthenosphere

• D.

Geosphere

Correct Answer
A. LithospHere
Explanation
The lithosphere refers to the solid, outer layer of the Earth, which includes both the crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle. This layer is characterized by its solid and relatively rigid nature, and it plays a crucial role in supporting the Earth's landforms and providing a foundation for the continents and ocean basins. The lithosphere is also involved in the movement of tectonic plates and the formation of geological features such as mountains and volcanoes.

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• 35.

### The size and shape of the land surface features of a region, including its relief.

• A.

Geography

• B.

Topography

• C.

Biosphere

• D.

Hydrosphere

Correct Answer
B. TopograpHy
Explanation
Topography refers to the size and shape of the land surface features of a region, including its relief. It encompasses the study of landforms such as mountains, valleys, plains, and plateaus, as well as the distribution of natural and human-made features on the Earth's surface. Topography is an important aspect of geography as it helps in understanding the physical characteristics and landscape of a specific area. It plays a crucial role in various fields such as urban planning, agriculture, and environmental management.

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• 36.

### Physical properties are characteristics that describe how a substance interacts with other substances.

• A.

True

• B.

False

Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Physical properties are indeed characteristics that describe how a substance interacts with other substances. They include properties such as color, odor, density, melting point, boiling point, and conductivity. These properties can be observed or measured without changing the chemical composition of the substance. Therefore, the given answer is incorrect.

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• 37.

### The scientific study of Earth's atmosphere, especially in relation to weather and climate.

• A.

Geology

• B.

Astronomy

• C.

Meteorology

• D.

Oceanography

Correct Answer
C. Meteorology
Explanation
Meteorology is the correct answer because it specifically deals with the scientific study of Earth's atmosphere, particularly in relation to weather and climate. Geology focuses on the study of the Earth's solid materials, Astronomy deals with celestial objects and phenomena in outer space, and Oceanography is the study of the Earth's oceans. Therefore, Meteorology is the most appropriate choice for the given definition.

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• 38.

### The scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth and the processes that shape the Earth.

• A.

Geology

• B.

Astronomy

• C.

Meteorology

• D.

Oceanography

Correct Answer
A. Geology
Explanation
Geology is the correct answer because it is the scientific study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth, as well as the processes that shape the Earth. Geologists study rocks, minerals, and the Earth's physical features to understand how the Earth has evolved over time. They also investigate natural hazards such as earthquakes and volcanoes. Astronomy is the study of celestial bodies and the universe, meteorology is the study of weather and climate, and oceanography is the study of the oceans and marine life. These fields are not specifically focused on the Earth's origin, history, and structure like geology is.

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• 39.

### The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

• A.

Atomic Number

• B.

Atomic Mass

• C.

Ion

• D.

Isotope

Correct Answer
A. Atomic Number
Explanation
The atomic number refers to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. It is a unique identifier for each element on the periodic table. The number of protons determines the element's chemical properties and its placement in the periodic table.

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• 40.

### A mixture of gases that surround a planet or moon.

• A.

Asthenosphere

• B.

Lithosphere

• C.

Biosphere

• D.

Atmosphere

Correct Answer
D. AtmospHere
Explanation
The correct answer is "Atmosphere." The explanation for this is that the atmosphere is a mixture of gases that surround a planet or moon. It is the layer of air that provides the necessary gases for life to exist and protects the planet from harmful radiation. The other options, asthenosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere, do not refer to the gases surrounding a planet or moon, making them incorrect answers.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

• Current Version
• Mar 21, 2023
Quiz Edited by
ProProfs Editorial Team
• Oct 20, 2011
Quiz Created by
CharlieC23

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