Earth Science Final Review Quiz

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| By Danielrcabrera
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Danielrcabrera
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Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 220
Questions: 57 | Attempts: 220

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Earth Science Final Review Quiz - Quiz

All of the Questions are from Exams 1,2, and 3. There are no Questions pertaining to the Diagrams so make sure to study those for the Final Exam. I will upload another Quiz with just Test 4 when we get them back on Wednesday.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is a true statement?

    • A.

      The moon is composed of part of Earth

    • B.

      The moon is older than Earth

    • C.

      The moon is moving away from Earth

    • D.

      The moon formed from a ring of debris

    • E.

      All of the above except b

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above except b
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above except b." This means that all of the statements listed - the moon is composed of part of Earth, the moon is moving away from Earth, and the moon formed from a ring of debris - are true, except for the statement that the moon is older than Earth.

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  • 2. 

    _____ was one of the first atoms to have formed in the Universe.

    • A.

      Carbon

    • B.

      Nitrogen

    • C.

      Hydrogen

    • D.

      Silicon

    • E.

      B & d

    Correct Answer
    C. Hydrogen
    Explanation
    Hydrogen was one of the first atoms to have formed in the Universe. This is because hydrogen is the lightest and simplest element, consisting of only one proton and one electron. In the early stages of the Universe, after the Big Bang, hydrogen atoms were created through a process called nucleosynthesis. As the Universe expanded and cooled, hydrogen atoms began to come together to form stars and galaxies. The abundance of hydrogen in the Universe played a crucial role in the formation of other elements and the evolution of celestial bodies.

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  • 3. 

    How many degrees from the ecliptic is Earths orbit around the sun.

    • A.

      12

    • B.

      23.5

    • C.

      0

    • D.

      5

    • E.

      55

    Correct Answer
    C. 0
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 0 because the ecliptic is the plane of Earth's orbit around the sun. Therefore, Earth's orbit is exactly on the ecliptic, making the angle between Earth's orbit and the ecliptic 0 degrees.

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  • 4. 

    A(n) _____ is responsible for the production of heavy atoms such as iron in the sun's solar system.

    • A.

      Emission nebula

    • B.

      Formation of a protostar

    • C.

      Supernova

    • D.

      Neutron star

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Supernova
    Explanation
    A supernova is responsible for the production of heavy atoms such as iron in the sun's solar system. During a supernova explosion, the intense energy and pressure cause the fusion of lighter elements into heavier elements, including iron. This process releases a tremendous amount of energy and scatters these heavy atoms into space. Over time, these heavy atoms can become part of new star systems, such as our own solar system, and contribute to the formation of planets and other celestial bodies.

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  • 5. 

    If a star is found to have a temperature around 35,000 k what color would it be?

    • A.

      Pink

    • B.

      Blue

    • C.

      Red

    • D.

      Yellow

    • E.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    B. Blue
    Explanation
    A star with a temperature around 35,000 K would be blue. The color of a star is directly related to its temperature. Stars with higher temperatures emit more blue and ultraviolet light, while stars with lower temperatures emit more red and infrared light. Therefore, a star with a temperature of 35,000 K would emit a significant amount of blue light, making it appear blue in color.

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  • 6. 

    Why does your weight change between planets?

    • A.

      Average temperature varies between planets

    • B.

      Each planet has a different mass

    • C.

      Length of time a planet takes to orbit the sun varies

    • D.

      Amount of solar radiation

    • E.

      A & d

    Correct Answer
    B. Each planet has a different mass
    Explanation
    The weight of an object depends on the gravitational force exerted on it, which is directly proportional to the mass of the planet. Therefore, each planet having a different mass means that the gravitational force experienced on each planet will be different, resulting in a change in weight. The other options mentioned, such as average temperature, length of time to orbit the sun, and amount of solar radiation, do not directly affect weight.

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  • 7. 

    Which mostly influences the final evolutionary stages of stars?

    • A.

      Mass

    • B.

      Relative magnitude

    • C.

      Number of alien colonies

    • D.

      Absolute magnitude

    • E.

      Distance from Earth

    Correct Answer
    A. Mass
    Explanation
    The mass of a star mostly influences its final evolutionary stages. The mass determines the amount of fuel available for nuclear fusion, which powers the star. Higher mass stars burn through their fuel more quickly and go through more intense and shorter-lived stages, such as supernovae explosions, while lower mass stars have longer lifetimes and end their lives as white dwarfs or neutron stars. Therefore, the mass of a star plays a crucial role in determining its ultimate fate and evolutionary path.

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  • 8. 

    Most galaxies show a ______ shift in there spectrum.  

    • A.

      Red

    • B.

      Blue

    • C.

      Yellow

    • D.

      Purple

    • E.

      Green

    Correct Answer
    A. Red
    Explanation
    Most galaxies show a red shift in their spectrum. This is due to the Doppler effect, which causes the wavelength of light emitted by an object moving away from us to appear longer (shifted towards the red end of the spectrum). This phenomenon is used to determine the motion and velocity of galaxies, as the amount of red shift can indicate how fast a galaxy is moving away from us.

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  • 9. 

    While a star  is in the Main Sequence Stage what forces are in balance?

    • A.

      Centrifugal and gravity

    • B.

      Gravity and tidal

    • C.

      Tidal and centrifugul

    • D.

      Thermal expansion and gravity

    • E.

      Alien mind probes and tractor beams

    Correct Answer
    D. Thermal expansion and gravity
    Explanation
    During the Main Sequence Stage, a star is in a state of equilibrium where the inward force of gravity is balanced by the outward force of thermal expansion. Gravity pulls the star's matter inward, while thermal expansion causes the star to expand outward. These two forces are balanced, allowing the star to maintain a stable size and temperature.

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  • 10. 

    When 2 hydrogen atoms combine a _______ is created.

    • A.

      Heavy hydrogen atom

    • B.

      Helium atom

    • C.

      Oxygen atom

    • D.

      Uranium atom

    • E.

      Water

    Correct Answer
    B. Helium atom
    Explanation
    When two hydrogen atoms combine, they undergo a process called fusion, which results in the formation of a helium atom. Fusion occurs in the core of stars, where the immense pressure and temperature cause hydrogen atoms to collide and fuse together, releasing a tremendous amount of energy. This process is what powers the sun and other stars, as well as being a potential future energy source on Earth.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is the Sequence of the Formation of the Solar System?

    • A.

      Nebula-> protosun-> ring of planetesmals-> protoplanet

    • B.

      Nebula-> ring of planetesmals-> protosun-> protoplanet

    • C.

      Protosun-> nebula-> ring of planetesmals-> protoplanet

    • D.

      Nebula-> protoplanet-> ring of planetesmals-> protosun

    Correct Answer
    A. Nebula-> protosun-> ring of planetesmals-> protoplanet
    Explanation
    The correct answer is nebula-> protosun-> ring of planetesmals-> protoplanet. This sequence is based on the widely accepted theory of solar system formation known as the nebular hypothesis. According to this theory, a nebula, which is a large cloud of gas and dust, begins to collapse under its own gravity. As the collapse continues, a protosun forms at the center, surrounded by a rotating disk of gas and dust called a protoplanetary disk. Within this disk, small clumps of material called planetesimals start to form and collide, eventually growing into protoplanets.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following material is found in meteorites?

    • A.

      Iron

    • B.

      Silicate material

    • C.

      Amino acids

    • D.

      Nickel

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Meteorites are fragments of asteroids or other celestial bodies that have fallen to Earth. They can contain a variety of materials, including iron, silicate material, amino acids, and nickel. Iron is commonly found in meteorites, often in the form of iron-nickel alloys. Silicate materials, such as minerals and rocks, are also present in meteorites. Additionally, organic compounds like amino acids have been detected in some meteorites, providing evidence for the existence of the building blocks of life in space. Therefore, all of the mentioned materials can be found in meteorites.

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  • 13. 

    When the sun's fuel starts to run out what is the next stage in its evolutuion?

    • A.

      Supernova

    • B.

      White dwarf

    • C.

      Red giant

    • D.

      Protostar

    • E.

      Neutron star

    Correct Answer
    C. Red giant
    Explanation
    As the sun's fuel begins to deplete, it will enter the red giant stage of its evolution. During this stage, the sun will expand and become larger, causing it to consume its surrounding planets. Eventually, the outer layers of the sun will be shed, leaving behind a dense core known as a white dwarf. A supernova occurs when a massive star exhausts its fuel and collapses under its own gravity, which is not applicable to the sun. A protostar refers to a stage in the formation of a star, and a neutron star is formed from the remnants of a supernova.

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  • 14. 

    What is the average density of the crust?

    • A.

      2.7g/ml cubed

    • B.

      2.7 cm cubed / g

    • C.

      2.7g/cm

    • D.

      2.7 kg/cm cubed

    • E.

      2.7 g/m cubed

    Correct Answer
    C. 2.7g/cm
    Explanation
    The average density of the crust is 2.7g/cm. This is because density is defined as mass divided by volume, and the given answer has units of grams per cubic centimeter, which is the correct unit for density.

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  • 15. 

    The part of an Atom which contains the most mass.

    • A.

      Electrons

    • B.

      Protons

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Isotope

    • E.

      Alien probe ,machines

    Correct Answer
    C. Nucleus
    Explanation
    The nucleus is the correct answer because it is the part of an atom that contains the most mass. It is located at the center of the atom and consists of protons and neutrons. Electrons, on the other hand, have negligible mass compared to protons and neutrons. Isotopes refer to atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons. The options "alien probe" and "machines" are not relevant to the question.

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  • 16. 

    Magma with the lowest silica content.

    • A.

      Ultramafic

    • B.

      Mafic

    • C.

      Felsic

    • D.

      Intermediate

    • E.

      Basalt

    Correct Answer
    B. Mafic
    Explanation
    Mafic magma has the lowest silica content among the given options. Silica is a major component in magma and affects its viscosity. Mafic magma is rich in iron and magnesium, which gives it a low silica content. This type of magma has a low viscosity, allowing gases to escape more easily and resulting in less explosive volcanic eruptions. Mafic magma also tends to have higher temperatures and can form basaltic rocks when it solidifies.

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  • 17. 

    Which is not amongst the 8 most abundant elements in Earths Crust?

    • A.

      Oxygen

    • B.

      Iron

    • C.

      Alluminum

    • D.

      Copper

    • E.

      Sodium

    Correct Answer
    D. Copper
    Explanation
    Copper is not amongst the 8 most abundant elements in Earth's crust. The 8 most abundant elements are oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Copper is less abundant compared to these elements in the Earth's crust.

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  • 18. 

    What mineral property is demonstrated when light is reflected off its surface?

    • A.

      Hardness

    • B.

      Luster

    • C.

      Color

    • D.

      Cleavage

    • E.

      Specific gravity

    Correct Answer
    B. Luster
    Explanation
    Luster is the property of a mineral that describes the way light reflects off its surface. Different minerals have different types of luster, such as metallic, vitreous, pearly, or dull. By observing the way light reflects off a mineral's surface, we can determine its luster and use it as a characteristic to identify the mineral.

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  • 19. 

    Which if the following is a rock?

    • A.

      Quartz

    • B.

      Gabbro

    • C.

      Hornblende

    • D.

      Feldspar

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Gabbro
    Explanation
    Gabbro is a type of rock, specifically an intrusive igneous rock that is composed mainly of calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene minerals. It is commonly found in oceanic crust and is dark in color. Quartz, hornblende, and feldspar are also minerals commonly found in rocks, but they are not rocks themselves. Therefore, the correct answer is gabbro.

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  • 20. 

    What is the shape of the structural building block for rock forming minerals?

    • A.

      Cube

    • B.

      Sphere

    • C.

      Pyramid

    • D.

      Rectangle

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Pyramid
    Explanation
    The shape of the structural building block for rock forming minerals is a pyramid. This is because rock forming minerals typically have a crystal structure that is composed of repeating units called unit cells. The unit cell of many rock forming minerals is in the shape of a pyramid, with triangular faces and a pointed top. This pyramid shape allows for the orderly arrangement of atoms or ions within the crystal structure of the mineral.

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  • 21. 

    What process results in mechanical (physical) weathering?

    • A.

      Frost wedging

    • B.

      Plant roots

    • C.

      Oxidation

    • D.

      Unloading

    • E.

      All except c

    Correct Answer
    E. All except c
    Explanation
    Mechanical (physical) weathering is the process by which rocks are broken down into smaller pieces without any change in their chemical composition. Frost wedging occurs when water seeps into cracks in rocks, freezes, and expands, causing the rock to break apart. Plant roots can grow into cracks in rocks, exerting pressure and causing them to break. Unloading happens when overlying pressure on rocks is reduced, causing them to expand and crack. Oxidation, on the other hand, is a chemical weathering process that involves the reaction of rock minerals with oxygen. Therefore, all of the given options (frost wedging, plant roots, unloading) result in mechanical weathering, except for oxidation which is a chemical process.

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  • 22. 

    Rock on Earths Surface is said to be a ______.

    • A.

      Regional metamorphic rock

    • B.

      Magma

    • C.

      Sedimentary rock

    • D.

      Contact metamorphic rock

    • E.

      Alienite

    Correct Answer
    C. Sedimentary rock
    Explanation
    The correct answer is sedimentary rock. Sedimentary rocks are formed through the accumulation and lithification of sediment, which can include particles of rock, minerals, organic matter, and even fossils. They are typically found on the Earth's surface and can be composed of various materials, such as sandstone, limestone, or shale. Sedimentary rocks often contain layers or strata, which can provide valuable information about the Earth's history and past environments.

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  • 23. 

    What needs to happen for an igneous rock to change into a metamorphic rock?

    • A.

      Llithification

    • B.

      Crystalization

    • C.

      Weathering

    • D.

      Lava

    • E.

      Heat and pressure

    Correct Answer
    E. Heat and pressure
    Explanation
    For an igneous rock to change into a metamorphic rock, it needs to be subjected to heat and pressure. These two factors cause the minerals within the rock to recrystallize, forming new minerals and changing the overall texture and composition of the rock. This process, known as metamorphism, occurs deep within the Earth's crust where temperature and pressure are high. Lava, weathering, and lithification are not involved in the transformation of igneous rocks into metamorphic rocks.

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  • 24. 

    What fossil example was used to explain the prescence of Pangaea?

    • A.

      Mesosaurus

    • B.

      Amenities

    • C.

      Plesiosaurus

    • D.

      Archeopteryx

    • E.

      Mastadons

    Correct Answer
    A. Mesosaurus
    Explanation
    Mesosaurus is a fossil example that was used to explain the presence of Pangaea. Mesosaurus was a small aquatic reptile that lived during the early Permian period. Fossils of Mesosaurus have been found in both South America and Africa, which are currently separated by the Atlantic Ocean. The presence of the same species in these two distant locations suggests that there was once a land connection between South America and Africa, supporting the theory of Pangaea, a supercontinent that existed millions of years ago.

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  • 25. 

    Which is a mass wasting event?

    • A.

      Water flowing in a channel

    • B.

      Storm surge

    • C.

      Rock fall

    • D.

      Geothermal gradient

    • E.

      B and c

    Correct Answer
    C. Rock fall
    Explanation
    A mass wasting event refers to the movement of rocks, soil, or other materials down a slope due to gravity. In this case, a rock fall is a clear example of a mass wasting event as it involves the sudden and rapid movement of rocks down a slope. Water flowing in a channel and storm surge are not considered mass wasting events as they involve the movement of water, not solid materials. Geothermal gradient refers to the change in temperature with depth in the Earth's crust and is unrelated to mass wasting events.

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  • 26. 

    Water can reduce _____ which can trigger mass wasting events.

    • A.

      Alien landing pad sizes

    • B.

      Ocean

    • C.

      Streams

    • D.

      Friction

    • E.

      Weight

    Correct Answer
    D. Friction
    Explanation
    Friction refers to the resistance that occurs when two surfaces come into contact with each other. In the context of the question, water can reduce friction, which in turn can trigger mass wasting events. When water infiltrates soil or rock layers, it can act as a lubricant, reducing the friction between particles and causing them to become unstable. This can lead to landslides, mudslides, or other mass wasting events where the weakened material moves downhill. Therefore, friction plays a crucial role in stabilizing slopes, and its reduction by water can contribute to the occurrence of such events.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following water reservoirs contains the largest quantity of fresh water?

    • A.

      Lakes

    • B.

      Soil moisture

    • C.

      Streams

    • D.

      Groundwater

    • E.

      Oceans

    Correct Answer
    D. Groundwater
    Explanation
    Groundwater contains the largest quantity of fresh water compared to other water reservoirs. Groundwater refers to the water that is stored beneath the Earth's surface in aquifers. It is replenished through rainfall and snowmelt, slowly percolating through the soil and rocks. Groundwater is an important source of water for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. It is estimated that about 30% of the world's freshwater is stored in groundwater reservoirs, making it the largest accessible source of fresh water on the planet.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the following is the ultimate base level for a stream?

    • A.

      Flood control damn

    • B.

      Mouuntain lake

    • C.

      Atlantic ocean

    • D.

      Reservoir damn

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Atlantic ocean
    Explanation
    The ultimate base level for a stream is the lowest point to which a stream can erode its channel. In this case, the Atlantic Ocean is the correct answer because it is the lowest point that a stream can flow into and erode its channel. Flood control dams, mountain lakes, and reservoir dams are not considered ultimate base levels for streams as they are man-made structures and can be altered or controlled.

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  • 29. 

    What is the name of the layers that isolates a confined aquifer?

    • A.

      Vadoze

    • B.

      Spring

    • C.

      Aquifer

    • D.

      Water table

    • E.

      Aquitard

    Correct Answer
    E. Aquitard
    Explanation
    An aquitard is a layer of rock or sediment that restricts the flow of groundwater. It acts as a barrier, isolating a confined aquifer from the surrounding layers. This prevents the movement of water between the confined aquifer and other aquifers or surface water sources. Therefore, an aquitard is the correct answer as it describes the layer that isolates a confined aquifer.

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  • 30. 

    The extraction of groundwater and oil from the San Joaquin Valley has resulted in.

    • A.

      Excessive rain

    • B.

      Space ship landing

    • C.

      Subsidence

    • D.

      Sea level changes

    • E.

      Droughts

    Correct Answer
    C. Subsidence
    Explanation
    The extraction of groundwater and oil from the San Joaquin Valley has resulted in subsidence. Subsidence refers to the sinking or settling of the land surface due to the removal of these underground resources. As the groundwater and oil are pumped out, the empty spaces left underground cause the overlying land to sink. This can lead to various issues such as the sinking of buildings, infrastructure damage, and changes in the landscape. Therefore, subsidence is the most logical and plausible outcome of the extraction activities in the San Joaquin Valley.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following is needed for a geyser to errupt?

    • A.

      Constriction in fractures

    • B.

      Underground heat source

    • C.

      Cavern to allow groundwater to collect

    • D.

      Fractures that act as conduits for water to move underground

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed are necessary for a geyser to erupt. A geyser is formed when there is a constriction in fractures, which creates pressure on the underground water. This underground water is heated by an underground heat source, such as magma or hot rocks, causing it to expand. The presence of a cavern allows the groundwater to collect and build up pressure. Finally, fractures act as conduits for the water to move underground, leading to an eruption when the pressure becomes too high. Therefore, all of these factors are needed for a geyser to erupt.

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  • 32. 

    Volcanic Eruptions with low silica content, low gas content, and a large volume of magma. Which plate tectonic setting would likely generate the volcano desrcibed above?

    • A.

      Convergent (ocean-ocean)

    • B.

      Convergent (ocean-continent)

    • C.

      Transform

    • D.

      Divergent

    • E.

      Divergent and hot spots

    Correct Answer
    E. Divergent and hot spots
    Explanation
    A volcano with low silica content, low gas content, and a large volume of magma is likely to be generated in a divergent plate tectonic setting. In this setting, two tectonic plates are moving away from each other, allowing magma to rise to the surface and form a volcano. The low silica content and low gas content indicate that the magma is less viscous and has fewer trapped gases, which are characteristics of basaltic magma commonly found in divergent settings. Additionally, the mention of hot spots suggests that the volcano may be located over a mantle plume, which is another characteristic of divergent settings.

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  • 33. 

    Which is an anthropogenic contributor to flooding?

    • A.

      Early snow melt

    • B.

      Velocity of a rain storm

    • C.

      Path of the rain storm

    • D.

      Heavy rains

    • E.

      Urbanization

    Correct Answer
    E. Urbanization
    Explanation
    Urbanization is the correct answer because it refers to the process of increasing the population and infrastructure in urban areas, which often leads to the replacement of natural land surfaces with impervious surfaces like concrete and asphalt. These impervious surfaces prevent rainwater from infiltrating into the ground, resulting in increased surface runoff and reduced groundwater recharge. This can lead to higher volumes and faster flow of water during rainfall events, contributing to flooding in urban areas.

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  • 34. 

    When a Volcano goes extinct the conduits will crystallize into an igneous rock and will become a _______.

    • A.

      Sill

    • B.

      Cinder cone

    • C.

      Dike

    • D.

      Batholith

    • E.

      A or c

    Correct Answer
    E. A or c
    Explanation
    When a volcano goes extinct, the conduits, which are the channels through which magma flows, will cool and solidify over time. This process causes the conduits to crystallize into an igneous rock. A sill is a horizontal sheet-like intrusion of igneous rock that forms between layers of preexisting rock. A dike, on the other hand, is a vertical or near-vertical sheet-like intrusion of igneous rock that cuts across preexisting rock layers. Therefore, both options a (sill) and c (dike) are correct answers as they describe the formation of igneous rock when a volcano goes extinct.

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  • 35. 

    Which seismic body wave can travel through a fluid?

    • A.

      S wave

    • B.

      Alien death rays

    • C.

      P wave

    • D.

      Rayleigh wave

    • E.

      Love wave

    Correct Answer
    C. P wave
    Explanation
    P-waves, also known as primary waves, are seismic body waves that can travel through both solids and fluids. They are the fastest seismic waves and have a push-pull motion, causing particles to move in the same direction as the wave. This ability to travel through fluids makes P-waves crucial in studying the Earth's interior, as they can provide valuable information about the composition and structure of the subsurface, including the presence of liquid layers such as water or magma.

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  • 36. 

    You are stranded in the ocean and can only depict a volcanic island arc. How would you describe your surrounding destination to possible rescuers?

    • A.

      Shallow sloping sides to the volcano

    • B.

      Lava and pyroclastic flow are visible

    • C.

      You lose all hope because life without a cell phone is not worth running the battery out to be rescued

    • D.

      Basalt flows dominate the island

    • E.

      Island is covered with low height, but steep sided cinderr cones

    Correct Answer
    B. Lava and pyroclastic flow are visible
    Explanation
    The correct answer suggests that if you are stranded in the ocean and can only depict a volcanic island arc, you would describe your surrounding destination to possible rescuers by mentioning that lava and pyroclastic flow are visible. This implies that there is volcanic activity happening on the island, which could be a significant landmark for rescuers to locate and potentially rescue you from.

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  • 37. 

    Which is most acurate about the Landers and Fullerton Earthquakes?

    • A.

      the intensity of Landers was less than Fullerton

    • B.

      The intensity of Landers was greater than Fullerton

    • C.

      The energy of Landers was less than Fullerton

    • D.

      The energy of landers was greater than Fullerton

    • E.

      There is not enough information to make an exact statement

    Correct Answer
    A. the intensity of Landers was less than Fullerton
    Explanation
    The given answer states that the intensity of the Landers earthquake was less than the Fullerton earthquake. This suggests that the Landers earthquake had a lower level of ground shaking and damage compared to the Fullerton earthquake. However, it does not provide any information about the energy released by the earthquakes or any other specific details.

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  • 38. 

    Why do wave crests strike the shoreline parallel no matter the direction of the storm?

    • A.

      Wave refraction

    • B.

      Wave reflection

    • C.

      Longshore transport

    • D.

      Coriolis effect

    • E.

      Wave density

    Correct Answer
    A. Wave refraction
    Explanation
    Wave refraction is the correct answer because it is the process by which waves change direction as they approach the shoreline. When waves approach the shoreline at an angle, the part of the wave that is closer to the shore slows down due to the shallower water, causing the wave to bend or refract. This refraction causes the wave crests to become parallel to the shoreline, regardless of the direction of the storm. This phenomenon is responsible for the consistent parallel alignment of wave crests as they strike the shoreline.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following cloud types generates hail?

    • A.

      Cumulonimbus

    • B.

      Cirrus

    • C.

      Stratus

    • D.

      Cumulus

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Cumulonimbus
    Explanation
    Cumulonimbus clouds are known for their vertical development and can reach great heights in the atmosphere. These clouds are associated with thunderstorms and can produce hail due to the strong updrafts within them. As the updrafts carry raindrops upward into extremely cold regions of the cloud, they freeze and form ice pellets. These ice pellets can then be carried back down by downdrafts within the cloud, creating hail. Therefore, cumulonimbus clouds are the cloud type that generates hail.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following radiates the longest wavelength of electromagnetic energy?

    • A.

      Sun

    • B.

      Earth

    • C.

      Mars

    • D.

      Ice cream

    • E.

      Hot tea

    Correct Answer
    D. Ice cream
    Explanation
    The correct answer is ice cream. Ice cream does not radiate any electromagnetic energy, as it is not a source of heat or light. The other options, such as the sun, earth, mars, and hot tea, all emit electromagnetic energy in the form of heat and light. The wavelength of electromagnetic energy decreases as the temperature increases, so ice cream, being a cold substance, would have the longest wavelength of electromagnetic energy among the given options.

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  • 41. 

    When condensation occurs which of the following applies?

    • A.

      Deposition

    • B.

      Dew point is reached

    • C.

      100% relative humidity is archived

    • D.

      Sublimation

    • E.

      B & c

    Correct Answer
    E. B & c
    Explanation
    Condensation occurs when water vapor in the air cools and changes into liquid form. The dew point is the temperature at which the air becomes saturated and condensation begins to form. When the dew point is reached, the air is at 100% relative humidity, meaning it cannot hold any more water vapor. Therefore, both option b (dew point is reached) and option c (100% relative humidity is achieved) apply when condensation occurs.

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  • 42. 

    What is the most common gas found in the modern atmosphere?

    • A.

      O 2

    • B.

      CO 2

    • C.

      Aargon

    • D.

      H2o

    • E.

      N 2

    Correct Answer
    E. N 2
    Explanation
    The most common gas found in the modern atmosphere is N2, or nitrogen. Nitrogen makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an inert gas that is essential for life as it is a key component of proteins and nucleic acids. Nitrogen is also important for the nitrogen cycle, where it is converted into different forms by bacteria and other organisms, allowing it to be used by plants and animals.

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  • 43. 

    In which layer or layers does the temperature decrease with altitude?

    • A.

      Troposphere

    • B.

      Thermosphere

    • C.

      Mesosphere

    • D.

      Stratosphere

    • E.

      A & c

    Correct Answer
    E. A & c
    Explanation
    The temperature decreases with altitude in the troposphere and mesosphere. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the atmosphere where weather occurs, and as you go higher in this layer, the temperature decreases. The mesosphere is the layer above the stratosphere, and it is also characterized by a decrease in temperature with increasing altitude. Therefore, options a & c, which include the troposphere and mesosphere, are the correct layers where the temperature decreases with altitude.

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  • 44. 

    Which clouds would you find between 2,000-6,000 ft  in elevation?

    • A.

      Stratus

    • B.

      Cirrostratus

    • C.

      Altocumulus

    • D.

      Cirrus

    • E.

      Altostratus

    Correct Answer
    E. Altostratus
    Explanation
    Altostratus clouds are found between 2,000-6,000 ft in elevation. These clouds are characterized by their uniform gray or blue-gray appearance and cover the sky like a blanket. They are often associated with steady, continuous precipitation, such as light rain or snow. Altostratus clouds are formed when moist air is lifted to higher altitudes, causing the water vapor to condense into a layer of clouds.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following is the reason for the moon having the greatest influence on Earth's tides?

    • A.

      Mass of the moon

    • B.

      Composition of moon

    • C.

      Distance of moon

    • D.

      Man on the moon

    • E.

      Alien space station on the moon

    Correct Answer
    C. Distance of moon
    Explanation
    The reason for the moon having the greatest influence on Earth's tides is the distance of the moon. The gravitational force between the moon and Earth is strongest when they are closest to each other, causing a tidal bulge on the side of Earth facing the moon. As the Earth rotates, this bulge creates high tides. The farther the moon is from Earth, the weaker the gravitational force and the smaller the tidal effect. Therefore, the distance of the moon is the main factor determining the strength of its influence on Earth's tides.

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  • 46. 

    Why does ocean salinity contain high concentrations of ions such as Na + Cl -?

    • A.

      Ions are the least abundant on earth

    • B.

      Ions are consumed by various sinks in the ocean

    • C.

      Ions are being provided to oceans by rivers

    • D.

      Ions are not utilized by organisms in the ocean

    • E.

      Ions are placed into the ocean by aliens

    Correct Answer
    D. Ions are not utilized by organisms in the ocean
    Explanation
    Ions are not utilized by organisms in the ocean. Organisms in the ocean have limited ability to use or remove ions from the water. As a result, ions tend to accumulate in the ocean over time, leading to high concentrations of ions such as Na+ and Cl-.

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  • 47. 

    1 kilogram of air at 25 degrees celsius can hold 20 grams of water vapor at saturation. If 5 grams of water is contained what is the relative humidity?

    • A.

      100%

    • B.

      75%

    • C.

      50%

    • D.

      25%

    • E.

      10%

    Correct Answer
    D. 25%
    Explanation
    The relative humidity is calculated by dividing the actual amount of water vapor present (5 grams) by the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at that temperature (20 grams) and multiplying by 100. In this case, (5/20) * 100 = 25%. Therefore, the relative humidity is 25%.

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  • 48. 

    Which northern hemisphere season is depicted in this image?

    • A.

      Spring

    • B.

      Summer

    • C.

      Fall

    • D.

      Winter

    Correct Answer
    B. Summer
    Explanation
    The image depicts a scene with lush green trees, blue skies, and bright sunlight, indicating a warm and vibrant atmosphere. These characteristics are typically associated with the summer season in the northern hemisphere.

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  • 49. 

    Which letter represents the continental rise?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    D. D
    Explanation
    The continental rise is represented by letter d. The continental rise is a gently sloping accumulation of sediments found at the base of the continental slope. It is formed by the deposition of sediment eroded from the continent and transported by turbidity currents. The sediments gradually build up over time, creating a gradual incline known as the continental rise.

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  • 50. 

    Which current below is a cold water current?

    • A.

      Agulhas

    • B.

      Labrador

    • C.

      East australian

    • D.

      Kuroshio

    Correct Answer
    B. Labrador
    Explanation
    The Labrador current is a cold water current. It flows southward along the eastern coast of Canada and carries cold Arctic water towards the equator. This current is responsible for the cool temperatures experienced along the northeastern coast of North America.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 16, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Danielrcabrera
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