Immunology Quiz -the T Cell Receptor (Tcr)

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Quizzes Created: 7 | Total Attempts: 63,816
Questions: 15 | Attempts: 1,450

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Cell Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Superantigens such as staphylococcal enterotoxins bind to certain TCR____ chains and to MHC class II molecules. MHC binding does not involve the peptide groove. T cells can then release extremely high levels of cytokines, which lead to toxic shock syndrome (TSS) when they appear in the blood.

    • A.

      Alpha

    • B.

      Beta

    • C.

      Delta

    • D.

      Gamma

    Correct Answer
    B. Beta
    Explanation
    Superantigens such as staphylococcal enterotoxins bind to certain TCR Beta chains and to MHC class II molecules. This binding does not involve the peptide groove. When T cells are activated by this binding, they can release extremely high levels of cytokines, leading to toxic shock syndrome (TSS) when these cytokines appear in the blood.

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  • 2. 

    Protein and nucleic acid sequence data have been obtained for many TCRs with different specificities. Analyses of these sequences suggest the existence of how many hypervariable (hv) regions within the variable region?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    • E.

      5

    Correct Answer
    C. 3
    Explanation
    Analyses of protein and nucleic acid sequence data for TCRs with different specificities have revealed the existence of three hypervariable (hv) regions within the variable region.

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  • 3. 

    The biochemical structure of the T-cell receptor (TCR) of the!" type (95% of human TCRs) is comparable to a____ immunoglobulin____ fragment, having very short cytoplasmic tails.

    • A.

      Secreted; Fab

    • B.

      Secreted; Fc

    • C.

      Membrane-bound; Fab

    • D.

      Membrane-bound; Fc

    Correct Answer
    C. Membrane-bound; Fab
    Explanation
    The T-cell receptor (TCR) is a type of protein that is found on the surface of T-cells, which are a type of immune cell. The TCR is comparable to an immunoglobulin fragment, specifically the Fab region. The Fab region of an immunoglobulin is responsible for binding to antigens, and in the case of the TCR, it binds to specific antigens on the surface of other cells. The TCR is membrane-bound, meaning it is attached to the cell membrane of T-cells, and it has a short cytoplasmic tail. This allows the TCR to interact with antigens and trigger an immune response.

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  • 4. 

    Where are#$ T cells generally found in the body (location of TCR rearrangement)?

    • A.

      Spleen

    • B.

      Bone marrow

    • C.

      Thyroid

    • D.

      Thymus

    • E.

      Thalamus

    Correct Answer
    D. Thymus
    Explanation
    T cells are generally found in the thymus. The thymus is a specialized organ of the immune system where T cells undergo maturation and development. T cell receptor (TCR) rearrangement, which is essential for the generation of a diverse T cell repertoire, occurs in the thymus. Therefore, the thymus is the main location for T cell development and TCR rearrangement.

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  • 5. 

     In comparison to alph beta T cells, lamba delta T cells____ and are hypothesized to be a____ line of immune defense.

    • A.

      Recognize peptide antigens by MHC; Primary

    • B.

      Do not recognize peptide antigens by MHC; Primary

    • C.

      Recognize peptide antigens by MHC; Secondary

    • D.

      Do not recognize peptide antigens by MHC; Secondary

    Correct Answer
    B. Do not recognize peptide antigens by MHC; Primary
    Explanation
    Lambda delta T cells do not recognize peptide antigens by MHC and are hypothesized to be a primary line of immune defense.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following best describes the location of the delta (#)-chain locus in human T-cell receptors?

    • A.

      Chromosome 7

    • B.

      Chromosome 7 within the alpha (!)-locus

    • C.

      Chromosome 14

    • D.

      Chromosome 14 within the beta (")-locus

    • E.

      Chromosome 14 within the alpha (!)-locus

    Correct Answer
    E. Chromosome 14 within the alpha (!)-locus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Chromosome 14 within the alpha (!)-locus. This means that the delta-chain locus, which is a part of the human T-cell receptors, is located on Chromosome 14 within the alpha (!)-locus.

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  • 7. 

     Which of the following are located in chromosome 7 within human T-cell receptors?

    • A.

      ) Alpha

    • B.

      ) Beta

    • C.

      Gamma

    • D.

      A & B

    • E.

      B & C

    Correct Answer
    E. B & C
    Explanation
    The correct answer is B & C. The human T-cell receptors, specifically the alpha and beta chains, are located in chromosome 7. The gamma chain is also located in chromosome 7. Therefore, options B and C are the correct choices as they include the alpha and beta chains, and the gamma chain respectively, all of which are located in chromosome 7.

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  • 8. 

     Comparing the arrangement of TCR genes and BCR genes, the____ chain is analogous to the heavy (H) chain and the____ chain is analogous to the light (L) chain.

    • A.

      Alpha (!); Beta (")

    • B.

      Beta ("); Alpha (!)

    • C.

      Delta (#); Gamma ($)

    • D.

      Gamma ($); Delta (#)

    Correct Answer
    B. Beta ("); Alpha (!)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Beta ("); Alpha (!). In the arrangement of TCR genes and BCR genes, the beta chain is analogous to the heavy (H) chain and the alpha chain is analogous to the light (L) chain.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following TCR genetic chains contain D-segments, similar to immunoglobulin heavy chains?

    • A.

      ) Alpha (!); Beta (")

    • B.

      Delta (#); Gamma ($)

    • C.

      Beta ("); Delta (#)

    • D.

      Gamma ($); Alpha (!)

    • E.

      Alpha (!); Delta (#)

    Correct Answer
    C. Beta ("); Delta (#)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Beta ("); Delta (#). This is because D-segments are present in both the Beta (") and Delta (#) chains of the TCR genetic chains, similar to immunoglobulin heavy chains. The other options do not include both Beta (") and Delta (#) chains.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following TCR genetic chains contains V and J segments, similar to genes for immunoglobulin kappa and lambda light chains?

    • A.

      Alpha (!); Beta (")

    • B.

      Delta (#); Gamma ($)

    • C.

      Beta ("); Delta (#)

    • D.

      Gamma ($); Alpha (!)

    • E.

      Alpha (!); Delta (#)

    Correct Answer
    D. Gamma ($); Alpha (!)
    Explanation
    The TCR genetic chains that contain V and J segments, similar to genes for immunoglobulin kappa and lambda light chains, are the Gamma ($); Alpha (!) chains.

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  • 11. 

    The process used to increase antigen binding affinity is called somatic____ and occurs in____ cells but not____ cells.

    • A.

      Cell hybridization; B; T

    • B.

      Cell hybridization; T; B

    • C.

      Hypermutation; B; T

    • D.

      Hypermutation; T; B

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypermutation; B; T
    Explanation
    The process used to increase antigen binding affinity is called hypermutation, which occurs in B cells but not T cells. Hypermutation is a process in which the DNA of B cells undergoes high rates of mutation, leading to the generation of a diverse repertoire of antibodies with different affinities for antigens. This process allows B cells to produce antibodies that have a higher affinity for specific antigens, improving the immune response. T cells, on the other hand, do not undergo hypermutation and rely on other mechanisms to recognize antigens.

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  • 12. 

    Deficiencies in____ lead to autosomal-recessive severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID).

    • A.

      RAG-1

    • B.

      RAG-2

    • C.

      RAG-1 or RAG-2

    • D.

      Both RAG-1 and RAG-2

    Correct Answer
    C. RAG-1 or RAG-2
    Explanation
    Deficiencies in RAG-1 or RAG-2 lead to autosomal-recessive severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID). RAG-1 and RAG-2 are enzymes that are essential for the process of V(D)J recombination, which is necessary for the development of functional T and B cells. Without proper V(D)J recombination, the immune system is unable to generate a diverse repertoire of T and B cell receptors, resulting in SCID. Therefore, deficiencies in either RAG-1 or RAG-2 can lead to this immunodeficiency disease.

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  • 13. 

    If both RAG-1 and RAG-2 mutations occur, which of the following is true?

    • A.

      T cells will be absent but B and NK cells will be present

    • B.

      T and B cells will be absent but NK cells will be present

    • C.

      B cells will be absent but T and NK cells will be present

    • D.

      B and NK cells will be present but T cells will be absent

    • E.

      B, T, and NK cells will be absent

    Correct Answer
    B. T and B cells will be absent but NK cells will be present
    Explanation
    If both RAG-1 and RAG-2 mutations occur, T and B cells will be absent but NK cells will be present. RAG-1 and RAG-2 are essential genes involved in the rearrangement of antigen receptor genes during the development of T and B cells. Without functional RAG-1 and RAG-2 proteins, T and B cells cannot undergo the necessary gene rearrangements and therefore cannot develop. However, NK cells do not require RAG-1 and RAG-2 for their development and will still be present.

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  • 14. 

    If a B cell successfully rearranges the first heavy chain locus, it inhibits the rearrangement of the other heavy chain on the other chromosome. What is this called?

    • A.

      Affinity maturation

    • B.

      Allelic exclusion

    • C.

      Class switching

    • D.

      Somatic cell hybridization

    • E.

      Somatic hypermutation

    • F.

      V(D)J gene rearrangement

    Correct Answer
    B. Allelic exclusion
    Explanation
    Allelic exclusion is the correct answer because it refers to the process where a B cell successfully rearranges one heavy chain locus on one chromosome, and as a result, inhibits the rearrangement of the other heavy chain on the other chromosome. This ensures that each B cell expresses only one type of heavy chain, allowing for the production of diverse antibodies.

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  • 15. 

    Allelic exclusion is a process by which the protein from only one allele is expressed while other allele(s) are silenced. Allelic exclusion occurs (generally) in which of the following?

    • A.

      B cells and TCR beta chains, but not in alpha chains

    • B.

      B cells and TCR alpha chains, but not in beta chains

    • C.

      TCR beta chains, but not in alpha chains or B cells

    • D.

      TCR alpha chains, but not in beta chains or B cells

    • E.

      B cells, TCR beta chains, and TCR alpha chains

    Correct Answer
    A. B cells and TCR beta chains, but not in alpha chains
    Explanation
    Allelic exclusion is a process where only one allele is expressed while the other allele(s) are silenced. In the context of the given options, the correct answer is "B cells and TCR beta chains, but not in alpha chains". This means that in B cells and TCR beta chains, only one allele is expressed, while the other allele(s) are silenced. However, in TCR alpha chains, both alleles are likely to be expressed, and in B cells, both alleles are also likely to be expressed.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 11, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Smb6
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