I-131 Use In Nuclear Medicine: Mechanisms, Safety, And Protocols

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I-131 Use In Nuclear Medicine: Mechanisms, Safety, And Protocols - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The clinical properties of I-131 are due to what?

    • A.

      Half-life of the isotope

    • B.

      Size of the isotope

    • C.

      Gamma-radiation emitted by the isotope

    • D.

      Beta-particles emitted by the isotope

    • E.

      Method of delivery of the isotope

    Correct Answer
    D. Beta-particles emitted by the isotope
    Explanation
    The clinical properties of I-131 are due to the beta-particles emitted by the isotope. Beta-particles are high-energy particles that can penetrate tissues and cause damage to cancer cells. They are used in radiation therapy to target and destroy cancer cells. I-131 is commonly used in the treatment of thyroid cancer because it specifically targets the thyroid gland and delivers a high dose of radiation to the cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissues.

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  • 2. 

    The half-life of I-131 is approximately

    • A.

      8 seconds

    • B.

      8 minutes

    • C.

      8 days

    • D.

      8 months

    • E.

      8 years

    Correct Answer
    C. 8 days
    Explanation
    The half-life of I-131 is approximately 8 days. This means that it takes 8 days for half of the initial amount of I-131 to decay into other elements. After another 8 days, half of the remaining I-131 will decay, and so on. The half-life is a measure of the stability of a radioactive substance, and in the case of I-131, it has a relatively short half-life compared to other radioactive isotopes.

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  • 3. 

    What type of radiation does I-131 emitt? 

    • A.

      Alpha

    • B.

      Beta

    • C.

      Gamma

    • D.

      A & b

    • E.

      B & c

    Correct Answer
    E. B & c
    Explanation
    I-131 emits both beta and gamma radiation. Alpha radiation is not emitted by I-131.

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  • 4. 

    I-131 is taken up by thyroid tissue in the body because iodine is a constituent of thyroid ___________ .

    • A.

      Tissue

    • B.

      Secretion

    • C.

      Hormone

    • D.

      Enzyme

    Correct Answer
    C. Hormone
    Explanation
    I-131 is taken up by thyroid tissue in the body because iodine is a constituent of thyroid hormone. The thyroid gland produces hormones called thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which are essential for regulating the body's metabolism. These hormones contain iodine atoms, and the thyroid gland actively takes up iodine from the bloodstream to produce and release these hormones. Therefore, when I-131, a radioactive form of iodine, is introduced into the body, it is readily absorbed by the thyroid tissue due to its affinity for iodine and its involvement in thyroid hormone production.

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  • 5. 

    Approximately what amount of I-131 in the bloodstream is deposited in thyroid tissue? 

    • A.

      10%

    • B.

      20%

    • C.

      30%

    • D.

      40%

    • E.

      50%

    Correct Answer
    C. 30%
    Explanation
    Approximately 30% of I-131 in the bloodstream is deposited in thyroid tissue. This suggests that a significant portion of the I-131 is absorbed by the thyroid gland, indicating its affinity for this specific tissue.

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  • 6. 

    When did I-131 begin its use in treatment of thyroid cancer? 

    • A.

      1930s

    • B.

      1940s

    • C.

      1950s

    • D.

      1960s

    • E.

      1970s

    Correct Answer
    B. 1940s
    Explanation
    In the 1940s, I-131 began its use in the treatment of thyroid cancer.

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  • 7. 

    In addition to thyroid cancer, what is another indication for the use of I-131 therapy? 

    • A.

      Thyroiditis

    • B.

      Hyperthyroidism

    • C.

      Hypothyroidism

    • D.

      A & b

    • E.

      B & c

    Correct Answer
    B. Hyperthyroidism
    Explanation
    I-131 therapy is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism, a condition where the thyroid gland produces an excessive amount of thyroid hormone. This therapy involves administering a radioactive form of iodine (I-131) which selectively destroys the overactive thyroid cells, helping to normalize hormone production. It is an effective treatment option for hyperthyroidism, along with other treatments such as medications or surgery.

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  • 8. 

    Precautions to protect not only patients, but also the general public that come in contact with them, are taken because:

    • A.

      I-131 radiation is detectable outside of the patient body as well as excreted through their body fluid

    • B.

      Diseases that I-131 treat are communicable

    • C.

      I-131 treatment can cause susceptibility to communicable disease

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. I-131 radiation is detectable outside of the patient body as well as excreted through their body fluid
    Explanation
    Precautions are taken to protect not only patients but also the general public because I-131 radiation is detectable outside of the patient's body and can be excreted through their body fluids. This means that individuals who come in contact with the patient may be exposed to the radiation. Therefore, it is necessary to take precautions to prevent any potential harm to others. The other options mentioned, such as diseases that I-131 treats being communicable and I-131 treatment causing susceptibility to communicable diseases, are not relevant to the given explanation.

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  • 9. 

    In what form is I-131 delivered for treatment? 

    • A.

      Injectable fluid

    • B.

      Pill

    • C.

      Transdermal patch

    • D.

      Radioactive seeds

    • E.

      A & b

    Correct Answer
    B. Pill
    Explanation
    I-131 is delivered for treatment in the form of a pill.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following are possible short-term risks of I-131 treatment?

    • A.

      Swelling of salivary glands

    • B.

      Nausea

    • C.

      Stomach irritation

    • D.

      Tenderness in the neck area

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above." I-131 treatment is a radioactive iodine therapy used to treat thyroid conditions. Short-term risks of this treatment include swelling of salivary glands, nausea, stomach irritation, and tenderness in the neck area. These side effects are common and expected after I-131 treatment.

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  • 11. 

    What agencies are responsible for regulating the clinical and environmental exposure to I-131?

    • A.

      NRC

    • B.

      EPA

    • C.

      FDA

    • D.

      WHO

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the above agencies are responsible for regulating the clinical and environmental exposure to I-131. The NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) regulates the use of I-131 in medical settings, ensuring that proper procedures are followed to minimize exposure. The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) regulates environmental exposure to I-131, setting limits and guidelines to protect public health. The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) regulates the use of I-131 in food and drugs, ensuring safety and proper labeling. The WHO (World Health Organization) also provides guidelines and recommendations for the safe use and handling of I-131.

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  • 12. 

    Progressive imaging scans of I-131 treatment of thyroid cancer should show __________ in thyroid appearance/uptake. 

    • A.

      Decrease

    • B.

      Increase

    • C.

      No change

    Correct Answer
    A. Decrease
    Explanation
    Progressive imaging scans of I-131 treatment of thyroid cancer should show a decrease in thyroid appearance/uptake. This is because I-131 is a radioactive iodine that is used to destroy thyroid cells. As the treatment progresses, the radioactive iodine targets and kills the cancerous thyroid cells, leading to a decrease in their appearance and uptake on the imaging scans. Therefore, a decrease in thyroid appearance/uptake is expected and indicates a positive response to the treatment.

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  • 13. 

    Thyroid cancer is most often found in ________ persons.

    • A.

      Older

    • B.

      Younger

    • C.

      Obese

    • D.

      A & b

    • E.

      B & c

    Correct Answer
    B. Younger
    Explanation
    Thyroid cancer is most often found in younger persons. This is because the incidence of thyroid cancer tends to peak in individuals between the ages of 20 and 55. It is relatively rare in children and older adults. While obesity has been associated with an increased risk of certain types of cancer, including thyroid cancer, it is not the most common demographic characteristic associated with thyroid cancer. Therefore, the correct answer is younger.

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  • 14. 

    What disease is I-131 Tostitumomab indicated to treat? 

    • A.

      Hodgkin's lymphoma

    • B.

      Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    • C.

      Grave's disease

    • D.

      Multi-nodular goiter

    • E.

      Hyperthyroidism

    Correct Answer
    B. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
    Explanation
    I-131 Tositumomab is indicated to treat non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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  • 15. 

    How many days does the NRC recommend a restriction in exposure to others for a patient who has undergone I-131 therapy with a dose of 70mCi?

    • A.

      1 day

    • B.

      2 days

    • C.

      3 days

    • D.

      5 days

    • E.

      No restriction

    Correct Answer
    B. 2 days
    Explanation
    The NRC recommends a restriction of 2 days in exposure to others for a patient who has undergone I-131 therapy with a dose of 70mCi. This is because I-131 is a radioactive isotope that emits radiation, and the restriction is necessary to minimize the risk of radiation exposure to others.

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  • 16. 

    A 2011 study specifically concerning 10 CFR 35.75 and I-131 patients sought to:

    • A.

      Clarify the NRC's position on release of I-131 therapy patients

    • B.

      Decrease the occurrence of thyroid cancer

    • C.

      Identify the frequency of I-131 treatment

    • D.

      Clarify the NRC's position on dosage of I-131 therapy patients

    Correct Answer
    A. Clarify the NRC's position on release of I-131 therapy patients
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to clarify the NRC's position on release of I-131 therapy patients. This means that the study aimed to provide clear guidelines or instructions from the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) regarding the release of patients who have undergone I-131 therapy. The study likely sought to address any ambiguity or confusion in the existing regulations and provide specific guidance on when and under what conditions these patients can be released.

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  • 17. 

    Pertaining to details surrounding release of patients after I-131 treatment, licensees must consider the ______________ .

    • A.

      Extent of the patient's disease

    • B.

      Destination of the patient after release

    • C.

      Number of therapy sessions the patient has undergone

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Destination of the patient after release
    Explanation
    Licensees must consider the destination of the patient after release when determining the details surrounding the release of patients after I-131 treatment. This is important because the patient's destination will determine the necessary precautions and instructions for travel, as well as any potential risks or restrictions that may apply in the specific location.

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  • 18. 

    The NRC regulations regarding I-131 treatment are heavily reliant on the ___________ and their _________ .

    • A.

      Patient; judgement

    • B.

      Licensee; judgement

    • C.

      Licensee; experience

    • D.

      Patient; disease

    • E.

      Patient; family

    Correct Answer
    B. Licensee; judgement
    Explanation
    The NRC regulations regarding I-131 treatment are heavily reliant on the licensee's judgement. This means that the person or organization responsible for administering the treatment must use their professional expertise and decision-making skills to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the treatment. The regulations trust the licensee to make informed decisions based on their knowledge and experience in order to protect the patient and comply with the guidelines.

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  • 19. 

    Why is I-131 therapy used in post-operative treatment of thyriod cancer? 

    • A.

      To strengthen the thyroid tissue

    • B.

      To ablate residual malignant cells

    • C.

      For palliative treatment

    • D.

      To treat metastasis

    Correct Answer
    B. To ablate residual malignant cells
    Explanation
    I-131 therapy is used in post-operative treatment of thyroid cancer to ablate residual malignant cells. This therapy involves the administration of radioactive iodine, which is taken up by any remaining cancer cells in the body. The high-energy radiation emitted by the iodine destroys these cancer cells, reducing the risk of recurrence or spread of the disease. This treatment is effective in targeting and eliminating any remaining cancer cells that may not have been completely removed during surgery.

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  • 20. 

    What is the 5-year survivial rate of thyroid cancer?

    • A.

      57%

    • B.

      67%

    • C.

      97%

    • D.

      45%

    Correct Answer
    C. 97%
    Explanation
    The 5-year survival rate of thyroid cancer is 97%. This means that 97% of individuals diagnosed with thyroid cancer are still alive 5 years after their diagnosis. This high survival rate can be attributed to early detection, advancements in treatment options, and the generally slow-growing nature of most thyroid cancers. It is important to note that survival rates can vary depending on factors such as the stage and type of thyroid cancer, as well as individual patient characteristics.

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