The logic that the shape of the earth's shadow on the moon during eclipses provided clues to earth's shape
Observations that certain stars could only be visible from certain locations
Using geometry and distances between two locations where sun beams were relatively parallel allowed astronomers to calculate roughly the circumference of the earth
Early astronomers relied only upon observations with the naked eye
Early astronomers relied on observations and geometry only to explain relative shapes and sizes of the earth
Geocentric model with stellar parallax
Geocentric model with the retrograde motion of Mars
How the relative distance of the earth can be determined
There was too little distance between Earth and the stars to make any conclusions
The stars' movement compared to the more distant stars was not observable. Therefore, stellar parallax must not exist.
Stellar parallax does not exist because early astronomers could observe the movement of the more near star and it would not move.
The distance between the Sun and earth was too large to make any observations of stars' movements
Bodies in the night sky moved from horizon to horizon making people think the Sun was the center
No observations of bodies in the night sky were observable to make any logical conclusions about celestial orbits
Retrograde motion of planets farther out than the Earth
The lack of evidence for stellar parallax
The earth was the center of the solar system
The sun was the center of the solar system
Stellar parallax did not exist
Retrograde motion did not exist
The moon and sun both move across the night sky from east to west
Spherical shadows on the moon's surface
Scientists rely on observations and measurements to support their claims
Scientists' observations and measurements could lead to future, new discoveries
Scientific knowledge changes with the development of new technology
Scientists use others' work to help their own investigations
Scientists do not rely on logically explaining patterns found in their measurements
Why planets travel faster when farther away from the sun during its orbit
Why retrograde motion occurs
Why planets travel faster closer to the sun during its orbit
Why the sun is the center of planets' circular orbits
The interior planet of Venus also had phases when observed from the earth.
The moon has phases showing not all celestial bodies orbit the sun
Saturn had rings
Venus and Mars are both interior planets relative to the Earth
Both support that Venus, Earth and Mars are all orbiting the Sun
Both support the geocentric model of the solar system
Both created difficulty to support the heliocentric model
Earth and Mars travel at the same speeds around the Sun
Earth and Mars have the same orbit
Retrograde motion supports the geocentric model
Earth has a faster orbit than Mars
At least some of the bodies in heaven did not orbit the Earth.
The geocentric model CANNOT work at all as a result of this discovery.
All bodies in the heaven orbit the Earth
Not enough information to make any accurate conclusions
The development of the heliocentric model including elliptical orbits was developed through primarily naked eye observations.
The role of technology such as Galileo's telescope was crucial in providing convincing evidence to support one view over another.
Scientists work alone and do not use or build off each other's work, observations or measurements.
Mathematical logic plays a small role in calculating planetary motion
Show how interior planets (between the Sun and the Earth) show phases when observed from the Earth.
Explain how exterior planets "appear" to move backwards in the night sky because the Earth "catches and passes" these exterior planets due to our interior, shorter orbit.
Show how the east to west movement of everything in the night sky supports heliocentrism.
Show how the discovery of Jupiter's moons prove that not everything orbits the Earth.
The movement of this planet from east to west across the night sky of Pluto
The "apparent" backwards motion of this planet in Pluto's night sky
The observation that this new planet had a faster orbit than Pluto
This planet possibly has orbiting moons