This Is Probably The Hardest Geology Test! #2

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This Is Probably The Hardest Geology Test! #2 - Quiz

Here we are with another hardest geology test. Geology as a subject offers the learner the opportunity to learn more about the earth’s surface and the changes that it undergoes to appear as it is. Are you undertaking geology and think that you can tackle the quiz below with ease? Give it a shot and see if you may need to get a tutor before the exam time.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Fossils are made when...

    • A.

      Minerals in the ground replace the dead thing as it breaks down

    • B.

      Organisms are trapped in amber or asphalt, preserving their body.

    • C.

      Traces of living organisms are found, such as burrows or footprints.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Fossils are formed through various processes. Minerals in the ground can replace the remains of a dead organism as it decomposes, creating a fossil. Organisms can also become trapped in substances like amber or asphalt, which preserve their bodies over time. Additionally, traces of living organisms such as burrows or footprints can be preserved and fossilized. Therefore, all of the given options are valid explanations for how fossils are made.

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  • 2. 

    The earth is 4.6 ______ years old

    • A.

      Billion

    • B.

      Mega-Million

    • C.

      Trillion

    • D.

      Million

    Correct Answer
    A. Billion
    Explanation
    The earth is estimated to be around 4.6 billion years old. This age is determined through various scientific methods, such as radiometric dating of rocks and minerals. These techniques involve measuring the decay of radioactive isotopes to determine the age of the Earth and its components. By analyzing the composition and age of rocks, scientists have concluded that the Earth formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago.

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  • 3. 

    Fossils are made when...

    • A.

      Minerals in the ground replace the dead thing as it breaks down

    • B.

      Organisms are trapped in amber or asphalt, preserving their body.

    • C.

      Traces of living organisms are found, such as burrows or footprints.

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Fossils are formed through various processes. The first option states that minerals in the ground replace the dead thing as it breaks down, which refers to the process of mineralization. This occurs when the organic material of a dead organism is gradually replaced by minerals, resulting in a fossil. The second option mentions organisms being trapped in amber or asphalt, which is known as preservation through entrapment. In this process, the organism is trapped in a sticky substance like resin or asphalt, which preserves its body. The third option states that fossils can also be formed from traces of living organisms, such as burrows or footprints. Therefore, all of these processes contribute to the formation of fossils.

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  • 4. 

    What statement best describes the principle of superposition

    • A.

      Sediments are deposited as essentially horizontal layers

    • B.

      Inclusions are older than the rocks they are contained in

    • C.

      Sediments spread out in all directions when they are deposited

    • D.

      Undisturbed sedimentary layers get younger from bottom to top

    Correct Answer
    D. Undisturbed sedimentary layers get younger from bottom to top
    Explanation
    The principle of superposition states that in an undisturbed sequence of sedimentary rock layers, the youngest rocks are found at the top and the oldest rocks are found at the bottom. This is because each new layer of sediment is deposited on top of older layers, causing the older layers to be buried deeper over time. As a result, the bottommost layer is the oldest, while the topmost layer is the youngest. This principle is useful in determining the relative ages of different rock layers in geology.

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  • 5. 

    What is an unconformity

    • A.

      A gap in the geologic record

    • B.

      A sequence of deformed rocks

    • C.

      A sedimentary layer of variable thickness

    • D.

      A period of deposition

    Correct Answer
    A. A gap in the geologic record
    Explanation
    An unconformity refers to a gap in the geologic record, where there is a missing layer or layers of rock. This can occur due to erosion, tectonic activity, or non-deposition of sediment. Unconformities are significant because they represent periods of time that are not recorded in the rock layers, indicating a break or interruption in the deposition of sediment. They provide valuable information about the geological history of an area and can help geologists understand past environmental changes and events.

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  • 6. 

    Human beings (homo sapiens) evolved during which geologic era?

    • A.

      Precambrian

    • B.

      Mesozoic

    • C.

      Paleozoic

    • D.

      Cenozoic

    Correct Answer
    D. Cenozoic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Cenozoic. The Cenozoic era is also known as the "Age of Mammals" and is the most recent geologic era. It began about 65 million years ago and continues to the present day. This era is characterized by the diversification and dominance of mammals, including the evolution and emergence of humans (homo sapiens).

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  • 7. 

    Identify the MANTLE on the diagram below.

    • A.

      Layer A

    • B.

      Layer B

    • C.

      Layer C

    • D.

      Layer D

    Correct Answer
    B. Layer B
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Layer B because the mantle is the layer of the Earth located between the crust and the core. Layer B is positioned between Layer A (which represents the crust) and Layer C (which represents the core). Therefore, Layer B corresponds to the mantle.

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  • 8. 

    Which layer is the coolest (in temperature)?

    • A.

      Crust

    • B.

      Mantle

    • C.

      Inner Core

    • D.

      Outer Core

    Correct Answer
    A. Crust
    Explanation
    The crust is the coolest layer in temperature compared to the mantle, inner core, and outer core. The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth and is composed of solid rock. It is the layer that we live on and where most geological processes occur. The mantle is hotter than the crust, followed by the outer core, and the inner core is the hottest layer due to intense pressure.

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  • 9. 

    The Precambrian Eon began and ended when?

    • A.

      4.6 bya-570mya

    • B.

      570 mya-250 mya

    • C.

      250 mya-65mya

    • D.

      65 mya-present day

    Correct Answer
    A. 4.6 bya-570mya
    Explanation
    The Precambrian Eon began around 4.6 billion years ago and ended around 570 million years ago. This eon is the longest and oldest division of Earth's history, spanning over 4 billion years. It is characterized by the formation of the Earth, the development of the atmosphere and oceans, and the emergence of early life forms. The end of the Precambrian Eon marked a significant shift in Earth's history, leading to the diversification of life during the subsequent Paleozoic Era.

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  • 10. 

    A group of fossils fround together in only one layer of rock are called  _________ fossils?

    • A.

      Level

    • B.

      Index

    • C.

      Main

    • D.

      Frequent

    Correct Answer
    B. Index
    Explanation
    A group of fossils found together in only one layer of rock are called index fossils. Index fossils are used by paleontologists to determine the relative age of rock layers and to correlate the ages of different rock formations. These fossils are typically widespread geographically but existed for a relatively short period of time. They are useful because they provide a way to compare and match rock layers from different locations, helping scientists create a timeline of Earth's history.

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  • 11. 

    The Paleozoic Era began and ended when?

    • A.

      4.6 bya - 570 mya

    • B.

      570 mya-250 mya

    • C.

      250 mya-65 mya

    • D.

      65 may-present day

    Correct Answer
    B. 570 mya-250 mya
    Explanation
    The Paleozoic Era began and ended between 570 million years ago and 250 million years ago. This era is known for the diversification of life on Earth, including the emergence of fish, insects, reptiles, and the first land plants. It ended with the largest mass extinction event in history, known as the Permian-Triassic extinction, which wiped out around 96% of marine species and 70% of land species.

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  • 12. 

    Eras are broken into ___________.

    • A.

      Epochs

    • B.

      Periods

    • C.

      Ages

    • D.

      Eons

    Correct Answer
    B. Periods
    Explanation
    Eras are broken into periods. Periods are divisions of time that are used to categorize and organize different geological, historical, or cultural events and developments within an era. They provide a more detailed and specific understanding of the overall time period.

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  • 13. 

    Which are the correct dates for the Precambrian Eon?

    • A.

      250 mya-65 mya

    • B.

      65 mya-present day

    • C.

      4.6 bya-570mya

    • D.

      570-mya-250mya

    Correct Answer
    C. 4.6 bya-570mya
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 4.6 bya-570mya. The Precambrian Eon is the longest geological time period, spanning from the formation of the Earth (4.6 billion years ago) to the beginning of the Cambrian Period (570 million years ago). This eon is characterized by the absence of complex life forms and the dominance of single-celled organisms.

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  • 14. 

    Which organism lived during the Precambrian Eon?

    • A.

      Dinosaurs

    • B.

      Trilobites

    • C.

      Humans

    • D.

      Bacteria

    Correct Answer
    D. Bacteria
    Explanation
    During the Precambrian Eon, which lasted from about 4.6 billion to 541 million years ago, bacteria were the dominant form of life on Earth. This eon predates the existence of dinosaurs, trilobites, and humans. Bacteria were among the earliest organisms to emerge and played a crucial role in shaping the Earth's early environment. They were instrumental in the development of oxygen-rich atmosphere through photosynthesis, paving the way for the evolution of more complex life forms.

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  • 15. 

    How old is the Earth?

    • A.

      4,000 years old

    • B.

      4.6 mya

    • C.

      4.6 bya

    • D.

      4,600 bya

    Correct Answer
    C. 4.6 bya
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 4.6 bya, which stands for 4.6 billion years ago. This is the estimated age of the Earth based on scientific evidence, such as radiometric dating of rocks and minerals. By analyzing the decay of radioactive isotopes, scientists have determined that the Earth formed approximately 4.6 billion years ago. This age is consistent with other evidence from meteorites and the formation of the solar system.

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  • 16. 

    The Precambrian Eon covers almost ____ percent of the Earth's history.

    • A.

      70

    • B.

      80

    • C.

      90

    • D.

      60

    Correct Answer
    C. 90
    Explanation
    The Precambrian Eon covers almost 90 percent of the Earth's history. This is because the Precambrian Eon is the longest geological time period, spanning from the formation of the Earth around 4.6 billion years ago to the beginning of the Cambrian Period around 541 million years ago. During this vast period, significant events such as the formation of the Earth's crust, the development of the atmosphere, the origin of life, and the evolution of early organisms took place, making it a crucial and extensive phase in Earth's history.

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  • 17. 

    Periods are broken into _____?

    • A.

      Eons

    • B.

      Eras

    • C.

      Ages

    • D.

      Epochs

    Correct Answer
    D. Epochs
    Explanation
    Periods are broken into epochs. Epochs are smaller divisions of time within a period.

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  • 18. 

    Which is in order from the largest to the smallest division of time?

    • A.

      Ages, epochs, periods, eras, eon

    • B.

      Epochs, periods, ages, eras, eon

    • C.

      Eon, eras, periods, epochs, ages

    • D.

      Eras, eons, periods, epochs, ages

    Correct Answer
    C. Eon, eras, periods, epochs, ages
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Eon, eras, periods, epochs, ages. This is because an eon is the largest division of time, followed by eras, periods, epochs, and finally ages, which is the smallest division of time.

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  • 19. 

    The Paleozoic era lasted _____ million years.

    • A.

      125

    • B.

      225

    • C.

      325

    • D.

      425

    Correct Answer
    C. 325
    Explanation
    During the Paleozoic era, which spanned from around 541 million years ago to 252 million years ago, various significant events took place, including the diversification of life forms and the colonization of land by plants and animals. The era lasted for a total of 325 million years, making it one of the longest geological time periods in Earth's history.

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  • 20. 

    During the Paleozoic Era, the Earth's interior _____.

    • A.

      Cooled down

    • B.

      Warmed up

    Correct Answer
    A. Cooled down
    Explanation
    During the Paleozoic Era, the Earth's interior cooled down. This is because the Paleozoic Era occurred between 541 million to 252 million years ago, and during this time, the Earth's heat from its formation was gradually dissipating. As the Earth cooled, the outer crust solidified, forming the continents and oceans as we know them today. This cooling process also had significant effects on the Earth's climate, atmosphere, and the evolution of life forms during this era.

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  • 21. 

    Which took up about 90 percent of the Earth's history?

    • A.

      Paleozoic

    • B.

      Precambrian

    Correct Answer
    B. Precambrian
    Explanation
    The Precambrian period took up about 90 percent of the Earth's history. This period is the longest and oldest geological time span, spanning from the formation of the Earth about 4.6 billion years ago to the beginning of the Cambrian period around 541 million years ago. It is characterized by the formation of the Earth's continents, the development of the atmosphere and oceans, and the emergence of early life forms. The Precambrian period is significant in understanding the geological and biological evolution of our planet.

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  • 22. 

    Which of these is an Eon?

    • A.

      Precambrian

    • B.

      Mesozoic

    • C.

      Cenozoic

    • D.

      Paleozoic

    Correct Answer
    A. Precambrian
    Explanation
    The Precambrian is an Eon because it is the longest and oldest geological time period, spanning from the formation of the Earth about 4.6 billion years ago to the beginning of the Paleozoic era about 541 million years ago. It is characterized by the absence of complex life forms and the dominance of simple organisms like bacteria and algae. The other options, Mesozoic, Cenozoic, and Paleozoic, are eras within the Phanerozoic Eon, which followed the Precambrian.

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  • 23. 

    Which is known as the "Age of Mammals"?

    • A.

      Precambrian

    • B.

      Paleozoic

    • C.

      Mesozoic

    • D.

      Cenozoic

    Correct Answer
    D. Cenozoic
    Explanation
    The Cenozoic era is known as the "Age of Mammals" because it is the time period when mammals flourished and diversified. This era began around 65 million years ago and continues to the present day. During this time, mammals evolved and adapted to various environments, leading to the rise of modern mammals that we see today. The Cenozoic era is characterized by the dominance of mammals and their significant impact on ecosystems worldwide.

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  • 24. 

    Which is known as the "The Age of Reptiles"?

    • A.

      Precambrian

    • B.

      Paleooic

    • C.

      Mesozoic

    • D.

      Cenozoic

    Correct Answer
    C. Mesozoic
    Explanation
    The Mesozoic era is known as "The Age of Reptiles" because it was a time when reptiles dominated the Earth. This era lasted from about 252 million years ago to 66 million years ago and was characterized by the rise of dinosaurs, as well as other reptiles such as pterosaurs and marine reptiles. The Mesozoic era is divided into three periods: the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous, each marked by different groups of reptiles and significant geological events. This era ended with a mass extinction event, which led to the decline of reptiles and the rise of mammals in the following Cenozoic era.

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  • 25. 

    What are the dates of the Mesozoic Era?

    • A.

      4.6 bya-570 mya

    • B.

      570 -250 mya

    • C.

      250-65 mya

    • D.

      65 mya-today

    Correct Answer
    C. 250-65 mya
    Explanation
    The Mesozoic Era is known as the "Age of Dinosaurs" and is divided into three periods: the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous. The given answer, "250-65 mya," represents the time span of the Mesozoic Era, indicating that it started around 250 million years ago and ended approximately 65 million years ago. This answer aligns with the generally accepted timeline of the Mesozoic Era in geological history.

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  • 26. 

    Which had a very warm climate?

    • A.

      Precambrian

    • B.

      Paleozoic

    • C.

      Mesozoic

    • D.

      Cenozoic

    Correct Answer
    C. Mesozoic
    Explanation
    The Mesozoic era had a very warm climate. This era, which occurred between 252 million and 66 million years ago, is often referred to as the "Age of Reptiles" due to the dominance of dinosaurs during this time. The climate during the Mesozoic era was characterized by high levels of carbon dioxide and warm temperatures, making it ideal for the proliferation of reptiles and other cold-blooded creatures. The warm climate of the Mesozoic era supported lush vegetation and diverse ecosystems, contributing to the evolution and diversification of many species.

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  • 27. 

    Which is known as the "Age of Reptiles"?

    • A.

      Precambrian

    • B.

      Paleozoic

    • C.

      Mesozoic

    • D.

      Cenozoic

    Correct Answer
    C. Mesozoic
    Explanation
    The Mesozoic era is known as the "Age of Reptiles" because it was a time when reptiles dominated the Earth. This era lasted from about 252 to 66 million years ago and was characterized by the evolution and diversification of various reptilian groups, including dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and marine reptiles. The Mesozoic era is also famous for the extinction event that ended it, leading to the rise of mammals and the eventual dominance of the Cenozoic era.

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  • 28. 

    What are the dates of the Paleozoic Era?

    • A.

      4.6 bya-570 mya

    • B.

      570-250 mya

    • C.

      250-65 mya

    • D.

      65mya-today

    Correct Answer
    B. 570-250 mya
    Explanation
    The Paleozoic Era is a geological time period that lasted from approximately 570 million years ago to 250 million years ago. This era is known for the diversification of life forms, including the emergence of early fish, plants, and insects. It is also marked by significant geological events such as the formation of supercontinents and mass extinctions. Therefore, the correct answer is 570-250 mya, as it accurately represents the duration of the Paleozoic Era.

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  • 29. 

    Which had the first birds, mammals, deciduous trees, and flowering plants?

    • A.

      Precambrian

    • B.

      Paleozoic

    • C.

      Mesozoic

    • D.

      Cenozoic

    Correct Answer
    C. Mesozoic
    Explanation
    The Mesozoic era is commonly known as the "Age of Reptiles" and is characterized by the emergence and dominance of dinosaurs. However, it is also during this era that the first birds, mammals, deciduous trees, and flowering plants appeared. These new forms of life diversified and thrived, marking a significant transition in the evolution of the Earth's ecosystems. Therefore, the Mesozoic era is the correct answer as it encompasses the time period when these organisms first emerged.

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  • 30. 

    Which had the first forests, spiders, and insects?

    • A.

      Precambrian

    • B.

      Paleozoic

    • C.

      Mesozoic

    • D.

      Cenozoic

    Correct Answer
    B. Paleozoic
    Explanation
    The Paleozoic era is known as the "Age of Invertebrates" because it was during this time that the first forests, spiders, and insects appeared. This era, which lasted from around 541 to 252 million years ago, saw the diversification and evolution of many different types of plants and animals. The development of forests provided habitats for spiders and insects to thrive, leading to their emergence during this era. The Precambrian, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic eras followed the Paleozoic and had their own distinct geological and biological characteristics.

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  • 31. 

    Which had the super super continent of Pangea?

    • A.

      Precambrian

    • B.

      Paleozoic

    • C.

      Mesozoic

    • D.

      Cenozoic

    Correct Answer
    C. Mesozoic
    Explanation
    During the Mesozoic era, which lasted from approximately 252 to 66 million years ago, the supercontinent of Pangea existed. Pangea was a large landmass that contained almost all of Earth's continents fused together. It began to break apart during the Mesozoic era, leading to the formation of the modern continents. Therefore, the correct answer is Mesozoic.

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  • 32. 

    Which time period first had an atmospere like we have today?

    • A.

      Precambrian

    • B.

      Paleozoic

    • C.

      Mesozoic

    • D.

      Cenozoic

    Correct Answer
    B. Paleozoic
    Explanation
    During the Paleozoic era, which lasted from about 541 to 252 million years ago, the Earth's atmosphere began to resemble the composition we have today. This period witnessed the development of complex life forms, including early land plants and animals, which played a crucial role in shaping the atmosphere. The Paleozoic era also saw the emergence of oxygen-producing photosynthetic organisms, leading to an increase in atmospheric oxygen levels. Therefore, the Paleozoic era is considered the time period when the Earth's atmosphere started to resemble the one we have today.

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  • 33. 

    A very large, circular impact crater beyond the east coast of Mexico is believed to be approximately 65 million years old.  This impact is inferred to be related to 

    • A.

      Alien attack

    • B.

      Appearance of earliest trilobites

    • C.

      Advance and retreat of the last continental ice sheet

    • D.

      Formation of Pangaea

    • E.

      Extinction of the dinosaurs

    Correct Answer
    E. Extinction of the dinosaurs
    Explanation
    The given correct answer, "Extinction of the dinosaurs," is supported by the information provided in the question. The impact crater mentioned is believed to be approximately 65 million years old, which aligns with the timeline of the extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs. The impact is inferred to be related to this extinction event, suggesting that a large asteroid or comet impact played a significant role in causing the extinction.

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  • 34. 

    What caused the atmosphere to change through geologic time? 

    • A.

      The evolution of oxygen-producing organisms

    • B.

      The formation of the tectonic plates

    • C.

      The emergence of trilobites

    • D.

      The deposition of soil during sedimentary rock formation

    • E.

      Gravity

    Correct Answer
    A. The evolution of oxygen-producing organisms
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the evolution of oxygen-producing organisms. This is because oxygen-producing organisms, such as cyanobacteria, played a crucial role in changing the composition of the Earth's atmosphere over geologic time. Through photosynthesis, these organisms released oxygen as a byproduct, gradually increasing its concentration in the atmosphere. This led to significant changes in the Earth's climate and the emergence of new forms of life that could thrive in an oxygen-rich environment.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following refers to the most recent era of geologic time?

    • A.

      Paleozoic

    • B.

      Cenozoic

    • C.

      Jurassic

    • D.

      Precambrian

    Correct Answer
    B. Cenozoic
    Explanation
    The most recent era of geologic time is referred to as the Cenozoic era. This era began approximately 66 million years ago and is characterized by the dominance of mammals and the diversification of many modern plant and animal groups. It is also known as the "Age of Mammals" and includes the present day. The other options, Paleozoic, Jurassic, and Precambrian, refer to earlier eras in Earth's history.

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